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1.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715566

ABSTRACT

Betulinic acid (BA) and its derivatives exhibit a variety of biological activities, especially their anti-HIV-1 activity, but generally have only modest inhibitory potency against influenza virus. The entry of influenza virus into host cells can be competitively inhibited by multivalent derivatives targeting hemagglutinin. In this study, a series of hexa-, hepta- and octavalent BA derivatives based on α-, ß- and γ-cyclodextrin scaffolds, respectively, with varying lengths of flexible oligo(ethylene glycol) linkers was designed and synthesized using a microwave-assisted copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The generated BA-cyclodextrin conjugates were tested for their in vitro activity against influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus and cytotoxicity. Among the tested compounds, 58, 80 and 82 showed slight cytotoxicity to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with viabilities ranging from 64 to 68% at a high concentration of 100 µM. Four conjugates 51 and 69-71 showed significant inhibitory effects on influenza infection with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 5.20, 9.82, 7.48 and 7.59 µM, respectively. The structure-activity relationships of multivalent BA-cyclodextrin conjugates were discussed, highlighting that multivalent BA derivatives may be potential antiviral agents against influenza infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Cyclodextrins/chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Dogs , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700574

ABSTRACT

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a member of the single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) family of viruses. The most recent global pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has shown the major threat that RNA viruses can pose to humanity. In comparison, influenza has an even higher pandemic potential as a result of its high rate of mutations within its relatively short (<13 kbp) genome, as well as its capability to undergo genetic reassortment. In light of this threat, and the fact that RNA structure is connected to a broad range of known biological functions, deeper investigation of viral RNA (vRNA) structures is of high interest. Here, for the first time, we propose a secondary structure for segment 8 vRNA (vRNA8) of A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) formed in the presence of cellular and viral components. This structure shows similarities with prior in vitro experiments. Additionally, we determined the location of several well-defined, conserved structural motifs of vRNA8 within IAV strains with possible functionality. These RNA motifs appear to fold independently of regional nucleoprotein (NP)-binding affinity, but a low or uneven distribution of NP in each motif region is noted. This research also highlights several accessible sites for oligonucleotide tools and small molecules in vRNA8 in a cellular environment that might be a target for influenza A virus inhibition on the RNA level.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Genome, Viral/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Viral/chemistry , Animals , Base Sequence , Dogs , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Models, Molecular , Nucleotide Motifs/genetics , RNA Folding , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2594, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692553

ABSTRACT

Complex glycans decorate viral surface proteins and play a critical role in virus-host interactions. Viral surface glycans shield vulnerable protein epitopes from host immunity yet can also present distinct "glycoepitopes" that can be targeted by host antibodies such as the potent anti-HIV antibody 2G12 that binds high-mannose glycans on gp120. Two recent publications demonstrate 2G12 binding to high mannose glycans on SARS-CoV-2 and select Influenza A (Flu) H3N2 viruses. Previously, our lab observed 2G12 binding and functional inhibition of a range of Flu viruses that include H3N2 and H1N1 lineages. In this manuscript, we present these data alongside structural analyses to offer an expanded picture of 2G12-Flu interactions. Further, based on the remarkable breadth of 2G12 N-glycan recognition and the structural factors promoting glycoprotein oligomannosylation, we hypothesize that 2G12 glycoepitopes can be defined from protein structure alone according to N-glycan site topology. We develop a model describing 2G12 glycoepitopes based on N-glycan site topology, and apply the model to identify viruses within the Protein Data Bank presenting putative 2G12 glycoepitopes for 2G12 repurposing toward analytical, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , HIV Antibodies/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Models, Immunological , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Dogs , Drug Repositioning , Epitopes , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/metabolism , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/metabolism , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neutralization Tests , Polysaccharides/metabolism
4.
J Virol ; 95(24): e0117421, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691429

ABSTRACT

Defective interfering particles (DIPs) of influenza A virus (IAV) are naturally occurring mutants that have an internal deletion in one of their eight viral RNA (vRNA) segments, rendering them propagation-incompetent. Upon coinfection with infectious standard virus (STV), DIPs interfere with STV replication through competitive inhibition. Thus, DIPs are proposed as potent antivirals for treatment of the influenza disease. To select corresponding candidates, we studied de novo generation of DIPs and propagation competition between different defective interfering (DI) vRNAs in an STV coinfection scenario in cell culture. A small-scale two-stage cultivation system that allows long-term semi-continuous propagation of IAV and its DIPs was used. Strong periodic oscillations in virus titers were observed due to the dynamic interaction of DIPs and STVs. Using next-generation sequencing, we detected a predominant formation and accumulation of DI vRNAs on the polymerase-encoding segments. Short DI vRNAs accumulated to higher fractions than longer ones, indicating a replication advantage, yet an optimum fragment length was observed. Some DI vRNAs showed breaking points in a specific part of their bundling signal (belonging to the packaging signal), suggesting its dispensability for DI vRNA propagation. Over a total cultivation time of 21 days, several individual DI vRNAs accumulated to high fractions, while others decreased. Using reverse genetics for IAV, purely clonal DIPs derived from highly replicating DI vRNAs were generated. We confirm that these DIPs exhibit a superior in vitro interfering efficacy compared to DIPs derived from lowly accumulated DI vRNAs and suggest promising candidates for efficacious antiviral treatment. IMPORTANCE Defective interfering particles (DIPs) emerge naturally during viral infection and typically show an internal deletion in the viral genome. Thus, DIPs are propagation-incompetent. Previous research suggests DIPs as potent antiviral compounds for many different virus families due to their ability to interfere with virus replication by competitive inhibition. For instance, the administration of influenza A virus (IAV) DIPs resulted in a rescue of mice from an otherwise lethal IAV dose. Moreover, no apparent toxic effects were observed when only DIPs were administered to mice and ferrets. IAV DIPs show antiviral activity against many different IAV strains, including pandemic and highly pathogenic avian strains, and even against nonhomologous viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, by stimulation of innate immunity. Here, we used a cultivation/infection system, which exerted selection pressure toward accumulation of highly competitive IAV DIPs. These DIPs showed a superior interfering efficacy in vitro, and we suggest them for effective antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Design/methods , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/virology , RNA, Viral , Animals , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Defective Viruses/genetics , Dogs , Gene Deletion , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Oscillometry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262832, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643286

ABSTRACT

Tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates the expression of inflammatory mediators in response to Toll-like receptors (TLR) and cytokine receptors. Global ablation of Tpl2 leads to severe disease in response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection, characterized by respiratory distress, and studies in bone marrow chimeric mice implicated Tpl2 in non-hematopoietic cells. Lung epithelial cells are primary targets and replicative niches of influenza viruses; however, the specific regulation of antiviral responses by Tpl2 within lung epithelial cells has not been investigated. Herein, we show that Tpl2 is basally expressed in primary airway epithelial cells and that its expression increases in both type I and type II airway epithelial cells (AECI and AECII) in response to influenza infection. We used Nkx2.1-cre to drive Tpl2 deletion within pulmonary epithelial cells to delineate epithelial cell-specific functions of Tpl2 during influenza infection in mice. Although modest increases in morbidity and mortality were attributed to cre-dependent deletion in lung epithelial cells, no alterations in host cytokine production or lung pathology were observed. In vitro, Tpl2 inhibition within the type I airway epithelial cell line, LET1, as well as genetic ablation in primary airway epithelial cells did not alter cytokine production. Overall, these findings establish that Tpl2-dependent defects in cells other than AECs are primarily responsible for the morbidity and mortality seen in influenza-infected mice with global Tpl2 ablation.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Influenza A virus , MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/blood , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Female , MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases/genetics , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/mortality , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics
6.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636836

ABSTRACT

Human adenoviruses (HAdV) cause a variety of infections in human hosts, from self-limited upper respiratory tract infections in otherwise healthy people to fulminant pneumonia and death in immunocompromised patients. Many HAdV enter polarized epithelial cells by using the primary receptor, the Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Recently published data demonstrate that a potent neutrophil (PMN) chemoattractant, interleukin-8 (IL-8), stimulates airway epithelial cells to increase expression of the apical isoform of CAR (CAREx8), which results in increased epithelial HAdV type 5 (HAdV5) infection. However, the mechanism for PMN-enhanced epithelial HAdV5 transduction remains unclear. In this manuscript, the molecular mechanisms behind PMN mediated enhancement of epithelial HAdV5 transduction are characterized using an MDCK cell line that stably expresses human CAREx8 under a doxycycline inducible promoter (MDCK-CAREx8 cells). Contrary to our hypothesis, PMN exposure does not enhance HAdV5 entry by increasing CAREx8 expression nor through activation of non-specific epithelial endocytic pathways. Instead, PMN serine proteases are responsible for PMN-mediated enhancement of HAdV5 transduction in MDCK-CAREx8 cells. This is evidenced by reduced transduction upon inhibition of PMN serine proteases and increased transduction upon exposure to exogenous human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Furthermore, HNE exposure activates epithelial autophagic flux, which, even when triggered through other mechanisms, results in a similar enhancement of epithelial HAdV5 transduction. Inhibition of F-actin with cytochalasin D partially attenuates PMN mediated enhancement of HAdV transduction. Taken together, these findings suggest that HAdV5 can leverage innate immune responses to establish infections.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human/pathogenicity , Epithelial Cells/virology , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Virus Internalization , Adenoviruses, Human/immunology , Adenoviruses, Human/physiology , Animals , Autophagy , Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein/metabolism , Cytochalasin B/pharmacology , Dogs , Endocytosis , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Macrolides/pharmacology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Receptors, Virus/metabolism
7.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(2): 234-244, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612184

ABSTRACT

Global pandemics caused by influenza or coronaviruses cause severe disruptions to public health and lead to high morbidity and mortality. There remains a medical need for vaccines against these pathogens. CMV (cytomegalovirus) is a ß-herpesvirus that induces uniquely robust immune responses in which remarkably large populations of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells are maintained for a lifetime. Hence, CMV has been proposed and investigated as a novel vaccine vector for expressing antigenic peptides or proteins to elicit protective cellular immune responses against numerous pathogens. We generated two recombinant murine CMV (MCMV) vaccine vectors expressing hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus (MCMVHA) or the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (MCMVS). A single injection of MCMVs expressing either viral protein induced potent neutralizing antibody responses, which strengthened over time. Importantly, MCMVHA-vaccinated mice were protected from illness following challenge with the influenza virus, and we excluded that this protection was due to the effects of memory T cells. Conclusively, we show here that MCMV vectors induce not only long-term cellular immunity but also humoral responses that provide long-term immune protection against clinically relevant respiratory pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Dogs , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Vero Cells
8.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103762, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines in emergency use are efficacious against COVID-19, yet vaccine-induced prevention against nasal SARS-CoV-2 infection remains suboptimal. METHODS: Since mucosal immunity is critical for nasal prevention, we investigated the efficacy of an intramuscular PD1-based receptor-binding domain (RBD) DNA vaccine (PD1-RBD-DNA) and intranasal live attenuated influenza-based vaccines (LAIV-CA4-RBD and LAIV-HK68-RBD) against SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: Substantially higher systemic and mucosal immune responses, including bronchoalveolar lavage IgA/IgG and lung polyfunctional memory CD8 T cells, were induced by the heterologous PD1-RBD-DNA/LAIV-HK68-RBD as compared with other regimens. When vaccinated animals were challenged at the memory phase, prevention of robust SARS-CoV-2 infection in nasal turbinate was achieved primarily by the heterologous regimen besides consistent protection in lungs. The regimen-induced antibodies cross-neutralized variants of concerns. Furthermore, LAIV-CA4-RBD could boost the BioNTech vaccine for improved mucosal immunity. INTERPRETATION: Our results demonstrated that intranasal influenza-based boost vaccination induces mucosal and systemic immunity for effective SARS-CoV-2 prevention in both upper and lower respiratory systems. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Research Grants Council Collaborative Research Fund, General Research Fund and Health and Medical Research Fund in Hong Kong; Outbreak Response to Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations; Shenzhen Science and Technology Program and matching fund from Shenzhen Immuno Cure BioTech Limited; the Health@InnoHK, Innovation and Technology Commission of Hong Kong; National Program on Key Research Project of China; donations from the Friends of Hope Education Fund; the Theme-Based Research Scheme.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , Influenza Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, DNA , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vero Cells
9.
Theranostics ; 12(1): 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512993

ABSTRACT

Background: Administration of potent anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) monoclonal antibodies has been shown to curtail viral shedding and reduce hospitalization in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the structure-function analysis of potent human anti-RBD monoclonal antibodies and its links to the formulation of antibody cocktails remains largely elusive. Methods: Previously, we isolated a panel of neutralizing anti-RBD monoclonal antibodies from convalescent patients and showed their neutralization efficacy in vitro. Here, we elucidate the mechanism of action of antibodies and dissect antibodies at the epitope level, which leads to a formation of a potent antibody cocktail. Results: We found that representative antibodies which target non-overlapping epitopes are effective against wild type virus and recently emerging variants of concern, whilst being encoded by antibody genes with few somatic mutations. Neutralization is associated with the inhibition of binding of viral RBD to ACE2 and possibly of the subsequent fusion process. Structural analysis of representative antibodies, by cryo-electron microscopy and crystallography, reveals that they have some unique aspects that are of potential value while sharing some features in common with previously reported neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. For instance, one has a common VH 3-53 public variable region yet is unusually resilient to mutation at residue 501 of the RBD. We evaluate the in vivo efficacy of an antibody cocktail consisting of two potent non-competing anti-RBD antibodies in a Syrian hamster model. We demonstrate that the cocktail prevents weight loss, reduces lung viral load and attenuates pulmonary inflammation in hamsters in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Although neutralization of one of these antibodies is abrogated by the mutations of variant B.1.351, it is also possible to produce a bi-valent cocktail of antibodies both of which are resilient to variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and B.1.617.2. Conclusions: These findings support the up-to-date and rational design of an anti-RBD antibody cocktail as a therapeutic candidate against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Dogs , Epitopes , Female , Humans , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
MAbs ; 13(1): 1987180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483313

ABSTRACT

The global health crisis and economic tolls of COVID-19 necessitate a panoply of strategies to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. To date, few treatment options exist, although neutralizing antibodies against the spike glycoprotein have proven to be effective. Because infection is initiated at the mucosa and propagates mainly at this site throughout the course of the disease, blocking the virus at the mucosal milieu should be effective. However, administration of biologics to the mucosa presents a substantial challenge. Here, we describe bifunctional molecules combining single-domain variable regions that bind to the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) and to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein via addition of the ACE2 extracellular domain (ECD). The hypothesis behind this design is that pIgR will transport the molecule from the circulation to the mucosal surface where the ACE ECD would act as a decoy receptor for the nCoV2. The bifunctional molecules bind SARS-Cov-2 spike glycoprotein in vitro and efficiently transcytose across the lung epithelium in human tissue-based analyses. Designs featuring ACE2 tethered to the C-terminus of the Fc do not induce antibody-dependent cytotoxicity against pIgR-expressing cells. These molecules thus represent a potential therapeutic modality for systemic administration of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 molecules to the mucosa.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cricetulus , Dogs , Female , Humans , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Mouth Mucosa/immunology , Protein Domains , Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin/genetics , Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin/immunology , Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Chain Antibodies/genetics , Single-Chain Antibodies/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies/pharmacokinetics , Single-Chain Antibodies/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine
11.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(9): e1009357, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470651

ABSTRACT

Cell culture-derived defective interfering particles (DIPs) are considered for antiviral therapy due to their ability to inhibit influenza A virus (IAV) production. DIPs contain a large internal deletion in one of their eight viral RNAs (vRNAs) rendering them replication-incompetent. However, they can propagate alongside their homologous standard virus (STV) during infection in a competition for cellular and viral resources. So far, experimental and modeling studies for IAV have focused on either the intracellular or the cell population level when investigating the interaction of STVs and DIPs. To examine these levels simultaneously, we conducted a series of experiments using highly different multiplicities of infections for STVs and DIPs to characterize virus replication in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney suspension cells. At several time points post infection, we quantified virus titers, viable cell concentration, virus-induced apoptosis using imaging flow cytometry, and intracellular levels of vRNA and viral mRNA using real-time reverse transcription qPCR. Based on the obtained data, we developed a mathematical multiscale model of STV and DIP co-infection that describes dynamics closely for all scenarios with a single set of parameters. We show that applying high DIP concentrations can shut down STV propagation completely and prevent virus-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the three observed viral mRNAs (full-length segment 1 and 5, defective interfering segment 1) accumulated to vastly different levels suggesting the interplay between an internal regulation mechanism and a growth advantage for shorter viral RNAs. Furthermore, model simulations predict that the concentration of DIPs should be at least 10000 times higher than that of STVs to prevent the spread of IAV. Ultimately, the model presented here supports a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between STVs and DIPs during co-infection providing an ideal platform for the prediction and optimization of vaccine manufacturing as well as DIP production for therapeutic use.


Subject(s)
Defective Viruses , Influenza A virus , Models, Biological , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Cell Culture Techniques , Defective Viruses/chemistry , Defective Viruses/genetics , Defective Viruses/pathogenicity , Dogs , Influenza A virus/chemistry , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , RNA, Viral/genetics
12.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463827

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes diarrhoea in suckling piglets and has the potential for cross-species transmission. No effective PDCoV vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available. Here, we successfully generated an infectious clone of PDCoV strain CHN-HN-2014 using a combination of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based reverse genetics system with a one-step homologous recombination. The recued virus (rCHN-HN-2014) possesses similar growth characteristics to the parental virus in vitro. Based on the established infectious clone and CRISPR/Cas9 technology, a PDCoV reporter virus expressing nanoluciferase (Nluc) was constructed by replacing the NS6 gene. Using two drugs, lycorine and resveratrol, we found that the Nluc reporter virus exhibited high sensibility and easy quantification to rapid antiviral screening. We further used the Nluc reporter virus to test the susceptibility of different cell lines to PDCoV and found that cell lines derived from various host species, including human, swine, cattle and monkey enables PDCoV replication, broadening our understanding of the PDCoV cell tropism range. Taken together, our reporter viruses are available to high throughput screening for antiviral drugs and uncover the infectivity of PDCoV in various cells, which will accelerate our understanding of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/metabolism , Genes, Reporter/genetics , Luciferases/genetics , A549 Cells , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Deltacoronavirus/growth & development , Dogs , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Luciferases/biosynthesis , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Nanostructures , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 221: 113494, 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446590

ABSTRACT

In the search for new anti-influenza virus (IV) compounds, we have identified the 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine (TZP) as a very suitable scaffold to obtain compounds able to disrupt IV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) PA-PB1 subunits heterodimerization. In this work, in order to acquire further SAR insights for this class of compounds and identify more potent derivatives, we designed and synthesized additional series of analogues to investigate the role of the substituents around the TZP core. To this aim, we developed four facile and efficient one-step procedures for the synthesis of 5-phenyl-, 6-phenyl- and 7-phenyl-2-amino-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines, and 2-amino-5-phenyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-ol. Two analogues having the ethyl carboxylate moiety at the C-2 position of the TZP were also prepared in good yields. Then, the scaffolds herein synthesized and two previous scaffolds were functionalized and evaluated for their anti-IAV activity, leading to the identification of compound 22 that showed both anti-PA-PB1 (IC50 = 19.5 µM) and anti-IAV activity (EC50 = 16 µM) at non-toxic concentrations, thus resulting among the most active TZP derivatives reported to date by us. A selection of the synthesized compounds, along with a set of in-house available analogues, was also tested against SARS-CoV-2. The most promising compound 49 from this series displayed an EC50 value of 34.47 µM, highlighting the potential of the TPZ scaffold in the search for anti-CoV agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Protein Multimerization/drug effects , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Triazoles/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Drug Design , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pyrimidines/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Triazoles/chemical synthesis , Vero Cells
14.
J Virol ; 95(24): e0117421, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434894

ABSTRACT

Defective interfering particles (DIPs) of influenza A virus (IAV) are naturally occurring mutants that have an internal deletion in one of their eight viral RNA (vRNA) segments, rendering them propagation-incompetent. Upon coinfection with infectious standard virus (STV), DIPs interfere with STV replication through competitive inhibition. Thus, DIPs are proposed as potent antivirals for treatment of the influenza disease. To select corresponding candidates, we studied de novo generation of DIPs and propagation competition between different defective interfering (DI) vRNAs in an STV coinfection scenario in cell culture. A small-scale two-stage cultivation system that allows long-term semi-continuous propagation of IAV and its DIPs was used. Strong periodic oscillations in virus titers were observed due to the dynamic interaction of DIPs and STVs. Using next-generation sequencing, we detected a predominant formation and accumulation of DI vRNAs on the polymerase-encoding segments. Short DI vRNAs accumulated to higher fractions than longer ones, indicating a replication advantage, yet an optimum fragment length was observed. Some DI vRNAs showed breaking points in a specific part of their bundling signal (belonging to the packaging signal), suggesting its dispensability for DI vRNA propagation. Over a total cultivation time of 21 days, several individual DI vRNAs accumulated to high fractions, while others decreased. Using reverse genetics for IAV, purely clonal DIPs derived from highly replicating DI vRNAs were generated. We confirm that these DIPs exhibit a superior in vitro interfering efficacy compared to DIPs derived from lowly accumulated DI vRNAs and suggest promising candidates for efficacious antiviral treatment. IMPORTANCE Defective interfering particles (DIPs) emerge naturally during viral infection and typically show an internal deletion in the viral genome. Thus, DIPs are propagation-incompetent. Previous research suggests DIPs as potent antiviral compounds for many different virus families due to their ability to interfere with virus replication by competitive inhibition. For instance, the administration of influenza A virus (IAV) DIPs resulted in a rescue of mice from an otherwise lethal IAV dose. Moreover, no apparent toxic effects were observed when only DIPs were administered to mice and ferrets. IAV DIPs show antiviral activity against many different IAV strains, including pandemic and highly pathogenic avian strains, and even against nonhomologous viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, by stimulation of innate immunity. Here, we used a cultivation/infection system, which exerted selection pressure toward accumulation of highly competitive IAV DIPs. These DIPs showed a superior interfering efficacy in vitro, and we suggest them for effective antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Design/methods , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/virology , RNA, Viral , Animals , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Defective Viruses/genetics , Dogs , Gene Deletion , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Oscillometry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 559382, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389163

ABSTRACT

Eliciting durable and protective T cell-mediated immunity in the respiratory mucosa remains a significant challenge. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based cationic pathogen-like particles (PLPs) loaded with TLR agonists mimic biophysical properties of microbes and hence, simulate pathogen-pattern recognition receptor interactions to safely and effectively stimulate innate immune responses. We generated micro particle PLPs loaded with TLR4 (glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant, GLA) or TLR9 (CpG) agonists, and formulated them with and without a mucosal delivery enhancing carbomer-based nanoemulsion adjuvant (ADJ). These adjuvants delivered intranasally to mice elicited high numbers of influenza nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8+ and CD4+ effector and tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) in lungs and airways. PLPs delivering TLR4 versus TLR9 agonists drove phenotypically and functionally distinct populations of effector and memory T cells. While PLPs loaded with CpG or GLA provided immunity, combining the adjuvanticity of PLP-GLA and ADJ markedly enhanced the development of airway and lung TRMs and CD4 and CD8 T cell-dependent immunity to influenza virus. Further, balanced CD8 (Tc1/Tc17) and CD4 (Th1/Th17) recall responses were linked to effective influenza virus control. These studies provide mechanistic insights into vaccine-induced pulmonary T cell immunity and pave the way for the development of a universal influenza and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Dogs , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(26): 30317-30325, 2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387130

ABSTRACT

Influenza A viruses (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 can spread via liquid droplets and aerosols. Face masks and other personal protective equipment (PPE) can act as barriers that prevent the spread of these viruses. However, IAV and SARS-CoV-2 are stable for hours on various materials, which makes frequent and correct disposal of these PPE important. Metal ions embedded into PPE may inactivate respiratory viruses, but confounding factors such as adsorption of viruses make measuring and optimizing the inactivation characteristics difficult. Here, we used polyamide 6.6 (PA66) fibers containing embedded zinc ions and systematically investigated if these fibers can adsorb and inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and IAV H1N1 when woven into a fabric. We found that our PA66-based fabric decreased the IAV H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 titer by approximately 100-fold. Moreover, we found that the zinc content and the virus inactivating property of the fabric remained stable over 50 standardized washes. Overall, these results provide insights into the development of reusable PPE that offer protection against RNA virus spread.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/physiology , Nylons/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Textiles , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Zinc/pharmacology , Adsorption , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cotton Fiber , Dogs , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Ions , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Polypropylenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
17.
mBio ; 12(4): e0159821, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360544

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota plays a critical role in the induction of adaptive immune responses to influenza virus infection. However, the role of nasal bacteria in the induction of the virus-specific adaptive immunity is less clear. Here, we found that disruption of nasal bacteria by intranasal application of antibiotics before influenza virus infection enhanced the virus-specific antibody response in a MyD88-dependent manner. Similarly, disruption of nasal bacteria by lysozyme enhanced antibody responses to intranasally administered influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine in a MyD88-dependent manner, suggesting that intranasal application of antibiotics or lysozyme could release bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from disrupted nasal bacteria that act as mucosal adjuvants by activating the MyD88 signaling pathway. Since commensal bacteria in the nasal mucosal surface were significantly lower than those in the oral cavity, intranasal administration of HA vaccine alone was insufficient to induce the vaccine-specific antibody response. However, intranasal supplementation of cultured oral bacteria from a healthy human volunteer enhanced antibody responses to an intranasally administered HA vaccine. Finally, we demonstrated that oral bacteria combined with an intranasal vaccine protect from influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Our results reveal the role of nasal bacteria in the induction of the virus-specific adaptive immunity and provide clues for developing better intranasal vaccines. IMPORTANCE Intranasal vaccination induces the nasal IgA antibody which is protective against respiratory viruses, such as influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, understanding how mucosal immune responses are elicited following viral infection is important for developing better vaccines. Here, we focused on the role of nasal commensal bacteria in the induction of immune responses following influenza virus infection. To deplete nasal bacteria, we intranasally administered antibiotics to mice before influenza virus infection and found that antibiotic-induced disruption of nasal bacteria could release bacterial components which stimulate the virus-specific antibody responses. Since commensal bacteria in nasal mucosa were significantly lower than those in the oral cavity, intranasal administration of split virus vaccine alone was insufficient to induce the vaccine-specific antibody response. However, intranasal supplementation of cultured oral bacteria from a healthy human volunteer enhanced antibody responses to the intranasally administered vaccine. Therefore, both integrity and amounts of nasal bacteria may be critical for an effective intranasal vaccine.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/microbiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells
18.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 108020, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330896

ABSTRACT

The spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is the foremost target for the designing of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies and also acts as a crucial antigen in the assessment of COVID-19 immune responses. The enveloped viruses; such as SARS-CoV-2, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) and influenza, often hijack host-cell glycosylation pathways and influence pathobiology and immune selection. These glycan motifs can lead to either immune evasion or viral neutralization by the production of cross-reactive antibodies that can lead to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Potential cross-protection from influenza vaccine has also been reported in COVID-19 infected individuals in several epidemiological studies recently; however, the scientific basis for these observations remains elusive. Herein, we show that the anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies cross-reacts with the Hemagglutinin (HA) protein. This phenomenon is common to both the sera from convalescent SARS-CoV-2 donors and spike immunized mice, although these antibodies were unable to cross-neutralize, suggesting the presence of a non-neutralizing antibody response. Epitope mapping suggests that the cross-reactive antibodies are targeted towards glycan epitopes of the SARS-CoV-2 spike and HA. Overall, our findings address the cross-reactive responses, although non-neutralizing, elicited against RNA viruses and warrant further studies to investigate whether such non-neutralizing antibody responses can contribute to effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) or ADE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology , Cell Culture Techniques , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes/immunology , Glycosylation , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells
19.
J Virol ; 94(23)2020 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-774840

ABSTRACT

Numerous peptides inhibit the entry of enveloped viruses into cells. Some of these peptides have been shown to inhibit multiple unrelated viruses. We have suggested that such broad-spectrum antiviral peptides share a property called interfacial activity; they are somewhat hydrophobic and amphipathic, with a propensity to interact with the interfacial zones of lipid bilayer membranes. In this study, we further tested the hypothesis that such interfacial activity is a correlate of broad-spectrum antiviral activity. In this study, several families of peptides, selected for the ability to partition into and disrupt membrane integrity but with no known antiviral activity, were tested for the ability to inhibit multiple diverse enveloped viruses. These include Lassa pseudovirus, influenza virus, dengue virus type 2, herpes simplex virus 1, and nonenveloped human adenovirus 5. Various families of interfacially active peptides caused potent inhibition of all enveloped viruses tested at low and submicromolar concentrations, well below the range in which they are toxic to mammalian cells. These membrane-active peptides block uptake and fusion with the host cell by rapidly and directly interacting with virions, destabilizing the viral envelope, and driving virus aggregation and/or intervirion envelope fusion. We speculate that the molecular characteristics shared by these peptides can be exploited to enable the design, optimization, or molecular evolution of novel broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics.IMPORTANCE New classes of antiviral drugs are needed to treat the ever-changing viral disease landscape. Current antiviral drugs treat only a small number of viral diseases, leaving many patients with established or emerging infections to be treated solely with supportive care. Recent antiviral peptide research has produced numerous membrane-interacting peptides that inhibit diverse enveloped viruses in vitro and in vivo Peptide therapeutics are becoming more common, with over 60 FDA-approved peptides for clinical use. Included in this class of therapeutics is enfuvirtide, a 36-residue peptide drug that inhibits HIV entry/fusion. Due to their broad-spectrum mechanism of action and enormous potential sequence diversity, peptides that inhibit virus entry could potentially fulfill the need for new antiviral therapeutics; however, a better understanding of their mechanism is needed for the optimization or evolution of sequence design to combat the wide landscape of viral disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Orthomyxoviridae , Vero Cells , Viral Envelope , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
20.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 118(10): 3996-4013, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293144

ABSTRACT

Seasonal influenza epidemics occur both in northern and southern hemispheres every year. Despite the differences in influenza virus surface antigens and virulence of seasonal subtypes, manufacturers are well-adapted to respond to this periodical vaccine demand. Due to decades of influenza virus research, the development of new influenza vaccines is relatively straight forward. In similarity with the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, vaccine manufacturing is a major bottleneck for a rapid supply of the billions of doses required worldwide. In particular, egg-based vaccine production would be difficult to schedule and shortages of other egg-based vaccines with high demands also have to be anticipated. Cell culture-based production systems enable the manufacturing of large amounts of vaccines within a short time frame and expand significantly our options to respond to pandemics and emerging viral diseases. In this study, we present an integrated process for the production of inactivated influenza A virus vaccines based on a Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) suspension cell line cultivated in a chemically defined medium. Very high titers of 3.6 log10 (HAU/100 µl) were achieved using fast-growing MDCK cells at concentrations up to 9.5 × 106 cells/ml infected with influenza A/PR/8/34 H1N1 virus in 1 L stirred tank bioreactors. A combination of membrane-based steric-exclusion chromatography followed by pseudo-affinity chromatography with a sulfated cellulose membrane adsorber enabled full recovery for the virus capture step and up to 80% recovery for the virus polishing step. Purified virus particles showed a homogenous size distribution with a mean diameter of 80 nm. Based on a monovalent dose of 15 µg hemagglutinin (single-radial immunodiffusion assay), the level of total protein and host cell DNA was 58 µg and 10 ng, respectively. Furthermore, all process steps can be fully scaled up to industrial quantities for commercial manufacturing of either seasonal or pandemic influenza virus vaccines. Fast production of up to 300 vaccine doses per liter within 4-5 days makes this process competitive not only to other cell-based processes but to egg-based processes as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Culture Techniques , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/growth & development , Influenza Vaccines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Animals , Dogs , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells
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