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1.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 28(6): 499-510, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161250

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review article is to summarize the current in-vivo imaging techniques for the evaluation of the glymphatic function and discuss the factors influencing the glymphatic function and research directions in the future. RECENT FINDINGS: The glymphatic system allows the clearance of metabolic waste from the central nervous system (CNS). The glymphatic pathway has been investigated using intrathecal or intravenous injection of a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) on MRI, so-called glymphatic MRI. The glymphatic MRI indirectly visualizes the dynamic CSF flow and evaluated the glymphatic function in the animal and human models. Several clinical and preclinical studies using glymphatic MRI have confirmed that the glymphatic function is impaired in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Furthermore, physiologic process such as sleep facilitates the glymphatic clearance, thus clearing accumulation of protein deposition, such as amyloid or tau, potentially delaying the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. SUMMARY: The glymphatic system plays a crucial role in clearing metabolic wastes in the brain. Glymphatic MR imaging using GBCA administration serves as a functional imaging tool to measure the glymphatic function and investigate various pathophysiologies of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Animals , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media/metabolism , Gadolinium/metabolism , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Sleep
2.
Cephalalgia ; 42(3): 273-275, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2013, one of the authors described a 36-year-old female with orthostatic headache without documented intracranial hypotension or evidence of cerebrospinal fluid leak, despite extensive workup. Headache was unresponsive to conservative treatment since 2010, showed only transient benefit after repeated epidural blood patches while vitamin A supplementation resulted in progressive improvement. CASE: Since 2013, the patient followed a relapsing and remitting course yet relapse control became difficult after a drug induced liver injury required vitamin A discontinuation in 2017, when her headache became chronic. Greater occipital nerve blocks provided pain relief as alternative but were stopped due to the pandemic and her latest severe relapse, in late 2020, required not only restarting anaesthetic blocks and aggressive medication management, but also reassessing and treating comorbidities (obstructive sleep apnoea and major depressive disorder) with modest benefit. CONCLUSION: Orthostatic headache without intracranial hypotension is rare, with only 28 cases reported so far, all treated empirically and all treatment options revealing to be mostly ineffective. Vitamin A anecdotally appeared to be useful in our case but had to be stopped for severe side effects, so unfavourable long-term prognosis, in ours and 2/3 of the reported cases, seems to be the rule in this intriguing entity.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Intracranial Hypotension , Adult , Blood Patch, Epidural , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Female , Headache/drug therapy , Headache/therapy , Humans , Intracranial Hypotension/complications , Intracranial Hypotension/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
3.
Digit J Ophthalmol ; 28(3): 69-73, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144828

ABSTRACT

A 25-year-old man presented to an urgent care facility with sudden loss of vision in his right eye, diplopia, and anosmia. He tested positive by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Nine days later, he presented at our emergency department, at which time ophthalmic examination revealed reduced visual acuity in the right eye, with poor color vision and a relative afferent pupillary defect. He had a moderate adduction deficit and mild hypertropia of the right eye, with an intermittent exotropia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits revealed asymmetric, abnormal enhancement of the right optic nerve sheath extending to the right orbital apex. His ocular symptoms resolved completely with systemic steroids. All infectious and inflammatory labs returned negative except for COVID-19. Ocular findings have been consistently implicated throughout this pandemic. This case highlights an unidentified presentation with optic nerve involvement and orbital inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Inflammation/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Diplopia
4.
Mult Scler ; 28(13): 2027-2037, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in MS research has led to new insights in lesion evolution and disease outcomes. It has not yet been determined if, or how, pre-lesional abnormalities in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) relate to the long-term evolution of new lesions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between abnormalities in MRI measures of axonal and myelin volume fractions (AVF and MVF) in NAWM preceding development of black-hole (BH) and non-BH lesions in people with MS. METHODS: We obtained magnetization transfer and diffusion MRI at 6-month intervals in patients with MS to estimate MVF and AVF during lesion evolution. Lesions were classified as either BH or non-BH on the final imaging visit using T1 maps. RESULTS: Longitudinal data from 97 new T2 lesions from 9 participants were analyzed; 25 lesions in 8 participants were classified as BH 6-12 months after initial appearance. Pre-lesion MVF, AVF, and MVF/AVF were significantly lower, and T1 was significantly higher, in the lesions that later became BHs (p < 0.001) compared to those that did not. No significant pre-lesion abnormalities were found in non-BH lesions (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The present work demonstrated that pre-lesion abnormalities are associated with worse long-term lesion-level outcome.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis , White Matter , Axons/pathology , Brain/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Myelin Sheath/pathology , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
5.
Radiology ; 305(3): 709-717, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138184

ABSTRACT

Background Post-COVID-19 condition encompasses symptoms following COVID-19 infection that linger at least 4 weeks after the end of active infection. Symptoms are wide ranging, but breathlessness is common. Purpose To determine if the previously described lung abnormalities seen on hyperpolarized (HP) pulmonary xenon 129 (129Xe) MRI scans in participants with post-COVID-19 condition who were hospitalized are also present in participants with post-COVID-19 condition who were not hospitalized. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, nonhospitalized participants with post-COVID-19 condition (NHLC) and posthospitalized participants with post-COVID-19 condition (PHC) were enrolled from June 2020 to August 2021. Participants underwent chest CT, HP 129Xe MRI, pulmonary function testing, and the 1-minute sit-to-stand test and completed breathlessness questionnaires. Control subjects underwent HP 129Xe MRI only. CT scans were analyzed for post-COVID-19 interstitial lung disease severity using a previously published scoring system and full-scale airway network (FAN) modeling. Analysis used group and pairwise comparisons between participants and control subjects and correlations between participant clinical and imaging data. Results A total of 11 NHLC participants (four men, seven women; mean age, 44 years ± 11 [SD]; 95% CI: 37, 50) and 12 PHC participants (10 men, two women; mean age, 58 years ±10; 95% CI: 52, 64) were included, with a significant difference in age between groups (P = .05). Mean time from infection was 287 days ± 79 (95% CI: 240, 334) and 143 days ± 72 (95% CI: 105, 190) in NHLC and PHC participants, respectively. NHLC and PHC participants had normal or near normal CT scans (mean, 0.3/25 ± 0.6 [95% CI: 0, 0.63] and 7/25 ± 5 [95% CI: 4, 10], respectively). Gas transfer (Dlco) was different between NHLC and PHC participants (mean Dlco, 76% ± 8 [95% CI: 73, 83] vs 86% ± 8 [95% CI: 80, 91], respectively; P = .04), but there was no evidence of other differences in lung function. Mean red blood cell-to-tissue plasma ratio was different between volunteers (mean, 0.45 ± 0.07; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.47]) and PHC participants (mean, 0.31 ± 0.10; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.37; P = .02) and between volunteers and NHLC participants (mean, 0.37 ± 0.10; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.44; P = .03) but not between NHLC and PHC participants (P = .26). FAN results did not correlate with Dlco) or HP 129Xe MRI results. Conclusion Nonhospitalized participants with post-COVID-19 condition (NHLC) and posthospitalized participants with post-COVID-19 condition (PHC) showed hyperpolarized pulmonary xenon 129 MRI and red blood cell-to-tissue plasma abnormalities, with NHLC participants demonstrating lower gas transfer than PHC participants despite having normal CT findings. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Parraga and Matheson in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Xenon Isotopes , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea
7.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 130, 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease, wherein aberrant immune cells target myelin-ensheathed nerves. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be performed to monitor damage to the central nervous system that results from previous inflammation; however, these imaging biomarkers are not necessarily indicative of active, progressive stages of the disease. The immune cells responsible for MS are first activated and sensitized to myelin in lymph nodes (LNs). Here, we present a new strategy for monitoring active disease activity in MS, chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI of LNs. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the potential utility of conventional (T2-weighted) and CEST MRI to monitor changes in these LNs during disease progression in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. We found CEST signal changes corresponded temporally with disease activity. CEST signals at the 3.2 ppm frequency during the active stage of EAE correlated significantly with the cellular (flow cytometry) and metabolic (mass spectrometry imaging) composition of the LNs, as well as immune cell infiltration into brain and spinal cord tissue. Correlating primary metabolites as identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging included alanine, lactate, leucine, malate, and phenylalanine. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, we demonstrate the utility of CEST MRI signal changes in superficial cervical LNs as a complementary imaging biomarker for monitoring disease activity in MS. CEST MRI biomarkers corresponded to disease activity, correlated with immune activation (surface markers, antigen-stimulated proliferation), and correlated with LN metabolite levels.


Subject(s)
Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental , Multiple Sclerosis , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Animals , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Mice , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
8.
Radiology ; 305(3): 538-554, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117945

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on three key noninvasive cardiac imaging modalities-cardiac CT angiography (CTA), MRI, and PET/CT-and summarizes key publications in 2021 relevant to radiologists in clinical practice. Although this review focuses primarily on articles published in Radiology, important studies from other major journals are included to highlight "must-know" articles in the field of cardiovascular imaging. Cardiac CTA has been established as the first-line test for patients with stable chest pain and no known coronary artery disease, and its value remains central to the assessment of surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Artificial intelligence continues to evolve in a number of applications in cardiovascular disease. In cardiac MRI studies, 2021 has seen an emphasis on nonischemic cardiomyopathies, valvular heart disease, and COVID-19 disease cardiac manifestations and the authors highlight the key articles on these topics. A section featuring the increasing role of cardiac PET/CT in the assessment of cardiac sarcoidosis and prosthetic valves is also provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
11.
Magn Reson Med ; 87(4): 1784-1798, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114544

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To develop an isotropic high-resolution stack-of-spirals UTE sequence for pulmonary imaging at 0.55 Tesla by leveraging a combination of robust respiratory-binning, trajectory correction, and concomitant-field corrections. METHODS: A stack-of-spirals golden-angle UTE sequence was used to continuously acquire data for 15.5 minutes. The data was binned to a stable respiratory phase based on superoinferior readout self-navigator signals. Corrections for trajectory errors and concomitant field artifacts, along with image reconstruction with conjugate gradient SENSE, were performed inline within the Gadgetron framework. Finally, data were retrospectively reconstructed to simulate scan times of 5, 8.5, and 12 minutes. Image quality was assessed using signal-to-noise, image sharpness, and qualitative reader scores. The technique was evaluated in healthy volunteers, patients with coronavirus disease 2019 infection, and patients with lung nodules. RESULTS: The technique provided diagnostic quality images with parenchymal lung SNR of 3.18 ± 0.0.60, 4.57 ± 0.87, 5.45 ± 1.02, and 5.89 ± 1.28 for scan times of 5, 8.5, 12, and 15.5 minutes, respectively. The respiratory binning technique resulted in significantly sharper images (p < 0.001) as measured with relative maximum derivative at the diaphragm. Concomitant field corrections visibly improved sharpness of anatomical structures away from iso-center. The image quality was maintained with a slight loss in SNR for simulated scan times down to 8.5 minutes. Inline image reconstruction and artifact correction were achieved in <5 minutes. CONCLUSION: The proposed pulmonary imaging technique combined efficient stack-of-spirals imaging with robust respiratory binning, concomitant field correction, and trajectory correction to generate diagnostic quality images with 1.75 mm isotropic resolution in 8.5 minutes on a high-performance 0.55 Tesla system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Artifacts , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e059482, 2022 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108275

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to compare prostate cancer detection rates between patients undergoing serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) vs magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prostate cancer screening. DESIGN: Phase III open-label randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Single tertiary cancer centre in Toronto, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Men 50 years of age and older with no history of PSA screening for ≥3 years, a negative digital rectal exam and no prior prostate biopsy. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were recommended to undergo a prostate biopsy if their PSA was ≥2.6 ng/mL (PSA arm) or if they had a PIRADS score of 4 or 5 (MRI arm). Patients underwent an end-of-study PSA in the MRI arm. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Adenocarcinoma on prostate biopsy. Prostate biopsy rates and the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer were also compared. RESULTS: A total of 525 patients were randomised, with 266 in the PSA arm and 248 in the MRI arm. Due to challenges with accrual and study execution during the COVID-19 pandemic, the study was terminated early. In the PSA arm, 48 patients had an abnormal PSA and 28 (58%) agreed to undergo a prostate biopsy. In the MRI arm, 25 patients had a PIRADS score of 4 or 5 and 24 (96%) agreed to undergo a biopsy. The relative risk for MRI to recommend a prostate biopsy was 0.52 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.82, p=0.005), compared with PSA. The cancer detection rate for patients in the PSA arm was 29% (8 of 28) vs 63% (15 of 24, p=0.019) in the MRI arm, with a higher proportion of clinically significant cancer detected in the MRI arm (73% vs 50%). The relative risk for detecting cancer and clinically significant with MRI compared with PSA was 1.89 (95% CI 0.82 to 4.38, p=0.14) and 2.77 (95% CI 0.89 to 8.59, p=0.07), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Prostate MRI as a stand-alone screening test reduced the rate of prostate biopsy. The number of clinically significant cancers detected was higher in the MRI arm, but this did not reach statistical significance. Due to early termination, the study was underpowered. More patients were willing to follow recommendations for prostate biopsy based on MRI results. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02799303.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Prostate/pathology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Pandemics , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
13.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(5): 1506-1512, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mostly manifests with fever, shortness of breath, and cough, has also been found to cause some neurological symptoms, such as anosmia and ageusia. The aim of the study was to present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of patients with anosmia-hyposmia symptoms and to discuss potential mechanisms in light of these findings. METHODS: Of the 2412 patients diagnosed with COVID-19-related pneumonia (RT-PCR at least once + clinically confirmed) between March and December 2020, 15 patients underwent olfactory MRI to investigate the cause of ongoing anosmia/ hyposmia symptoms were included in the study. RESULTS: Eleven (73.3%) patients were female and four (26.7%) were male. A total of eight patients (53.3%) showed thickening in the olfactory cleft region, where the olfactory epithelium is located. In nine patients (60%), enhancement was observed in the olfactory cleft region. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed restricted diffusion in three patients (20%) (corpus callosum splenium in one patient, thalamus mediodorsal nucleus in one patient, and mesencephalon in one patient). DISCUSSION: This study revealed that there is a relationship between anosmia and MRI findings. Larger studies can enlighten the pathophysiological mechanism and shed light on both diagnosis and new treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Male , Female , Anosmia/diagnostic imaging , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Corpus Callosum/pathology
14.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(802): 2053-2056, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101104

ABSTRACT

Cerebellar ataxia can be caused by neoplasia, toxics (drugs, heavy metals, alcohol), infection, vascular lesions or auto-immune and paraneoplastic pathologies. Neuroimaging must be performed urgently in case of sudden onset and serologies as well as a lumbar puncture should be performed. Several case reports of ataxia associated with COVID-19 have been published, however the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. This is a diagnosis of exclusion when other causes are ruled out and when the ataxia appears simultaneously to COVID-19 infection. We lack data on best management, but the prognosis appears mostly favorable with good functional recovery without any specific treatment. This paper describes the case of a patient who developed a cerebellar ataxia as the only neurological manifestation of a SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Une ataxie cérébelleuse peut être causée par un processus (para)néoplasique, auto-imun, une exposition toxique, une infection ou une lésion vasculaire. Une imagerie doit être réalisée en urgence devant toute atteinte aiguë et le bilan devrait être complété par des sérologies larges et une ponction lombaire. Plusieurs cas d'ataxie liée au Covid-19 ont été décrits, dont le mécanisme étiopathogénique reste incomplètement élucidé, le diagnostic se faisant plutôt par exclusion lorsque les symptômes apparaissent de manière concomitante à l'infection. Des données manquent sur la prise en charge mais le pronostic semble favorable, avec une bonne récupération fonctionnelle. Cet article décrit le cas d'une patiente ayant présenté une ataxie cérébelleuse comme symptôme neurologique isolé contemporain d'une infection à SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebellar Ataxia , Humans , Aged , Cerebellar Ataxia/etiology , Cerebellar Ataxia/complications , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Autoantibodies
15.
Acta Myol ; 41(2): 76-83, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101026

ABSTRACT

The recent approval of disease-modifying therapies for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) raised the need of alternative outcome measures to evaluate treatment efficacy. In this study, we investigated the potential of muscle quantitative MRI (qMRI) as a biomarker of disease progression in adult SMA3 patients during nusinersen treatment. Six adult SMA3 patients (age ranging from 19 to 65 years) underwent 2-point Dixon muscle qMRI at beginning of nusinersen treatment (T0) and after 14 months (T14) to evaluate the muscle fat fraction (FF) at thigh and leg levels; patients were clinically assessed at T0 and T14 with the Hammersmith Functional Rating Scale Expanded (HFMSE), the Revised Upper Limb Module (RULM) and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). At T0, vastus lateralis muscle displayed the highest mean FF (67.5%), while tibialis anterior was the most preserved one (mean FF = 35.2%). At T0, a slightly significant correlation of FF with HFMSE (p = 0.042) and disease duration (p = 0.042) at thigh level and only with HFMSE (p = 0.042) at leg level was found. At T14, no significant change of mean FF values at thigh and leg muscles was found compared to T0. Conversely, a statistically significant (p = 0.042) improvement of HFMSE was reported at T14. We observed no significant change of FF in thigh and leg muscles after 14 months of nusinersen therapy despite a significant clinical improvement of HFMSE. Further studies with longer follow-up and larger cohorts are needed to better investigate the role of qMRI as marker of disease progression in SMA patients.


Subject(s)
Muscular Atrophy, Spinal , Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood , Adult , Aged , Disease Progression , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Oligonucleotides , Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood/drug therapy , Young Adult
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(10)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097946

ABSTRACT

Transverse myelitis and cerebral venous thrombosis represent some of the described neurological complications of coronavirus disease. A woman in her early 30s presented with headache, left-sided sensory symptoms and voiding difficulty. The patient also reported dry cough, fever, nasal congestion, anosmia and ageusia 2 weeks before presentation. The clinical examination showed sensory disturbances on the left side of the body, starting from the lower abdomen and extending to the left leg, which was consistent with transverse myelitis. The laboratory assessment confirmed a previous infection with coronavirus disease and excluded autoimmune entities. Radiological investigations revealed left transverse sinus thrombosis with no spinal cord abnormalities. The treatment was started with therapeutic anticoagulation and intravenous high-dose steroids. The patient showed significant improvement, and the neurological deficits resolved after 3 months. This is the first documented case of imaging-negative myelitis associated with cerebral venous thrombosis after coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Myelitis, Transverse , Venous Thrombosis , Female , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnostic imaging , Myelitis, Transverse/drug therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Thrombosis/drug therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
17.
WMJ ; 121(3): E42-E45, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092572

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has been associated with neurological complications, including encephalopathy and akinetic mutism. CASE PRESENTATION: A 7-year-old unvaccinated boy presented with visual hallucinations, urinary incontinence, and akinetic mutism 13 days after he was exposed to COVID-19. He had minimal respiratory symptoms, including just 1 day of fever and cough. Evaluations showed slowing on electroencephalogram, normal cerebrospinal fluid, normal brain magnetic resonance imaging, and mild sinus bradycardia. He recovered rapidly to baseline after 5 days of intravenous methylprednisolone. DISCUSSION: COVID-19-related encephalopathy including akinetic mutism is usually found in older adult patients with more severe COVID-19 illness. Our case demonstrates that akinetic mutism can present in children with mild COVID-19 illness and that it can respond rapidly and completely to intravenous methylprednisolone. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-related encephalopathy may be immune mediated. A heightened awareness of its association with COVID-19 illness should lead to earlier diagnosis and consideration of immunomodulatory therapy.


Subject(s)
Akinetic Mutism , COVID-19 , Male , Child , Humans , Aged , Akinetic Mutism/drug therapy , Akinetic Mutism/etiology , Akinetic Mutism/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/adverse effects , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use
18.
J Neurol Sci ; 443: 120463, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to provide insights into transverse myelitis (TM) following COVID-19 by analyzing cases treated at tertiary care neurology centers and a systemic review of the literature. METHODS: The retrospective observational multi-center study was conducted at the four university neurology departments in Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, and Austria. We searched for acute myelitis cases that occurred during or after COVID-19. A systemic review of the literature on COVID-19 and transverse myelitis was performed. RESULTS: We identified 76 persons with TM associated with COVID-19, 13 from the multi-center study and 63 from the literature review. Most of the participants (55.6%) had an intermediate latency, 25.4% had short and 19% long latency from COVID-19 symptoms to TM. The clinical presentation consisted of the typical TM signs. More than half of the participants had inflammatory changes in the CSF, with rare patients having intrathecal OCB synthesis and positive serology for anti-MOG or anti-AQP4 antibodies. Persons with autonomic symptoms and CSF pleocytosis were significantly more common to have an intermediate latency of 8 to 21 days from COVID-19 to TM (p = 0.005 and p = 0.003; respectively). According to logistic regression analysis, only participants with lesions evident on spinal cord MRI compared to normal spinal cord MRI had reduced risks for poor recovery. >80% of participants were treated with a combination of corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins or plasma exchange with 73% having incomplete recovery. CONCLUSION: Our study further characterizes clinical, laboratory, and MRI features, as well as treatment of TM associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myelitis, Transverse , Humans , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnostic imaging , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multicenter Studies as Topic
19.
WMJ ; 121(3): E42-E45, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083741

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has been associated with neurological complications, including encephalopathy and akinetic mutism. CASE PRESENTATION: A 7-year-old unvaccinated boy presented with visual hallucinations, urinary incontinence, and akinetic mutism 13 days after he was exposed to COVID-19. He had minimal respiratory symptoms, including just 1 day of fever and cough. Evaluations showed slowing on electroencephalogram, normal cerebrospinal fluid, normal brain magnetic resonance imaging, and mild sinus bradycardia. He recovered rapidly to baseline after 5 days of intravenous methylprednisolone. DISCUSSION: COVID-19-related encephalopathy including akinetic mutism is usually found in older adult patients with more severe COVID-19 illness. Our case demonstrates that akinetic mutism can present in children with mild COVID-19 illness and that it can respond rapidly and completely to intravenous methylprednisolone. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-related encephalopathy may be immune mediated. A heightened awareness of its association with COVID-19 illness should lead to earlier diagnosis and consideration of immunomodulatory therapy.


Subject(s)
Akinetic Mutism , COVID-19 , Male , Child , Humans , Aged , Akinetic Mutism/drug therapy , Akinetic Mutism/etiology , Akinetic Mutism/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/adverse effects , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use
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