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1.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 28(3): 199-202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603368

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been declared by the World Health Organization as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 predispose patients to multisystem thromboembolic events, including pulmonary emboli and deep vein thrombosis. We report a 33-year-old previously healthy man, with previous history of COVID-19 infection presented with left eye central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) with secondary macular edema. All possible risk factors for thromboembolic events were excluded. After a single dose of intravitreal injection of aflibercept (2 mg in 0.05 ml), gradual improvement in the clinical manifestation of CRVO with complete resolution of macular edema in the left eye was observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CRVO post-COVID-19 in Oman.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Edema , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Adult , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/diagnosis , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/etiology , Male , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Visual Acuity
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(50): e28236, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583957

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: In this paper, we report on 2 patients who developed branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) exacerbation 1 day after administration of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. PATIENT CONCERNS: Case 1: A 71 year-old female developed vision loss in her left eye 1 day after receiving a second dose of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. This patient was diagnosed with temporal inferior BRVO and secondary macular edema (ME) in her left eye. ME resolved after 3 doses of intravitreal aflibercept (IVA). After treatment, no recurrence of ME was observed.Case 2: A 72 year-old man developed vision loss in his right eye 1 day after receiving the first dose of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. This patient was diagnosed with temporal superior BRVO in the right eye without ME. The patient was followed up and did not undergo any additional treatment. DIAGNOSES: Case1: Temporal superior BRVO and secondary ME were observed in the left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/30.Case2: Temporal superior BRVO recurrence and secondary ME were observed in the right eye. BCVA was 20/25. INTERVENTIONS: Case1: Additional dose of IVA was administered. Case2: Two times of Intravitreal ranibizumab was administered twice. OUTCOMES: Case1: Subsequently, ME resolved BCVA was 20/20. Case2: Subsequently, ME resolved BCVA was 20/25. LESSONS: Both cases showed a possible association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and the exacerbation of BRVO.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Macular Edema , Retinal Vein Occlusion/chemically induced , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Male , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/therapeutic use , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/therapeutic use , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination , Visual Acuity
3.
Retina ; 42(4): 616-627, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575997

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns on the outcomes of eyes treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema, and retinal vein occlusion in eight countries. METHODS: A multicenter international database study of 5,782 eyes (4,708 patients) receiving intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections before, during, and after national lockdowns. The baseline visit was defined as the last visit within 3 months before lockdown, and prelockdown and postlockdown periods were defined as 6 months before and after the lockdown date. RESULTS: Eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (n = 4,649) lost vision in all countries in proportion to the reduced number of injections. The mean visual acuity change postlockdown ranged from -0.4 to -3.8 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution letters, and the median number of injections/visits decreased from 4-5/4-7 to 2-4/2-4 postlockdown. The diabetic macular edema (n = 654) and retinal vein occlusion (n = 479) eyes' mean visual acuity change ranged from -2.8 to +1.7 letters and -1.6 to +0.1 letters, and the median number of injections/visits decreased from 2.5-5/4-6 to 1-3/2-4 and from 3-5.5/4-5 to 1-3.5/2-3.5, respectively. The 6-month dropout rates postlockdown were 20% for neovascular age-related macular degeneration, 27% for diabetic macular edema, and 28% for retinal vein occlusion. CONCLUSION: This international study provides estimates of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on intravitreal therapy and suggests that prioritizing neovascular age-related macular degeneration eyes seems appropriate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Macular Edema , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Blindness/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
4.
Retina ; 41(4): 701-705, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe our managing strategy for COVID-19 emergency, to evaluate the adherence to intravitreal treatment (AtT) rate during the outbreak in a referral hospital in Milan, and to correlate it with patients' clinical features. METHODS: The AtT rate of patients with scheduled intravitreal injections during the COVID-19 outbreak from February 23, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was compared with the previous trimester and with March 2019. The impact of age, sex, visual function, and diagnosis on the AtT rate during unlocked/locked weeks (from March 8th) was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 650 consecutive patients with scheduled intravitreal injections, the AtT rate during the COVID-19 outbreak was 0.37. This was significantly lower compared with AtT registered in the previous trimester (0.92) and in the same weeks in 2019 (0.90) (both P < 0.001). Patients adherent to treatment were significantly younger (P < 0.001) and had a lower best-corrected visual acuity in the fellow eye (P = 0.046). During the lockdown weeks, the AtT rate was significantly lower than in the two unlocked weeks (0.19 vs. 0.73, P < 0.001). In addition, the AtT rate in patients classified as "emergent" during the lockdown weeks was 0.60. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results can help the retina specialist community to foresee this unique scenario and to develop successful management strategies.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19/epidemiology , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Macular Edema/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Choroidal Neovascularization/diagnostic imaging , Choroidal Neovascularization/physiopathology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intravitreal Injections , Italy/epidemiology , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Male , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity/physiology , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnostic imaging , Wet Macular Degeneration/physiopathology
5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(10): 2865-2866, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441265

ABSTRACT

A central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) case in a patient developed with sudden blurred vision in some hemifield areas of his left eye, maintaining 20/20 vision 15-days after the COVID-19 vaccination. Initial retinal findings were venous dilation and tortuosity with dispersing dot hemorrhages. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) confirmed a non-ischemic CRVO diagnosis, and a complete blood panel was requested with average results. An intravitreal steroid dose was applied. A decrease in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (20/30) with more intraretinal hemorrhages was documented. An intravitreal dose of bevacizumab and oral apixaban were added with a final BCVA of 20/20 with decreased hemorrhages. There is no specific causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccines and CRVO. Without previous risk factors and positive treatment response, this case may correlate the first COVID-19 vaccine dose and the event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Edema , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/adverse effects , Bevacizumab/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/adverse effects , Visual Acuity
6.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 44(9): 1313-1318, 2021 Nov.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428156

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess functional and anatomical consequences of the delay in intravitreal injections for diabetic macular edema (DME) patients during the corona virus pandemic lockdown in Morocco as well as to evaluate factors associated with disease progression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included DME patients who did not complete their scheduled intravitreal bevacizumab injections during the Lockdown period (March 20, 2020 to May 20, 2020). Data recorded included age, duration of diabetes, number of previous intravitreal injections, best-corrected visual acuity, and central macular thickness before and after the lockdown. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty four eyes of 104 patients were analyzed. 57.8% were male. The mean age was 59.4±9.04 years. The mean duration of delay of intravitreal injections was 57.3±6.7 days. The mean number of intravitreal bevacizumab injections received before the lockdown was 2.29±2.1. Worsening of visual acuity was noted in 44.8% of patients and was associated with a lower number of intravitreal injections performed prior to the lockdown (P=0.001) and with glycemic imbalance (P=0.04). An increase in central macular thickness was noted in 26.6% of patients and was associated with a lower number of intravitreal injections (P=0.038). CONCLUSION: The delay in intravitreal injections during the lockdown had negative effects on visual acuity and central macular thickness in eyes with DME. Prolonged delay in intravitreal anti-VEGF injections in diabetic patients should be avoided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy , Macular Edema , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/diagnosis , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome
7.
Retina ; 41(12): 2456-2461, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348074

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of delay in care secondary to the coronavirus pandemic in patients requiring intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed, and subjects were divided into two groups: 1) a study group of patients who experienced a treatment delay of ≥6 weeks from the intended follow-up during the coronavirus pandemic and resumed treatment with ≥2 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections over 6 months following treatment delay, and 2) a control group of patients who received regular care throughout the coronavirus pandemic. RESULTS: Totally, 234 subjects were analyzed. The mean treatment delay from the intended follow-up in the study group was 11.8 (±4.0) weeks. Visual acuity and central macular thickness worsened from baseline to 6 months after resuming anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in the study group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Visual acuity and central macular thickness were better in the control group compared with the study group at the end of the 6-month study period (P < 0.0001 for both). CONCLUSION: Treatment delay in subjects undergoing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for retina disease during the coronavirus pandemic had worse visual and anatomical outcomes despite reinitiating treatment over 6 months compared with a control group, suggesting irreversibility and permanence of outcomes.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Choroidal Neovascularization/physiopathology , Continuity of Patient Care , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retinal Diseases/physiopathology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment , United States/epidemiology , Visual Acuity/physiology , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Wet Macular Degeneration/physiopathology
8.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 35: 102449, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322305

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the clinical status of treatment-naive patients who had to delay 3-dose loading anti-VEGF (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor) injections during the COVID-19 lockdown, and to evaluate the effect of the delayed visual acuity treatment on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) parameters. METHOD: A total of 55 eyes of 46 patients who were received in the study period participated in this retrospective study, including 28 patients (37 eyes) with diabetic macular edema (DME), 11 patients (11 eyes) with retinal vein occlusion (RVO), and 7 patients (7 eyes) with wet age-related macular degeneration (wet-AMD). The patients were diagnosed with DME, RVO, or wet-AMD in February 2020 and had planned 3-dose loading injections in March, April, and May 2020, but could not be injected due to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: From the patients' initial examination in February 2020, the mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.72 ± 59 logMAR. After the patients' lockdown visit in July 2020, the mean BCVA was 0.76 ± 64 logMAR. BCVA was stable in 11 eyes, decreased in 12 eyes, and increased in 14 eyes for patients with DME. BCVA was stable in 6, decreased in 3, and increased in 2 eyes for patients with RVO, and it was stable in 4 eyes and decreased in 3 eyes for patients with wet-AMD. CONCLUSION: We concluded that 6-month delay in treatment of DME patients with non-proliferative DRP had no adverse effect on the visual acuity. However, the loading dose in wet-AMD and RVO patients should be applied as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Macular Edema , Photochemotherapy , Retinal Diseases , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Pandemics , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
10.
Int Ophthalmol ; 41(4): 1437-1443, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to provide real-life data about the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the practice of anti-VEGF injections and to evaluate the safety of the modifications in the injection protocol imposed during the ongoing pandemic on the anatomical and functional outcome of patients. METHODS: All patients attending Tanta University hospital for receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF injections were screened. Patients who were previously deferred according to a modified protocol implemented in the hospital in response to the pandemic or who demonstrated deviation from it were included for further analysis. RESULTS: During the audit period, 83 patients attending for anti-VEGF injections were screened, of whom 40 met the abovementioned criteria and were included for analysis. In the deferred subgroup (11 eyes), predeferral mean values of logMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal subfield thickness (CST) were 1 ± 0.23 and 444.57 ± 200.1 µm, respectively. There was no significant change when the patients returned for their deferred injections, with the mean BCVA and CST values being 0.8 ± 0.22 and 413.71 ± 237.7 µm, respectively (p = 0.27 and p = 0.12). Moreover, 29 patients encountered a disturbed injection schedule, particularly skipping their injection appointments due to infection fear as found in 18 patients. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed pressing challenges in maintaining essential health care while ensuring the prevention of spread of infection. Although the modified injection protocol confirmed to be safe for patients, the pandemic caused deflection from the optimum practice in the form of successive skipping of appointments and delays in the processing of patient injection schedules.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Bevacizumab/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Clinical Audit , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome , Visual Acuity
11.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 5(10): 975-980, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002942

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of delay in care on visual acuity (VA) in patients requiring intravitreal injections (IVIs). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients 18 years of age or older with diabetic macular edema (DME), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), or both; neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD); or retinal vein occlusion (RVO) scheduled to see a retina specialist during the mandated lockdown period (March 14 - May 4, 2020 [the coronavirus disease 2019 period]) and who had received an IVI in the 12 weeks prior. METHODS: Chart review was performed and demographics, diagnoses, procedures, and VA were recorded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: VA in patients who completed, canceled, and no-showed for the scheduled visit. RESULTS: Of the 1041 total patients, 620 (60%) completed the scheduled visit, whereas 376 (36%) canceled and 45 (4%) no-showed. In patients who missed the visit, the average delay in care was 5.34 weeks. In those who missed a visit, VA was assessed at the subsequent visit. Patients who canceled a visit were older, and patients who no-showed had lower baseline vision (mean Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters ± standard error [SE]: no-show, 53.27 ± 3.21 letters; canceled, 60.79 ± 1.11 letters; and completed, 62.81 ± 0.84 letters; P = 0.0101) and were more likely to have DME, PDR, or both (no-show, 13 patients [29%]; canceled, 56 patients [16%]; completed, 81 patients [13%]; P = 0.0456). Patients who missed a visit lost vision as compared with the patients who completed one (no-show, -5.024 ± 1.88 letters; canceled, -1.633 ± 0.65 letters; completed, 0.373 ± 0.50 letters; P = 0.0028). Patients with DME, PDR, or both (-3.48 ± 1.95 letters vs. 2.71 ± 1.75 letters; P = 0.0203), with RVO (-3.22 ± 1.41 letters vs. 0.95 ± 1.23 letters; P = 0.0230), and, to lesser degree, with nAMD (-1.23 ± 0.70 letters vs. -0.24 ± 0.56 letters; P = 0.2679) lost vision compared with patients with same diagnoses who completed the scheduled visit. CONCLUSIONS: In patients requiring IVIs, a delay in care of 5.34 weeks resulted in vision loss. It was seen in all patients, but was more prominent in patients with DME, PDR or both and RVO. Further studies are necessary to examine whether these vision changes persist over a longer duration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Ranibizumab/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Visual Acuity , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Comorbidity , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macula Lutea/pathology , Macular Edema/epidemiology , Macular Edema/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Ohio/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
12.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 31(1): 10-12, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-791664

ABSTRACT

We report our experience during COVID-19 outbreak for intravitreal injections in patients with maculopathy. We proposed a treatment priority levels and timings; the "High" priority level includes all monocular patients; the "Moderate" is assigned to all patients with an active macular neovascularization; the patients affected by diabetic macular edema or retinal vein occlusion belong to the "Low" class. This organization allowed us to treat the most urgent patients although the injections performed had a 91.7% drop compared to the same period of 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Priorities/organization & administration , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Retinal Diseases/classification , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy/classification , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/classification , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Italy/epidemiology , Macular Degeneration/classification , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Macular Edema/classification , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Quarantine , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/classification , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy
13.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 258(12): 2639-2645, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the treatment position of all patients who have had an anti-VEGF injection in 2020, prior to the UK lockdown on 23 March. To assess methods of service quality evaluation in setting benchmarks for comparison after the situation stabilized. To consider what proportion could be delayed based on national guidelines and varying vision parameters. Finally, to measure how many patients actually attended. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of data collected from our electronic medical record was performed. Age, sex, reason for injection, visual acuity (VA) for both treated and untreated eyes and number of injections were recorded. The proportion of patients and eyes with ≥ 70 letters were calculated as an assessment of quality of service provision. The proportion of patients that could be delayed was estimated based on published guidelines and varying the parameters of difference between treated and untreated eyes. Finally, the number of patients who actually attended was recorded. RESULTS: About 3364 eyes (2229 neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), 427 diabetic macular oedema (DMO), 599 retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and 109 other) from 2924 patients were analysed. At the last appointment with injection, 64.4% of patients achieved ≥ 70 letters in their better-seeing eye. Mean VA of the treated eye was 61.5 letters, and 36.9% achieved ≥ 70. The mean number of injections was 16, 90% with aflibercept. Of the patients receiving treatment to one eye, 57.6% was receiving treatment to their worse seeing eye. In 18.2% this eye was > 20 letters worse and in 5.07% > 40 letters worse than the untreated eye. Using Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOphth) guidelines, (treat nAMD 8 weekly, delay majority of RVO and DMO) 24.8% would be delayed. From 2738 appointments during the first 4 weeks of lockdown (booked prior to lockdown), doctors rescheduled 1025 and patients did not attend 820, leaving 893 who were seen (33%). CONCLUSIONS: Assessing the treatment position of patients prior to COVID-19 lockdown enables objective stratification for prioritization for continued treatment. If RCOphth guidelines were followed 24.8% could be delayed and if treating the worse seeing eye up to 57.6%. Many scheduled patients elected not to attend, with 67% not seen in the first 4 weeks. The impact of non-attendance and delays may be evaluated later.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Female , Health Priorities , Health Services Research , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Visual Acuity/physiology , Young Adult
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