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1.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 20(7): 835-849, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235826

ABSTRACT

Early and strong interferon type I (IFN-I) responses are usually associated with mild COVID-19 disease, whereas persistent or unregulated proinflammatory cytokine responses are associated with severe disease outcomes. Previous work suggested that monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are resistant and unresponsive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we demonstrate that upon phagocytosis of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, MDMs are activated and secrete IL-6 and TNF. Importantly, activated MDMs in turn mediate strong activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), leading to the secretion of high levels of IFN-α and TNF. Furthermore, pDC activation promoted IL-6 production by MDMs. This kind of pDC activation was dependent on direct integrin-mediated cell‒cell contacts and involved stimulation of the TLR7 and STING signaling pathways. Overall, the present study describes a novel and potent pathway of pDC activation that is linked to the macrophage-mediated clearance of infected cells. These findings suggest that a high infection rate by SARS-CoV-2 may lead to exaggerated cytokine responses, which may contribute to tissue damage and severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Phagocytosis , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/metabolism
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244692

ABSTRACT

The three subsets of human monocytes, classical, intermediate, and nonclassical, show phenotypic heterogeneity, particularly in their expression of CD14 and CD16. This has enabled researchers to delve into the functions of each subset in the steady state as well as in disease. Studies have revealed that monocyte heterogeneity is multi-dimensional. In addition, that their phenotype and function differ between subsets is well established. However, it is becoming evident that heterogeneity also exists within each subset, between health and disease (current or past) states, and even between individuals. This realisation casts long shadows, impacting how we identify and classify the subsets, the functions we assign to them, and how they are examined for alterations in disease. Perhaps the most fascinating is evidence that, even in relative health, interindividual differences in monocyte subsets exist. It is proposed that the individual's microenvironment could cause long-lasting or irreversible changes to monocyte precursors that echo to monocytes and through to their derived macrophages. Here, we will discuss the types of heterogeneity recognised in monocytes, the implications of these for monocyte research, and most importantly, the relevance of this heterogeneity for health and disease.


Subject(s)
Macrophages , Monocytes , Humans , Monocytes/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Phenotype , Hematopoiesis , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism
3.
J Immunol ; 211(2): 252-260, 2023 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241408

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused an estimated 7 million deaths worldwide to date. A secreted SARS-CoV-2 accessory protein, known as open reading frame 8 (ORF8), elicits inflammatory pulmonary cytokine responses and is associated with disease severity in COVID-19 patients. Recent reports proposed that ORF8 mediates downstream signals in macrophages and monocytes through the IL-17 receptor complex (IL-17RA, IL-17RC). However, generally IL-17 signals are found to be restricted to the nonhematopoietic compartment, thought to be due to rate-limiting expression of IL-17RC. Accordingly, we revisited the capacity of IL-17 and ORF8 to induce cytokine gene expression in mouse and human macrophages and monocytes. In SARS-CoV-2-infected human and mouse lungs, IL17RC mRNA was undetectable in monocyte/macrophage populations. In cultured mouse and human monocytes and macrophages, ORF8 but not IL-17 led to elevated expression of target cytokines. ORF8-induced signaling was fully preserved in the presence of anti-IL-17RA/RC neutralizing Abs and in Il17ra-/- cells. ORF8 signaling was also operative in Il1r1-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages. However, the TLR/IL-1R family adaptor MyD88, which is dispensable for IL-17R signaling, was required for ORF8 activity yet MyD88 is not required for IL-17 signaling. Thus, we conclude that ORF8 transduces inflammatory signaling in monocytes and macrophages via MyD88 independently of the IL-17R.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monocytes , Humans , Mice , Animals , Monocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-17/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-17/metabolism , Open Reading Frames , COVID-19/genetics , Macrophages/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317682

ABSTRACT

Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory types are the main phenotypes of the macrophage, which are commonly notified as M1 and M2, respectively. The alteration of macrophage phenotypes and the progression of inflammation are intimately associated; both phenotypes usually coexist throughout the whole inflammation stage, involving the transduction of intracellular signals and the secretion of extracellular cytokines. This paper aims to address the interaction of macrophages and surrounding cells and tissues with inflammation-related diseases and clarify the crosstalk of signal pathways relevant to the phenotypic metamorphosis of macrophages. On these bases, some novel therapeutic methods are proposed for regulating inflammation through monitoring the transition of macrophage phenotypes so as to prevent the negative effects of antibiotic drugs utilized in the long term in the clinic. This information will be quite beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of inflammation-related diseases like pneumonia and other disorders involving macrophages.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Macrophages , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Phenotype , Inflammation/metabolism , Biological Products/pharmacology
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(3): e1011297, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311522

ABSTRACT

Macrophages are a first line of defense against pathogens. However, certain invading microbes modify macrophage responses to promote their own survival and growth. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is a human-adapted intracellular pathogen that exploits macrophages as an intracellular niche. It was previously reported that M.tb rapidly activates cAMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB), a transcription factor that regulates diverse cellular responses in macrophages. However, the mechanism(s) underlying CREB activation and its downstream roles in human macrophage responses to M.tb are largely unknown. Herein we determined that M.tb-induced CREB activation is dependent on signaling through MAPK p38 in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Using a CREB-specific inhibitor, we determined that M.tb-induced CREB activation leads to expression of immediate early genes including COX2, MCL-1, CCL8 and c-FOS, as well as inhibition of NF-kB p65 nuclear localization. These early CREB-mediated signaling events predicted that CREB inhibition would lead to enhanced macrophage control of M.tb growth, which we observed over days in culture. CREB inhibition also led to phosphorylation of RIPK3 and MLKL, hallmarks of necroptosis. However, this was unaccompanied by cell death at the time points tested. Instead, bacterial control corresponded with increased colocalization of M.tb with the late endosome/lysosome marker LAMP-1. Increased phagolysosomal fusion detected during CREB inhibition was dependent on RIPK3-induced pMLKL, indicating that M.tb-induced CREB signaling limits phagolysosomal fusion through inhibition of the necroptotic signaling pathway. Altogether, our data show that M.tb induces CREB activation in human macrophages early post-infection to create an environment conducive to bacterial growth. Targeting certain aspects of the CREB-induced signaling pathway may represent an innovative approach for development of host-directed therapeutics to combat TB.


Subject(s)
Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Macrophages , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Humans , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Necroptosis , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phagosomes/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tuberculosis/metabolism , Tuberculosis/microbiology
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306813

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils-polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) are the cells of the initial immune response and make up the majority of leukocytes in the peripheral blood. After activation, these cells modify their functional status to meet the needs at the site of action or according to the agent causing injury. They receive signals from their surroundings and "plan" the course of the response in both temporal and spatial contexts. PMNs dispose of intracellular signaling pathways that allow them to perform a wide range of functions associated with the development of inflammatory processes. In addition to these cells, some protein complexes, known as inflammasomes, also have a special role in the development and maintenance of inflammation. These complexes participate in the proteolytic activation of key pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß and IL-18. In recent years, there has been significant progress in the understanding of the structure and molecular mechanisms behind the activation of inflammasomes and their participation in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. The available reports focus primarily on macrophages and dendritic cells. According to the literature, the activation of inflammasomes in neutrophils and the associated death type-pyroptosis-is regulated in a different manner than in other cells. The present work is a review of the latest reports concerning the course of inflammasome activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to pathogens in neutrophils, as well as the role of these mechanisms in the pathogenesis of selected diseases.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes , Neutrophils , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Pyroptosis , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism
7.
Sci Signal ; 16(782): eabq1366, 2023 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298370

ABSTRACT

Macrophages are key cellular contributors to the pathogenesis of COVID-19, the disease caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 is present only on a subset of macrophages at sites of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. Here, we investigated whether SARS-CoV-2 can enter macrophages, replicate, and release new viral progeny; whether macrophages need to sense a replicating virus to drive cytokine release; and, if so, whether ACE2 is involved in these mechanisms. We found that SARS-CoV-2 could enter, but did not replicate within, ACE2-deficient human primary macrophages and did not induce proinflammatory cytokine expression. By contrast, ACE2 overexpression in human THP-1-derived macrophages permitted SARS-CoV-2 entry, processing and replication, and virion release. ACE2-overexpressing THP-1 macrophages sensed active viral replication and triggered proinflammatory, antiviral programs mediated by the kinase TBK-1 that limited prolonged viral replication and release. These findings help elucidate the role of ACE2 and its absence in macrophage responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Cytokines , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Virion/metabolism
8.
Pharmacol Res ; 191: 106758, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297638

ABSTRACT

The α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is a key protein in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) that links the nervous and immune systems. Initially, the pathway was discovered based on the observation that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) reduced the systemic inflammatory response in septic animals. Subsequent studies form a foundation for the leading hypothesis about the central role of the spleen in CAP activation. VNS evokes noradrenergic stimulation of ACh release from T cells in the spleen, which in turn activates α7nAChRs on the surface of macrophages. α7nAChR-mediated signaling in macrophages reduces inflammatory cytokine secretion and modifies apoptosis, proliferation, and macrophage polarization, eventually reducing the systemic inflammatory response. A protective role of the CAP has been demonstrated in preclinical studies for multiple diseases including sepsis, metabolic disease, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, endometriosis, and potentially COVID-19, sparking interest in using bioelectronic and pharmacological approaches to target α7nAChRs for treating inflammatory conditions in patients. Despite a keen interest, many aspects of the cholinergic pathway are still unknown. α7nAChRs are expressed on many other subsets of immune cells that can affect the development of inflammation differently. There are also other sources of ACh that modify immune cell functions. How the interplay of ACh and α7nAChR on different cells and in various tissues contributes to the anti-inflammatory responses requires additional study. This review provides an update on basic and translational studies of the CAP in inflammatory diseases, the relevant pharmacology of α7nAChR-activated drugs and raises some questions that require further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Nicotinic , Animals , Female , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295947

ABSTRACT

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious livestock diseases in the world, posing a constant global threat to the animal trade and national economies. The chemokine C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), a biomarker for predicting disease progression in some diseases, was recently found to be increased in sera from mice infected with FMD virus (FMDV) and to be associated with the progression and severity of the disease. However, it has not yet been determined which cells are involved in producing CXCL13 and the signaling pathways controlling CXCL13 expression in these cells. In this study, the expression of CXCL13 was found in macrophages and T cells from mice infected with FMDV, and CXCL13 was produced in bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) by activating the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and JAK/STAT pathways following FMDV infection. Interestingly, CXCL13 concentration was decreased in sera from interleukin-10 knock out (IL-10-/-) mice or mice blocked IL-10/IL-10R signaling in vivo after FMDV infection. Furthermore, CXCL13 was also decreased in IL-10-/- BMDMs and BMDMs treated with anti-IL-10R antibody following FMDV infection in vitro. Lastly, it was demonstrated that IL-10 regulated CXCL13 expression via JAK/STAT rather than the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, the study demonstrated for the first time that macrophages and T cells were the cellular sources of CXCL13 in mice infected with FMDV; CXCL13 was produced in BMDMs via NF-κB and JAK/STAT pathways; and IL-10 promoted CXCL13 expression in BMDMs via the JAK/STAT pathway.


Subject(s)
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Mice , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Janus Kinases/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Chemokine CXCL13/metabolism
10.
Cells ; 12(8)2023 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295139

ABSTRACT

Inflammation and mitochondrial-dependent oxidative stress are interrelated processes implicated in multiple neuroinflammatory disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression. Exposure to elevated temperature (hyperthermia) is proposed as a non-pharmacological, anti-inflammatory treatment for these disorders; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we asked if the inflammasome, a protein complex essential for orchestrating the inflammatory response and linked to mitochondrial stress, might be modulated by elevated temperatures. To test this, in preliminary studies, immortalized bone-marrow-derived murine macrophages (iBMM) were primed with inflammatory stimuli, exposed to a range of temperatures (37-41.5 °C), and examined for markers of inflammasome and mitochondrial activity. We found that exposure to mild heat stress (39 °C for 15 min) rapidly inhibited iBMM inflammasome activity. Furthermore, heat exposure led to decreased ASC speck formation and increased numbers of polarized mitochondria. These results suggest that mild hyperthermia inhibits inflammasome activity in the iBMM, limiting potentially harmful inflammation and mitigating mitochondrial stress. Our findings suggest an additional potential mechanism by which hyperthermia may exert its beneficial effects on inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Animals , Mice , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Heat-Shock Response
11.
Biol Sex Differ ; 14(1): 15, 2023 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a pathogen responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations and potentially fatal conditions. There is a paucity of information on the influence of androgens in the immune response to S. aureus infection. In this study, we evaluated the influence of the hormone 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) and human peripheral blood monocytes (HPBMs) induced by S. aureus. METHODS: An in vitro model of MPMs from BALB/c sham males, orchiectomised (OQX) males, and females was used. Cells were inoculated with 10 µL of S. aureus, phage-type 80 or sterile saline (control) for 6 h. The MPMs of OQX males and females were pre-treated with 100 µL of 10-2 M DHT for 24 h before inoculation with S. aureus. The concentration of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10; total nitrites (NO-2); and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were measured in the supernatant of MPM cultures. In addition, the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) genes that are involved in immune responses were analysed. For the in vitro model of HPBMs, nine men and nine women of childbearing age were selected and HPBMs were isolated from samples of the volunteers' peripheral blood. In women, blood was collected during the periovulatory period. The HPBMs were inoculated with S. aureus for 6 h and the supernatant was collected for the analysis of cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12; and GM-CSF, NO-2, and H2O2. The HPBMs were then removed for the analysis of 84 genes involved in the host's response to bacterial infections by RT-PCR array. GraphPad was used for statistical analysis with a p value < 0.05. RESULTS: Our data demonstrated that MPMs from sham males inoculated with S. aureus displayed higher concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and lower concentrations of IL-10, NO-2, and H2O2 when compared with MPMs from OQX males and females. A similar result was observed in the HPBMs of men when compared with those of women. Previous treatment with DHT in women HPBMs increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased the levels of IL-10, NO-2, and H2O2. The analysis of gene expression showed that DHT increased the activity of the TLR2 and NF-kB pathways in both MPMs and HPBMs. CONCLUSIONS: We found that DHT acts as an inflammatory modulator in the monocyte/macrophage response induced by S. aureus and females exhibit a better immune defence response against this pathogen.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcal Infections , Staphylococcus aureus , Male , Humans , Female , Animals , Mice , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Interleukin-10 , Monocytes/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Hydrogen Peroxide , Interleukin-6 , Cytokines/metabolism , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Macrophages/metabolism
12.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 118: e220144, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants can infect common mice inducing significant pathological lung lesions and inflammatory responses. This substantially mimics coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) infection and pathogenesis in humans. OBJECTIVES: To characterise the effects of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S1 receptor-binding domain (RBD) peptide in murine macrophage and microglial cells' immune activation compared with classical PAMPs in vitro. METHODS: Murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglial cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of the RBD peptide (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 µg/mL), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Poly(I:C) and evaluated after two and 24 h for significant markers of macrophage activation. We determined the effects of RBD peptide on cell viability, cleaved caspase 3 expressions, and nuclear morphometry analysis. FINDINGS: In RAW cells, RBD peptide was cytotoxic, but not for BV2 cells. RAW cells presented increased arginase activity and IL-10 production; however, BV2 cells expressed iNOS and IL-6 after RBD peptide exposure. In addition, RAW cells increased cleaved-caspase-3, apoptosis, and mitotic catastrophe after RBD peptide stimulation but not BV2 cells. CONCLUSION: RBD peptide exposure has different effects depending on the cell line, exposure time, and concentration. This study brings new evidence about the immunogenic profile of RBD in macrophage and microglial cells, advancing the understanding of SARS-Cov2 immuno- and neuropathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Animals , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Viral , Microglia/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral , Recombinant Proteins , Macrophages/metabolism
13.
J Infect Dis ; 227(12): 1364-1375, 2023 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244651

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection triggers activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which promotes inflammation and aggravates severe COVID-19. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 induces upregulation and activation of human caspase-4/CASP4 (mouse caspase-11/CASP11), and this process contributes to NLRP3 activation. In vivo infections performed in transgenic hACE2 humanized mice, deficient or sufficient for Casp11, indicate that hACE2 Casp11-/- mice were protected from disease development, with the increased pulmonary parenchymal area, reduced clinical score of the disease, and reduced mortality. Assessing human samples from fatal cases of COVID-19, we found that CASP4 was expressed in patient lungs and correlated with the expression of inflammasome components and inflammatory mediators, including CASP1, IL1B, IL18, and IL6. Collectively, our data establish that CASP4/11 promotes NLRP3 activation and disease pathology, revealing a possible target for therapeutic interventions for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammasomes , Mice , Animals , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Mice, Transgenic
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(4): e027990, 2023 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244399

ABSTRACT

Background Cardiac fibrosis complicates SARS-CoV-2 infections and has been linked to arrhythmic complications in survivors. Accordingly, we sought evidence of increased HSP47 (heat shock protein 47), a stress-inducible chaperone protein that regulates biosynthesis and secretion of procollagen in heart tissue, with the goal of elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac fibrosis in subjects with this viral infection. Methods and Results Using human autopsy tissue, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry, we quantified Hsp47+ cells and collagen α 1(l) in hearts from people with SARS-CoV-2 infections. Because macrophages are also linked to inflammation, we measured CD163+ cells in the same tissues. We observed irregular groups of spindle-shaped HSP47+ and CD163+ cells as well as increased collagen α 1(I) deposition, each proximate to one another in "hot spots" of ≈40% of hearts after SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSP47+ P<0.05 versus nonfibrotics and P<0.001 versus controls). Because HSP47+ cells are consistent with myofibroblasts, subjects with hot spots are termed "profibrotic." The remaining 60% of subjects dying with COVID-19 without hot spots are referred to as "nonfibrotic." No control subject exhibited hot spots. Conclusions Colocalization of myofibroblasts, M2(CD163+) macrophages, and collagen α 1(l) may be the first evidence of a COVID-19-related "profibrotic phenotype" in human hearts in situ. The potential public health and diagnostic implications of these observations require follow-up to further define mechanisms of viral-mediated cardiac fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myofibroblasts , Humans , Myofibroblasts/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Collagen/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Phenotype , Macrophages/metabolism , Fibrosis
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244022

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a viral disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. This disease is characterized primarily, but not exclusively, by respiratory tract inflammation. SARS-CoV-2 infection relies on the binding of spike protein to ACE2 on the host cells. The virus uses the protease TMPRSS2 as an entry activator. Human lung macrophages (HLMs) are the most abundant immune cells in the lung and fulfill a variety of specialized functions mediated by the production of cytokines and chemokines. The aim of this project was to investigate the effects of spike protein on HLM activation and the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in HLMs. Spike protein induced CXCL8, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß release from HLMs; promoted efficient phagocytosis; and induced dysfunction of intracellular Ca2+ concentration by increasing lysosomal Ca2+ content in HLMs. Microscopy experiments revealed that HLM tracking was affected by spike protein activation. Finally, HLMs constitutively expressed mRNAs for ACE2 and TMPRSS2. In conclusion, during SARS-CoV-2 infection, macrophages seem to play a key role in lung injury, resulting in immunological dysfunction and respiratory disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1069444, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232301

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Endogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), identified by its ability to support differentiation of hematopoietic cells into several types of myeloid cells, is now known to support maturation and maintain the metabolic capacity of mononuclear phagocytes including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These cells sense and attack potential pathogens, present antigens to adaptive immune cells, and recruit other immune cells. Recombinant human (rhu) GM-CSF (e.g., sargramostim [glycosylated, yeast-derived rhu GM-CSF]) has immune modulating properties and can restore the normal function of mononuclear phagocytes rendered dysfunctional by deficient or insufficient endogenous GM-CSF. Methods: We reviewed the emerging biologic and cellular effects of GM-CSF. Experts in clinical disease areas caused by deficient or insufficient endogenous GM-CSF examined the role of GM-CSF in mononuclear phagocyte disorders including autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (aPAP), diverse infections (including COVID-19), wound healing, and anti-cancer immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Results: We discuss emerging data for GM-CSF biology including the positive effects on mitochondrial function and cell metabolism, augmentation of phagocytosis and efferocytosis, and immune cell modulation. We further address how giving exogenous rhu GM-CSF may control or treat mononuclear phagocyte dysfunction disorders caused or exacerbated by GM-CSF deficiency or insufficiency. We discuss how rhu GM-CSF may augment the anti-cancer effects of immune checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy as well as ameliorate immune-related adverse events. Discussion: We identify research gaps, opportunities, and the concept that rhu GM-CSF, by supporting and restoring the metabolic capacity and function of mononuclear phagocytes, can have significant therapeutic effects. rhu GM-CSF (e.g., sargramostim) might ameliorate multiple diseases of GM-CSF deficiency or insufficiency and address a high unmet medical need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Humans , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism
17.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280592, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197162

ABSTRACT

The large-scale dissemination of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and its serious complications have pledged the scientific research communities to uncover the pathogenesis mechanisms of its etiologic agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods of unveiling such mechanisms are rooted in understanding the viral agent's interactions with the immune system, including its ability to activate macrophages, due to their suggested role in prolonged inflammatory phases and adverse immune responses. The objective of this study is to test the effect of SARS-CoV-2-free proteins on the metabolic and immune responses of macrophages. We hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 proteins shed during the infection cycle may dynamically induce metabolic and immunologic alterations with an inflammatory impact on the infected host cells. It is imperative to delineate such alterations in the context of macrophages to gain insight into the pathogenesis of these highly infectious viruses and their associated complications and thus, expedite the vaccine and drug therapy advent in combat of viral infections. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were treated with SARS-CoV-2-free proteins at different concentrations. The phenotypic and metabolic alterations in macrophages were investigated and the subsequent metabolic pathways were analyzed. The obtained results indicated that SARS-CoV-2-free proteins induced concentration-dependent alterations in the metabolic and phenotypic profiles of macrophages. Several metabolic pathways were enriched following treatment, including vitamin K, propanoate, and the Warburg effect. These results indicate significant adverse effects driven by residual viral proteins that may hence be considered determinants of viral pathogenesis. These findings provide important insight as to the impact of SARS-CoV-2-free residual proteins on the host cells and suggest a potential new method of management during the infection and prior to vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macrophages , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
18.
Redox Biol ; 58: 102553, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2122764

ABSTRACT

Endogenous small molecules are metabolic regulators of cell function. Itaconate is a key molecule that accumulates in cells when the Krebs cycle is disrupted. Itaconate is derived from cis-aconitate decarboxylation by cis-aconitate decarboxylase (ACOD1) in the mitochondrial matrix and is also known as immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1). Studies have demonstrated that itaconate plays an important role in regulating signal transduction and posttranslational modification through its immunoregulatory activities. Itaconate is also an important bridge among metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune response. This review summarizes the structural characteristics and classical pathways of itaconate, its derivatives, and the compounds that release itaconate. Here, the mechanisms of itaconate action, including its transcriptional regulation of ATF3/IκBζ axis and type I IFN, its protein modification regulation of KEAP1, inflammasome, JAK1/STAT6 pathway, TET2, and TFEB, and succinate dehydrogenase and glycolytic enzyme metabolic action, are presented. Moreover, the roles of itaconate in diseases related to inflammation and oxidative stress induced by autoimmune responses, viruses, sepsis and IRI are discussed in this review. We hope that the information provided in this review will help increase the understanding of cellular immune metabolism and improve the clinical treatment of diseases related to inflammation and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Macrophages , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Humans , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Oxidative Stress
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 999233, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109767

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a crucial role in mediating viral infectivity; hence, in an extensive effort to curb the pandemic, many urgently approved vaccines rely on the expression of the S protein, aiming to induce a humoral and cellular response to protect against the infection. Given the very limited information about the effects of intracellular expression of the S protein in host cells, we aimed to characterize the early cellular transcriptomic changes induced by expression of the S protein in THP-1-derived macrophage-like cells. Results showed that a wide variety of genes were differentially expressed, products of which are mainly involved in cell adhesion, homeostasis, and most notably, antiviral and immune responses, depicted by significant downregulation of protocadherins and type I alpha interferons (IFNAs). While initially, the levels of IFNAs were higher in the medium of S protein expressing cells, the downregulation observed on the transcriptomic level might have been reflected by no further increase of IFNA cytokines beyond the 5 h time-point, compared to the mock control. Our study highlights the intrinsic pathogenic role of the S protein and sheds some light on the potential drawbacks of its utilization in the context of vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Protocadherins , Immunity , Macrophages/metabolism
20.
J Leukoc Biol ; 112(3): 569-576, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047706

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2), which causes the disease COVID-19, has caused an unprecedented global pandemic. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the major cellular receptor for SARS-CoV2 entry, which is facilitated by viral Spike priming by cellular TMPRSS2. Macrophages play an important role in innate viral defense and are also involved in aberrant immune activation that occurs in COVID-19, and thus direct macrophage infection might contribute to severity of SARS-CoV2 infection. Here, we demonstrate that monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) under in vitro conditions express low-to-undetectable levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and minimal coexpression. Expression of these receptors remained low in MDM induced to different subtypes such as unpolarized, M1 and M2 polarized. Untreated, unpolarized, M1 polarized, and M2 polarized MDM were all resistant to infection with SARS-CoV2 pseudotyped virions. These findings suggest that direct infection of myeloid cells is unlikely to be a major mechanism of SARS-CoV2 pathogenesis. Summary sentence: Monocytes and macrophages express minimal ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and resist SARS-CoV-2 Spike-mediated infection, suggesting direct myeloid cell infection is unlikely a major contributor to pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Macrophages , Monocytes , Serine Endopeptidases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Resistance , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
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