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2.
Invest Radiol ; 57(1): 71-76, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239065

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of measuring early changes in serum cytokine levels after intravenous diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Ca-DTPA) chelation in patients manifesting either gadolinium deposition disease (GDD) or gadolinium storage condition (GSC) and the possible usefulness of this method in further research. METHODS: Four patients with recent-onset GDD (≤1 year) and 2 patients with long-standing GSC (4 and 9 years) underwent chelation with intravenous bolus administration of Ca-DTPA. Multiple blood draws were performed to measure serum cytokines: at T = 0 (before Ca-DTPA injection) and 1, 5, 10, 30, 60 minutes, and 24 hours after Ca-DTPA injection. Patients rated the severity of GDD symptom flare at 24 hours. The 24-hour urine Gd amounts were measured prechelation and for the 24 hours after chelation. Serum samples were analyzed blind to whether patients had GDD or GSC but with knowledge of the time points characterizing each sample. RESULTS: Urine samples for both GDD and GSC patients showed increases in Gd postchelation. All GDD patients experienced flare reactions postchelation; the 2 GSC patients did not. Two cytokines, EGF and sCD40L, peaked at 30 minutes postchelation in at least 4 of the 6 participants. Three cytokines, ENA78/CXCL5, EOTAXIN/CCL11, and LEPTIN, peaked at 24 hours in at least 4 of the 6 participants. Two participants were high outliers for a large number of cytokines across time points. No clear distinction between GDD and GSC was apparent from the cytokine patterns, although differences were present. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study describes precise temporal resolution (in the range of minutes) after a cytokine-inciting event. Select cytokines exhibited peak values at different time points. At this preliminary stage of investigation, peak cytokine release seems to reflect the amount of Gd mobilized rather than the severity of the patient symptomatic reaction. Too few subjects were studied to support statistical analysis between GDD and GSC groups, although differences were observed through visual data analysis.


Subject(s)
Gadolinium , Organometallic Compounds , Contrast Media , Cytokines , Gadolinium DTPA , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pentetic Acid , Pilot Projects
3.
Head Neck ; 45(8): 1979-1985, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on disease extent in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using 18 fuorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included biopsy-proven, newly diagnosed NPC patients using whole-body FDG PET/MR staging in two selected intervals: 1 May 2017 to 31 January 2020 (Group A, the pre-COVID-19 period), and 1 February 2020 to 30 June 2021 (Group B, the COVID-19 period). RESULTS: Three-hundred and ninety patients were included. No significant difference was observed in terms of T classification, N classification, overall stage, N stations, and M stations between the two groups (p > 0.05). For the involved neck node levels, more patients had developed level Vc metastasis in the group B (p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Although the overall stage was not affected, more patients with NPC had developed level Vc metastasis in the era of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Humans , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/pathology , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Neoplasm Staging , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radiopharmaceuticals
4.
J Neurol Sci ; 450: 120689, 2023 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Natalizumab is a high-efficacy therapy for recurrent multiple sclerosis (RMS) with a four-week administration interval. Controlled trials have shown that extending this interval to six weeks led to better safety without increasing the risk of relapse. We aimed to analyze the safety of extending the natalizumab interdose interval from 4 to 6 weeks in a real-life setting. METHODS: This monocentric retrospective self-controlled study included adult patients with RMS treated with natalizumab with a four-week interval between infusions for a minimum of six months, before switching to a six-week interval. The main outcomes were the incidence of MS relapse, new MRI lesions, and MRI activity signs during the two periods, with patients being their own controls. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were included in the analysis. The mean (95%CI) annualized relapse rate (AAR) before natalizumab introduction was 1.03 (0.52; 1.55). During the four-week interval dosing period, no patient presented with an MS relapse, and seven (13.5%) patients had new MRI lesions. During the six-week interval dosing period, no relapse was observed and two (3.6%) patients had new MRI lesions. CONCLUSION: We did not observe more relapses or signs of MRI activity when extending the interval between natalizumab infusions from four to six weeks.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(5)2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236167

ABSTRACT

Although SARS-CoV-2 syndrome primarily affects the lungs, systemic manifestations have been reported. New rheumatic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases have been reported following SARS-CoV-2 infection. We present a case of a woman in her mid-30s who developed inflammatory back pain due to bilateral sacroiliitis with erosions after contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection. Her inflammatory markers on presentation were normal. MRI of the sacroiliac joints demonstrated bone marrow oedema and erosive changes in both sacroiliac joints. As the patient was intolerant to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adalimumab 40 mg subcutaneous (SC) injection was administered, which improved her symptoms in 8 weeks. However, due to the drug's side effects, SC adalimumab was switched to intravenous infliximab. The patient is currently tolerating her intravenous infliximab well and has experienced significant improvement in her symptoms. We reviewed the current literature on the prevalence of axial spondyloarthropathy after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Sacroiliitis , Spondylarthritis , Female , Humans , Spondylarthritis/complications , Spondylarthritis/drug therapy , Spondylarthritis/diagnosis , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Adalimumab/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Sacroiliac Joint , Sacroiliitis/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pain
6.
Med J Malaysia ; 78(3): 421-426, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235551

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe, acute, respiratory syndromecoronavirus- 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections can be complicated by central nervous system (CNS) disease. One of the CNS disorders associated with Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID- 19) is posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). This narrative review summarises and discusses previous and recent findings on SARS-CoV-2 associated PRES. METHODS: A literature search was carried out in PubMed and Google Scholar using suitable search terms and reference lists of articles found were searched for further articles. RESULTS: By the end of February 2023, 82 patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated PRES were recorded. The latency between the onset of COVID-19 and the onset of PRES ranged from 1 day to 70 days. The most common presentations of PRES were mental deterioration (n=47), seizures (n=46) and visual disturbances (n=18). Elevated blood pressure was reported on admission or during hospitalisation in 48 patients. The most common comorbidities were arterial hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PRES was best diagnosed by multimodal cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Complete recovery was reported in 35 patients and partial recovery in 21 patients, while seven patients died. CONCLUSIONS: PRES can be a CNS complication associated with COVID-19. COVID-19 patients with mental dysfunction, seizures or visual disturbances should immediately undergo CNS imaging through multimodal MRI, electroencephalography (EEG) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in order not to miss PRES.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Humans , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnosis , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Seizures/etiology , Electroencephalography/adverse effects , Electroencephalography/methods , Hypertension/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
7.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1139603, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241365

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) consists of a wide spectrum of symptoms and immunological features that are believed to develop in predisposed individuals after exposure to an adjuvant, including a silicone breast implant (SBI). Different autoimmune diseases (AIDs) have been associated with ASIA, but ASIA development after SBI in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and familial autoimmunity has rarely been described. Case report: A 37-year-old woman presented in 2019 with arthralgia, sicca symptoms, fatigue, + antinuclear antibody (ANA), + anti SSA, and + anticardiolipin Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. She was diagnosed with HT and vitamin D deficiency in 2012. The familial autoimmunity was present: the patient's mother had been diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and secondary Sjogren's syndrome and her grandmother with cutaneous lupus and pernicious anemia. In 2017, the patient had a cosmetic SBI procedure that was complicated by repeated right breast capsulitis. After 2 years of irregular visits due to COVID-19, she presented with + ANA, + anticentromere antibodies both in sera and seroma, sicca syndrome, arthralgias, twinkling in extremities, abnormal capillaroscopic findings, and reduced diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide. She was diagnosed with ASIA, and antimalarial and corticosteroid therapy were introduced. Conclusion: In patients with HT and familial autoimmunity, SBI should be carefully considered due to the possibility of ASIA development. Hashimoto thyroiditis, familial autoimmunity, and ASIA seem to be interconnected in the complex mosaic of autoimmunity in predisposed individuals.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Hashimoto Disease , Humans , Female , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Hashimoto Disease/immunology , Adult , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
8.
Neuroradiology ; 65(7): 1179-1181, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327104

ABSTRACT

We present a pediatric case of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis associated with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA 2.0 infection. A previously healthy girl presented with ataxia and diplopia three weeks after the COVID-19 confirmation from a nasopharyngeal swab. Acute and symmetrical motor weakness and drowsiness ensued within the following 3 days. She then became spastic tetraplegic. MRI revealed multifocal lesions in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, and brainstem, with hemorrhagic changes confirmed with T1-hyperintensity and hypointensity on susceptibility-weighted images. Peripheral areas of decreased diffusion, increased blood flow, and rim contrast enhancement were noted in the majority of lesions. She was treated with a combination of intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Neurological deterioration ensued with coma, ataxic respiratory pattern and decerebrate posture. Repeated MRI performed on day 31 revealed progression of abnormalities, hemorrhages and brain herniation. Despite the administration of plasma exchange, she died two months after admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic , Child , Female , Humans , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ageing Res Rev ; 88: 101962, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325382

ABSTRACT

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is the leading cause of vascular cognitive impairment and is associated with COVID-19. However, contributing factors that often accompany CSVD pathology in COVID-19 patients may influence the incidence of cerebrovascular complications. Thus, a mechanism linking COVID-19 and CSVD has yet to be uncovered and differentiated from age-related comorbidities (i.e., hypertension), and medical interventions during acute infection. We aimed to evaluate CSVD in acute and recovered COVID-19 patients and to differentiate COVID-19-related cerebrovascular pathology from the above-mentioned contributing factors by assessing the localization of microbleeds and ischemic lesions/infarctions in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. A systematic search was performed in December 2022 on PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase using a pre-established search criterion related to history of, or active COVID-19 with CSVD pathology in adults. From a pool of 161 studies, 59 met eligibility criteria and were included. Microbleeds and ischemic lesions had a strong predilection for the corpus callosum and subcortical/deep white matter in COVID-19 patients, suggesting a distinct CSVD pathology. These findings have important implications for clinical practice and biomedical research as COVID-19 may independently, and through exacerbation of age-related mechanisms, contribute to increased incidence of CSVD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases , Hypertension , White Matter , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/complications , White Matter/pathology , Hypertension/pathology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
10.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 82: e0012, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2319435

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cavernous sinus and superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis is a rare clinical condition, and little described in the literature. The clinical presentation is nonspecific and highly variable, and symptoms may include red eye, ophthalmoplegia, coma, and death. The main etiology results from infection of the paranasal sinuses. The final diagnosis must be made through imaging tests such as magnetic resonance imaging. We describe a case of cavernous sinus and superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis after COVID-19 infection in a 64-year-old patient with persistent ocular hyperemia and pain on eye movement. Ophthalmological examination showed preserved visual acuity, conjunctival hyperemia, dilation of episcleral vessels and retinal vascular tortuosity in the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis. The association with the COVID-19 was raised, excluding other infectious causes. Enoxaparin and Warfarin were started with significant improvement in the ocular clinical presentation and maintenance of initial visual acuity after 12 months of follow-up.


RESUMO A trombose de seio cavernoso e veia oftálmica superior é uma condição clínica rara e pouco descrita na literatura. A apresentação clínica é inespecífica e altamente variável. Os sintomas podem incluir olho vermelho, oftalmoplegia, coma e morte. A etiologia principal resulta da infecção dos seios paranasais. O diagnóstico final deve ser efetuado por meio de exames de imagem, como ressonância magnética. Descrevemos um caso de trombose de seio cavernoso e veia oftálmica superior após COVID-19 em paciente de 64 anos e com quadro de hiperemia ocular persistente e dor à movimentação ocular. Ao exame oftalmológico, observou-se acuidade visual preservada, hiperemia conjuntival, dilatação de vasos episclerais e tortuosidade vascular retiniana em olho direito. A ressonância confirmou o diagnóstico. A associação com a COVID-19 foi levantada, excluindo-se demais causas infecciosas. Prescrevemos enoxaparina e varfarina, com melhora do quadro clínico ocular e manutenção da acuidade visual inicial após 12 meses de acompanhamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Retinal Vessels/pathology , Tonometry, Ocular , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Conjunctiva/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis/diagnosis , Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis/drug therapy , Slit Lamp Microscopy , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
11.
Emerg Radiol ; 27(6): 755-759, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317640

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations and complications are increasingly reported in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients. Although pulmonary manifestations are more common, patients with severe disease may present with neurological symptoms such as in our case. We describe a case report of a 50-year-old male without previous known comorbidity who was found unresponsive due to COVID-19-related neurological complications. During this pandemic, an emergency radiologist should be well acquainted with various neurological manifestations of COVID-19. In this article, we will discuss the pathogenesis, imaging findings, and differentials of this disease.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 16(5): 609-624, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 and suspected cardiac involvement is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to characterize myocardial injury in a multicenter cohort of patients with COVID-19 and suspected cardiac involvement referred for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). METHODS: This retrospective study consisted of 1,047 patients from 18 international sites with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 infection who underwent CMR. Myocardial injury was characterized as acute myocarditis, nonacute/nonischemic, acute ischemic, and nonacute/ischemic patterns on CMR. RESULTS: In this cohort, 20.9% of patients had nonischemic injury patterns (acute myocarditis: 7.9%; nonacute/nonischemic: 13.0%), and 6.7% of patients had ischemic injury patterns (acute ischemic: 1.9%; nonacute/ischemic: 4.8%). In a univariate analysis, variables associated with acute myocarditis patterns included chest discomfort (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.17-3.40, P = 0.01), abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.12-3.23; P = 0.02), natriuretic peptide elevation (OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.60-5.58; P = 0.0006), and troponin elevation (OR: 4.21; 95% CI: 2.41-7.36; P < 0.0001). Variables associated with acute ischemic patterns included chest discomfort (OR: 3.14; 95% CI: 1.04-9.49; P = 0.04), abnormal ECG (OR: 4.06; 95% CI: 1.10-14.92; P = 0.04), known coronary disease (OR: 33.30; 95% CI: 4.04-274.53; P = 0.001), hospitalization (OR: 4.98; 95% CI: 1.55-16.05; P = 0.007), natriuretic peptide elevation (OR: 4.19; 95% CI: 1.30-13.51; P = 0.02), and troponin elevation (OR: 25.27; 95% CI: 5.55-115.03; P < 0.0001). In a multivariate analysis, troponin elevation was strongly associated with acute myocarditis patterns (OR: 4.98; 95% CI: 1.76-14.05; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study of patients with COVID-19 with clinical suspicion for cardiac involvement referred for CMR, nonischemic and ischemic patterns were frequent when cardiac symptoms, ECG abnormalities, and cardiac biomarker elevations were present.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Injuries , Myocarditis , Humans , Myocarditis/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Troponin , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
13.
J Med Radiat Sci ; 70 Suppl 2: 59-69, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318781

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrates superior soft tissue contrast and is increasingly being used in radiotherapy planning. This study evaluated the impact of an education workshop in minimising inter-observer variation (IOV) for nasopharyngeal organs at risk (OAR) delineation on MRI. METHODS: Ten observers delineated 14 OARs on 4 retrospective nasopharyngeal MRI data sets. Standard contouring guidelines were provided pre-workshop. Following an education workshop on MRI OAR delineation, observers blinded to their original contours repeated the 14 OAR delineations. For comparison, reference volumes were delineated by two head and neck radiation oncologists. IOV was evaluated using dice similarity coefficient (DSC), Hausdorff distance (HD) and relative volume. Location of largest deviations was evaluated with centroid values. Observer confidence pre- and post-workshop was also recorded using a 6-point Likert scale. The workshop was deemed beneficial for an OAR if ≥50% of observers mean scores improved in any metric and ≥50% of observers' confidence improved. RESULTS: All OARs had ≥50% of observers improve in at least one metric. Base of tongue, larynx, spinal cord and right temporal lobe were the only OARs achieving a mean DSC score of ≥0.7. Base of tongue, left and right lacrimal glands, larynx, left optic nerve and right parotid gland all exhibited statistically significant HD improvements post-workshop (P < 0.05). Brainstem and left and right temporal lobes all had statistically significant relative volume improvements post-workshop (P < 0.05). Post-workshop observer confidence improvement was observed for all OARs (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The educational workshop reduced IOV and improved observers' confidence when delineating nasopharyngeal OARs on MRI.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radiation Oncology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Neck , Organs at Risk , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted/methods , Observer Variation
14.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 57(2): 212-218, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318190

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many neurodegenerative disorders are associated with olfactory dysfunction (OD), but little is known about OD in Wilson's Disease (WD). We evaluated olfactory function in patients with WD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: OD was examined in 68 patients with WD and 70 sex- and age-matched healthy controls using subjective testing with 'Sniffin Sticks'. Threshold discrimination identification (TDI) score and its three components (odour detection threshold, discrimination, and identification) were assessed. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients with WD had a significantly weaker sense of smell in terms of TDI (p < 0.01), odour discrimination (p < 0.01), and identification (p < 0.01), but not in terms of odour detection threshold (p = 0.27). Patients with predominantly neurological symptoms were characterised by greater OD by TDI (p < 0.01), odour detection threshold (p = 0.01), and discrimination (p = 0.03). The presence of pathological lesions (p = 0.04) in brain magnetic resonance imaging and generalised brain atrophy (p = 0.02) predisposed to worse TDI. In the WD group, weak inverse correlations between age and TDI score (r = -0.27), odour detection threshold (r = -0.3), and discrimination (r = -0.3) were found. Male gender was a risk factor for abnormal TDI in both WD and controls (both p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with WD, particularly older individuals, more frequently had OD than healthy volunteers. Predominantly neurological symptoms, and the presence of typical brain MRI changes, predisposed patients with WD to smell disorders.


Subject(s)
Hepatolenticular Degeneration , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Male , Smell , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/complications , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain
15.
Circ Res ; 132(10): 1387-1404, 2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315386

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID, is associated with numerous potential secondary complications. Global efforts have been dedicated to understanding the myriad potential cardiovascular sequelae which may occur during acute infection, convalescence, or recovery. Because patients often present with nonspecific symptoms and laboratory findings, cardiac imaging has emerged as an important tool for the discrimination of pulmonary and cardiovascular complications of this disease. The clinician investigating a potential COVID-related complication must account not only for the relative utility of various cardiac imaging modalities but also for the risk of infectious exposure to staff and other patients. Extraordinary clinical and scholarly efforts have brought the international medical community closer to a consensus on the appropriate indications for diagnostic cardiac imaging during this protracted pandemic. In this review, we summarize the existing literature and reference major societal guidelines to provide an overview of the indications and utility of echocardiography, nuclear imaging, cardiac computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of cardiovascular complications of COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Heart , Heart Diseases/etiology , Multimodal Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
16.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 64(6): 918-929, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stressful events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, are major contributors to anxiety and depression, but only a subset of individuals develop psychopathology. In a population-based sample (N = 174) with a high representation of marginalized individuals, this study examined adolescent functional network connectivity as a marker of susceptibility to anxiety and depression in the context of adverse experiences. METHODS: Data-driven network-based subgroups were identified using an unsupervised community detection algorithm within functional neural connectivity. Neuroimaging data collected during emotion processing (age 15) were extracted from a priori regions of interest linked to anxiety and depression. Symptoms were self-reported at ages 15, 17, and 21 (during COVID-19). During COVID-19, participants reported on pandemic-related economic adversity. Differences across subgroup networks were first examined, then subgroup membership and subgroup-adversity interaction were tested to predict change in symptoms over time. RESULTS: Two subgroups were identified: Subgroup A, characterized by relatively greater neural network variation (i.e., heterogeneity) and density with more connections involving the amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and ventral striatum; and the more homogenous Subgroup B, with more connections involving the insula and dorsal anterior cingulate. Accounting for initial symptoms, subgroup A individuals had greater increases in symptoms across time (ß = .138, p = .042), and this result remained after adjusting for additional covariates (ß = .194, p = .023). Furthermore, there was a subgroup-adversity interaction: compared with Subgroup B, Subgroup A reported greater anxiety during the pandemic in response to reported economic adversity (ß = .307, p = .006), and this remained after accounting for initial symptoms and many covariates (ß = .237, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS: A subgrouping algorithm identified young adults who were susceptible to adversity using their personalized functional network profiles derived from a priori brain regions. These results highlight potential prospective neural signatures involving heterogeneous emotion networks that predict individuals at the greatest risk for anxiety when experiencing adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Young Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Prospective Studies , Brain Mapping/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Anxiety/epidemiology , Brain
18.
Neurology ; 100(23): e2409-e2423, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Post-COVID condition (PCC) is common and often involves neuropsychiatric symptoms. This study aimed to use blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI (BOLD-fMRI) to assess whether participants with PCC had abnormal brain activation during working memory (WM) and whether the abnormal brain activation could predict cognitive performance, motor function, or psychiatric symptoms. METHODS: The participants with PCC had documented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at least 6 weeks before enrollment. Healthy control participants had no prior history of COVID-19 and negative tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Participants were assessed using 3 NIH Toolbox (NIHTB) batteries for Cognition (NIHTB-CB), Emotion (NIHTB-EB), and Motor function (NIHTB-MB) and selected tests from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Each had BOLD-fMRI at 3T, during WM (N-back) tasks with increasing attentional/WM load. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-nine participants were screened; 50 fulfilled the study criteria and had complete and usable data sets for this cross-sectional cohort study. Twenty-nine participants with PCC were diagnosed with COVID-19 242 ± 156 days earlier; they had similar ages (42 ± 12 vs 41 ± 12 years), gender proportion (65% vs 57%), racial/ethnic distribution, handedness, education, and socioeconomic status, as the 21 uninfected healthy controls. Despite the high prevalence of memory (79%) and concentration (93%) complaints, the PCC group had similar performance on the NIHTB-CB as the controls. However, participants with PCC had greater brain activation than the controls across the network (false discovery rate-corrected p = 0.003, Tmax = 4.17), with greater activation in the right superior frontal gyrus (p = 0.009, Cohen d = 0.81, 95% CI 0.15-1.46) but lesser deactivation in the default mode regions (p = 0.001, d = 1.03, 95% CI 0.61-1.99). Compared with controls, participants with PCC also had poorer dexterity and endurance on the NIHTB-MB, higher T scores for negative affect and perceived stress, but lower T scores for psychological well-being on the NIHTB-EB, as well as more pain symptoms and poorer mental and physical health on measures from the PROMIS. Greater brain activation predicted poorer scores on measures that were abnormal on the NIHTB-EB. DISCUSSION: Participants with PCC and neuropsychiatric symptoms demonstrated compensatory neural processes with greater usage of alternate brain regions, and reorganized networks, to maintain normal performance during WM tasks. BOLD-fMRI was sensitive for detecting brain abnormalities that correlated with various quantitative neuropsychiatric symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Memory, Short-Term , Humans , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Cross-Sectional Studies , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuropsychological Tests
19.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc ; 113(2)2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313005

ABSTRACT

Plantar thrombophlebitis is a rare abnormality with few cases reported in the literature. Coexistence with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection increases its relevance. The disease is generally classified as idiopathic, and it is suggested that it is attributed to conditions that lead to hypercoagulability. We present the case of a 68-year-old female patient with thrombosis of the lateral plantar veins and a diagnosis of coronavirus disease of 2019. The plantar vein thrombosis diagnosis was made by means of Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was suspected per clinical information and confirmed with reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique. Treatment was successful using rivaroxaban and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Female , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Ultrasonography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
20.
Eur Radiol ; 33(6): 3867-3877, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312112

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infection is a systemic disease with various cardiovascular symptoms and complications. Cardiac MRI with late gadolinium enhancement is the modality of choice for the assessment of myocardial involvement. T1 and T2 mapping can increase diagnostic accuracy and improve further management. Our study aimed to evaluate the different aspects of myocardial damage in cases of COVID-19 infection using cardiac MRI. METHODS: This descriptive retrospective study included 86 cases, with a history of COVID-19 infection confirmed by positive RT-PCR, who met the inclusion criteria. Patients had progressive chest pain or dyspnoea with a suspected underlying cardiac cause, either by an abnormal electrocardiogram or elevated troponin levels. Cardiac MRI was performed with late contrast-enhanced (LGE) imaging, followed by T1 and T2 mapping. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients have elevated hsTnT with a median hsTnT value of 133 ng/L (IQR: 102 to 159 ng/L); normal value < 14 ng/L. Other sixty-two patients showed elevated hsTnI with a median hsTnI value of 1637 ng/L (IQR: 1340 to 2540 ng/L); normal value < 40 ng/L. CMR showed 52 patients with acute myocarditis, 23 with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and 11 with myocardial infarction. Invasive coronary angiography was performed only in selected patients. CONCLUSION: Different COVID-19-related cardiac injuries may cause similar clinical symptoms. Cardiac MRI is the modality of choice to differentiate between the different types of myocardial injury such as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and infection-related cardiomyopathy or even acute coronary syndrome secondary to vasculitis or oxygen-demand mismatch. KEY POINTS: • It is essential to detect early COVID-related cardiac injury using different cardiac biomarkers and cardiac imaging, as it has a significant impact on patient management and outcome. • Cardiac MRI is the modality of choice to differentiate between the different aspects of COVID-related myocardial injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Contrast Media , COVID-19/complications , Gadolinium , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/adverse effects
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