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2.
Circulation ; 145(5): 345-356, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the clinical course and short-term outcomes of suspected myocarditis after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has important public health implications in the decision to vaccinate youth. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on patients <21 years old presenting before July 4, 2021, with suspected myocarditis within 30 days of COVID-19 vaccination. Lake Louise criteria were used for cardiac MRI findings. Myocarditis cases were classified as confirmed or probable on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. RESULTS: We report on 139 adolescents and young adults with 140 episodes of suspected myocarditis (49 confirmed, 91 probable) at 26 centers. Most patients were male (n=126, 90.6%) and White (n=92, 66.2%); 29 (20.9%) were Hispanic; and the median age was 15.8 years (range, 12.1-20.3; interquartile range [IQR], 14.5-17.0). Suspected myocarditis occurred in 136 patients (97.8%) after the mRNA vaccine, with 131 (94.2%) after the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; 128 (91.4%) occurred after the second dose. Symptoms started at a median of 2 days (range, 0-22; IQR, 1-3) after vaccination. The most common symptom was chest pain (99.3%). Patients were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (81.3%), intravenous immunoglobulin (21.6%), glucocorticoids (21.6%), colchicine (7.9%), or no anti-inflammatory therapies (8.6%). Twenty-six patients (18.7%) were in the intensive care unit, 2 were treated with inotropic/vasoactive support, and none required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or died. Median hospital stay was 2 days (range, 0-10; IQR, 2-3). All patients had elevated troponin I (n=111, 8.12 ng/mL; IQR, 3.50-15.90) or T (n=28, 0.61 ng/mL; IQR, 0.25-1.30); 69.8% had abnormal ECGs and arrhythmias (7 with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia); and 18.7% had left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram. Of 97 patients who underwent cardiac MRI at a median 5 days (range, 0-88; IQR, 3-17) from symptom onset, 75 (77.3%) had abnormal findings: 74 (76.3%) had late gadolinium enhancement, 54 (55.7%) had myocardial edema, and 49 (50.5%) met Lake Louise criteria. Among 26 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram, all with follow-up had normalized function (n=25). CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of suspected COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis occurring in persons <21 years have a mild clinical course with rapid resolution of symptoms. Abnormal findings on cardiac MRI were frequent. Future studies should evaluate risk factors, mechanisms, and long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Adolescent , Child , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
3.
Am J Cardiol ; 168: 135-141, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634616

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a severe complication described in a minority of patients with COVID-19. Myocarditis has been reported in patients with COVID-19, including MIS. In this study, we compared the clinical characteristics and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings of COVID-19 myocarditis in patients with and without MIS. In the 330 patients with COVID-19 who were referred for CMR at our institution between July 24, 2020, to March 31, 2021, 40 patients were identified as having myocarditis, MIS myocarditis (n = 21) and non-MIS myocarditis (n = 19). MIS myocarditis was characterized by global myocardial inflammation/edema with significantly elevated native T1, whereas only regional inflammation, and edema were noted in the non-MIS group. Distinct late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) patterns-inferior myocardial involvement in non-MIS myocarditis and septal involvement in MIS myocarditis-were identified. The LGE burden was comparable between the 2 groups (5.9% vs 6.6%, MIS vs non-MIS group, p = 0.83). Myocarditis was diagnosed more frequently by CMR in the MIS group (70% vs 6.3%, MIS vs non-MIS, p <0.001). In the 20 patients with a sequential CMR study at a median 102-day follow-up, 25% had persistent myocardial edema. The LGE burden improved over time, from a median of 5.0% (interquartile range 3.4% to 7.3%) to 3.2% (interquartile range 2.0% to 3.8%; p <0.001). In conclusion, MIS and non-MIS myocarditis exhibit distinct characteristics by CMR. Persistent LGE and edema were common at follow-up CMR examination in both groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Predictive Value of Tests
4.
Circulation ; 145(5): 345-356, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the clinical course and short-term outcomes of suspected myocarditis after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has important public health implications in the decision to vaccinate youth. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on patients <21 years old presenting before July 4, 2021, with suspected myocarditis within 30 days of COVID-19 vaccination. Lake Louise criteria were used for cardiac MRI findings. Myocarditis cases were classified as confirmed or probable on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. RESULTS: We report on 139 adolescents and young adults with 140 episodes of suspected myocarditis (49 confirmed, 91 probable) at 26 centers. Most patients were male (n=126, 90.6%) and White (n=92, 66.2%); 29 (20.9%) were Hispanic; and the median age was 15.8 years (range, 12.1-20.3; interquartile range [IQR], 14.5-17.0). Suspected myocarditis occurred in 136 patients (97.8%) after the mRNA vaccine, with 131 (94.2%) after the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; 128 (91.4%) occurred after the second dose. Symptoms started at a median of 2 days (range, 0-22; IQR, 1-3) after vaccination. The most common symptom was chest pain (99.3%). Patients were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (81.3%), intravenous immunoglobulin (21.6%), glucocorticoids (21.6%), colchicine (7.9%), or no anti-inflammatory therapies (8.6%). Twenty-six patients (18.7%) were in the intensive care unit, 2 were treated with inotropic/vasoactive support, and none required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or died. Median hospital stay was 2 days (range, 0-10; IQR, 2-3). All patients had elevated troponin I (n=111, 8.12 ng/mL; IQR, 3.50-15.90) or T (n=28, 0.61 ng/mL; IQR, 0.25-1.30); 69.8% had abnormal ECGs and arrhythmias (7 with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia); and 18.7% had left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram. Of 97 patients who underwent cardiac MRI at a median 5 days (range, 0-88; IQR, 3-17) from symptom onset, 75 (77.3%) had abnormal findings: 74 (76.3%) had late gadolinium enhancement, 54 (55.7%) had myocardial edema, and 49 (50.5%) met Lake Louise criteria. Among 26 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram, all with follow-up had normalized function (n=25). CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of suspected COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis occurring in persons <21 years have a mild clinical course with rapid resolution of symptoms. Abnormal findings on cardiac MRI were frequent. Future studies should evaluate risk factors, mechanisms, and long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Adolescent , Child , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 346: 105-106, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Short-term sequelae of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), recently published by our institution, showed rapid improvement of the cardiac abnormalities within a few weeks after the onset of the disease. However, subtle residual abnormalities, affecting mainly the myocardial interstitium, were shown in some of the patients. The current study aimed to assess myocardial deformation with CMR shortly after MIS-C. METHODS: Sixty children were included into the study; 30 following MIS-C (onset-to-scan mean 27 days, SD 11) and 30 controls. Strain values were compared between patients and controls and additionally to published paediatric normal CMR values. U-Mann Whitney test was used for comparison of the myocardial deformation between patients and controls. RESULTS: Median age of the patients was 9.0 years (range 0.99-14.4) and controls 9.8 years (range 4.7-14.9). All conventional CMR parameters in patients were in normal range. Strain values were significantly lower in patients than in controls. When compared to published centile graphs, radial and circumferential global strain was within 2.5th and 97.5th centile in all patients. Eleven patients had global longitudinal strain between 2.5th centile and 50th centile, 1 patient was below 2.5th centile and all the others above 50th centile. Only 3 controls had global longitudinal strain between 2.5th centile and 50th centile, all other had higher strain. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that myocardial deformation indices measured by CMR are within normal range in the vast majority of the patients within a few weeks after the onset of MIS-C. However, when compared to healthy controls, all strain parameters were lower in patients.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Ventricular Function, Left , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Myocardium , Reference Values
8.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(12): 781-792, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inducible ischaemia is a strong marker of vascular vulnerability. Knowing the important role of the vascular tropism of COVID-19 to explain its severity, the presence of a prior inducible ischaemia may be a key pathogenetic determinant of COVID-19 severity. AIMS: To investigate the prognostic value of prior inducible ischaemia on stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to predict death in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed consecutive patients referred for stress perfusion CMR during 1/1/18-1/1/20 who were later hospitalized for COVID-19. The primary outcome was all-cause death, including in-hospital and post-hospitalization deaths, based on the electronic national death registry. RESULTS: Among the patients referred for stress CMR, 481 were hospitalized for COVID-19 (mean age 68.4±9.6years, 61.3% male) and completed the follow-up (median [interquartile range] 73 [36-101] days). There were 93 (19.3%) all-cause deaths, of which 13.7% occurred in hospital and 5.6% were post-hospitalization deaths. Age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, known coronary artery disease (CAD), the presence of prior inducible ischaemia, the number of ischaemic segments, the presence of late gadolinium enhancement and left ventricular ejection fraction were significantly associated with all-cause death. In multivariable stepwise Cox regression analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.07; P=0.023), hypertension (HR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.71-4.51; P<0.001), diabetes (HR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.08-2.74; P=0.022), known CAD (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.07-2.94; P=0.025) and prior inducible ischaemia (HR 2.05; 95% CI: 1.27-3.33; P=0.004) were independent predictors of all-cause death. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients, prior inducible ischaemia by stress CMR during the 2years preceding the COVID-19 pandemic was independently associated with all-cause death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Contrast Media , Female , Gadolinium , Hospitalization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perfusion , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
10.
J Pediatr ; 238: 26-32.e1, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinical course and outcomes of children 12-18 years of age who developed probable myopericarditis after vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 25 children, aged 12-18 years, diagnosed with probable myopericarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination as per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for myopericarditis at 8 US centers between May 10, 2021, and June 20, 2021. We retrospectively collected the following data: demographics, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus detection or serologic testing, clinical manifestations, laboratory test results, imaging study results, treatment, and time to resolutions of symptoms. RESULTS: Most (88%) cases followed the second dose of vaccine, and chest pain (100%) was the most common presenting symptom. Patients came to medical attention a median of 2 days (range, <1-20 days) after receipt of Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. All adolescents had an elevated plasma troponin concentration. Echocardiographic abnormalities were infrequent, and 92% showed normal cardiac function at presentation. However, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, obtained in 16 patients (64%), revealed that 15 (94%) had late gadolinium enhancement consistent with myopericarditis. Most were treated with ibuprofen or an equivalent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for symptomatic relief. One patient was given a corticosteroid orally after the initial administration of ibuprofen or an nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; 2 patients also received intravenous immune globulin. Symptom resolution was observed within 7 days in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that symptoms owing to myopericarditis after the mRNA COVID-19 vaccination tend to be mild and transient. Approximately two-thirds of patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed evidence of myocardial inflammation despite a lack of echocardiographic abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
11.
Heart ; 108(1): 46-53, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455729

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the contribution of comorbidities on the reported widespread myocardial abnormalities in patients with recent COVID-19. METHODS: In a prospective two-centre observational study, patients hospitalised with confirmed COVID-19 underwent gadolinium and manganese-enhanced MRI and CT coronary angiography (CTCA). They were compared with healthy and comorbidity-matched volunteers after blinded analysis. RESULTS: In 52 patients (median age: 54 (IQR 51-57) years, 39 males) who recovered from COVID-19, one-third (n=15, 29%) were admitted to intensive care and a fifth (n=11, 21%) were ventilated. Twenty-three patients underwent CTCA, with one-third having underlying coronary artery disease (n=8, 35%). Compared with younger healthy volunteers (n=10), patients demonstrated reduced left (ejection fraction (EF): 57.4±11.1 (95% CI 54.0 to 60.1) versus 66.3±5 (95 CI 62.4 to 69.8)%; p=0.02) and right (EF: 51.7±9.1 (95% CI 53.9 to 60.1) vs 60.5±4.9 (95% CI 57.1 to 63.2)%; p≤0.0001) ventricular systolic function with elevated native T1 values (1225±46 (95% CI 1205 to 1240) vs 1197±30 (95% CI 1178 to 1216) ms;p=0.04) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) (31±4 (95% CI 29.6 to 32.1) vs 24±3 (95% CI 22.4 to 26.4)%; p<0.0003) but reduced myocardial manganese uptake (6.9±0.9 (95% CI 6.5 to 7.3) vs 7.9±1.2 (95% CI 7.4 to 8.5) mL/100 g/min; p=0.01). Compared with comorbidity-matched volunteers (n=26), patients had preserved left ventricular function but reduced right ventricular systolic function (EF: 51.7±9.1 (95% CI 53.9 to 60.1) vs 59.3±4.9 (95% CI 51.0 to 66.5)%; p=0.0005) with comparable native T1 values (1225±46 (95% CI 1205 to 1240) vs 1227±51 (95% CI 1208 to 1246) ms; p=0.99), ECV (31±4 (95% CI 29.6 to 32.1) vs 29±5 (95% CI 27.0 to 31.2)%; p=0.35), presence of late gadolinium enhancement and manganese uptake. These findings remained irrespective of COVID-19 disease severity, presence of myocardial injury or ongoing symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Patients demonstrate right but not left ventricular dysfunction. Previous reports of left ventricular myocardial abnormalities following COVID-19 may reflect pre-existing comorbidities. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04625075.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Computed Tomography Angiography , Contrast Media , Coronary Angiography , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Male , Manganese/metabolism , Matched-Pair Analysis , Middle Aged , Myocardium/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Survivors , Systole/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
12.
Eur J Radiol ; 144: 109960, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415380

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: High-resolution free-breathing late gadolinium enhancement (HR-LGE) was shown valuable for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes with non-obstructed coronary arteries. The method may be useful to detect COVID-related myocardial injuries but is hampered by prolonged acquisition times. We aimed to introduce an accelerated HR-LGE technique for the diagnosis of COVID-related myocardial injuries. METHOD: An undersampled navigator-gated HR-LGE (acquired resolution of 1.25 mm3) sequence combined with advanced patch-based low-rank reconstruction was developed and validated in a phantom and in 23 patients with structural heart disease (test cohort; 15 men; 55 ± 16 years). Twenty patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection associated with troponin rise (COVID cohort; 15 men; 46 ± 24 years) prospectively underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with the proposed sequence in our center. Image sharpness, quality, signal intensity differences and diagnostic value of free-breathing HR-LGE were compared against conventional breath-held low-resolution LGE (LR-LGE, voxel size 1.8x1.4x6mm). RESULTS: Structures sharpness in the phantom showed no differences with the fully sampled image up to an undersampling factor of x3.8 (P > 0.5). In patients (N = 43), this acceleration allowed for acquisition times of 7min21s ± 1min12s at 1.25 mm3 resolution. Compared with LR-LGE, HR-LGE showed higher image quality (P = 0.03) and comparable signal intensity differences (P > 0.5). In patients with structural heart disease, all LGE-positive segments on LR-LGE were also detected on HR-LGE (80/391) with 21 additional enhanced segments visible only on HR-LGE (101/391, P < 0.001). In 4 patients with COVID-19 history, HR-LGE was definitely positive while LR-LGE was either definitely negative (1 microinfarction and 1 myocarditis) or inconclusive (2 myocarditis). CONCLUSIONS: Undersampled free-breathing isotropic HR-LGE can detect additional areas of late enhancement as compared to conventional breath-held LR-LGE. In patients with history of COVID-19 infection associated with troponin rise, the method allows for detailed characterization of myocardial injuries in acceptable scan times and without the need for repeated breath holds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gadolinium , Contrast Media , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 101, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine are known to cause minor side effects at the injection site and mild global systemic symptoms in first 24-48 h. Recently published case series have reported a possible association between acute myocarditis and COVID-19 vaccination, predominantly in young males. METHODS: We report a case series of 5 young male patients with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-confirmed acute myocarditis within 72 h after receiving a dose of an mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: Our case series suggests that myocarditis in this setting is characterized by myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement in the lateral wall of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium, reduced global LV longitudinal strain, and preserved LV ejection fraction. All patients in our series remained clinically stable during a relatively short inpatient hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: In conjunction with other recently published case series and national vaccine safety surveillance data, this case series suggests a possible association between acute myocarditis and COVID-19 vaccination in young males and highlights a potential pattern in accompanying CMR abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Adult , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 100, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of abnormal cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) findings in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of abnormal CMR findings in recovered COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies that report the prevalence of abnormal CMR findings in recovered COVID-19 patients. The number of patients with abnormal CMR findings and diagnosis of myocarditis on CMR (based on the Lake Louise criteria) and each abnormal CMR parameter were extracted. Subgroup analyses were performed according to patient characteristics (athletes vs. non-athletes and normal vs. undetermined cardiac enzyme levels). The pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) of each CMR finding were calculated. Study heterogeneity was assessed, and meta-regression analysis was performed to investigate factors associated with heterogeneity. RESULTS: In total, 890 patients from 16 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled prevalence of one or more abnormal CMR findings in recovered COVID-19 patients was 46.4% (95% CI 43.2%-49.7%). The pooled prevalence of myocarditis and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was 14.0% (95% CI 11.6%-16.8%) and 20.5% (95% CI 17.7%-23.6%), respectively. Further, heterogeneity was observed (I2 > 50%, p < 0.1). In the subgroup analysis, the pooled prevalence of abnormal CMR findings and myocarditis was higher in non-athletes than in athletes (62.5% vs. 17.1% and 23.9% vs. 2.5%, respectively). Similarly, the pooled prevalence of abnormal CMR findings and LGE was higher in the undetermined than in the normal cardiac enzyme level subgroup (59.4% vs. 35.9% and 45.5% vs. 8.3%, respectively). Being an athlete was a significant independent factor related to heterogeneity in multivariate meta-regression analysis (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of recovered COVID-19 patients exhibited one or more abnormal CMR findings. Athletes and patients with normal cardiac enzyme levels showed a lower prevalence of abnormal CMR findings than non-athletes and patients with undetermined cardiac enzyme levels. Trial registration The study protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database (registration number: CRD42020225234).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocardium/pathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Am Heart J ; 242: 61-70, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause myocardial injury and myocarditis, and reports of persistent cardiac pathology after COVID-19 have raised concerns of long-term cardiac consequences. We aimed to assess the presence of abnormal cardiovascular resonance imaging (CMR) findings in patients recovered from moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and its association with markers of disease severity in the acute phase. METHODS: Fifty-eight (49%) survivors from the prospective COVID MECH study, underwent CMR median 175 [IQR 105-217] days after COVID-19 hospitalization. Abnormal CMR was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% or myocardial scar by late gadolinium enhancement. CMR indices were compared to healthy controls (n = 32), and to circulating biomarkers measured during the index hospitalization. RESULTS: Abnormal CMR was present in 12 (21%) patients, of whom 3 were classified with major pathology (scar and LVEF <50% or LVEF <40%). There was no difference in the need of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, and vital signs between patients with vs without abnormal CMR after 6 months. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viremia and concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers during the index hospitalization were not associated with persistent CMR pathology. Cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations on admission, were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but these associations were not significant after adjusting for demographics and established cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: CMR pathology 6 months after moderate-to-severe COVID-19 was present in 21% of patients and did not correlate with severity of the disease. Cardiovascular biomarkers during COVID-19 were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but with no significant association after adjusting for confounders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID MECH Study ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cicatrix/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cicatrix/etiology , Female , Gadolinium , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume , Survivors , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
16.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 55(3): 883-891, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is an inflammatory disease occurring in a small minority of children a few weeks after acute infection. Cardiac manifestations are common, but little is known about the potentially persistent heart changes after PIMS-TS. PURPOSE: To analyze the frequency and type of myocardial complications of PIMS-TS with initial cardiac involvement assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including parametric imaging, performed 3 months after hospitalization. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: Nineteen consecutive children (median age 10 years, interquartile range (IQR) 10-15 years, 74% male). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: Balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP, cine imaging), modified Look-Locker (T1 mapping), T2-prepared bSSFP (T2-mapping), dark-blood T2-weighted turbo spin echo with fat suppression and phase sensitive inversion recovery (late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)) sequences at 1.5 T. ASSESSMENT: Patients were scanned after a median of 99 days (IQR 89-104 days) from the diagnosis. MR data were reviewed by three independent observers, with 13, 2, and 5 years' experience in cardiac MRI. Pre- and post-contrast T1, T2, extra-cellular volume, and T2 signal intensity (T2 SI) ratio were calculated. Diagnosis of acute myocarditis was based on modified Lake Louise criteria. Cardiac MRI parameters were compared, where possible, to previously published pediatric normal values. STATISTICAL TESTS: Interclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman repeatability analysis. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Despite cardiac involvement including decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (median LVEF = 47%, IQR 43%-53%) and increased troponin I (median 101 ng/mL, IQR 50-661 ng/mL) during hospitalization, there were no persistent cardiac changes observed in cardiac MR at follow-up. All patients had normal size and function of the left ventricle and normal precontrast T1 and T2 relaxation times. There were no signs of LGE. Persistent, mild pericardial effusion (8-9 mm) was found in three (16%) patients. DATA CONCLUSION: There were no persistent changes on cardiac MRI in a group of children approximately 3 months post hospitalization due to PIMS-TS with cardiac involvement. This supports the hypothesis that cardiac involvement during PIMS-TS is a form of transient inflammatory response rather than direct and potentially persistent injury from the virus. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Contrast Media , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
17.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 55(3): 866-880, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have utilized MRI to determine the extent to which COVID-19 survivors may experience cardiac sequels after recovery. PURPOSE: To systematically review the main cardiac MRI findings in COVID-19 adult survivors. STUDY TYPE: Systematic review. SUBJECTS: A total of 2954 COVID-19 adult survivors from 16 studies. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), parametric mapping (T1-native, T2, T1-post (extracellular volume fraction [ECV]), T2-weighted sequences (myocardium/pericardium), at 1.5 T and 3  T. ASSESSMENT: A systematic search was performed on PubMed, Embase, and Google scholar databases using Boolean operators and the relevant key terms covering COVID-19, cardiac injury, CMR, and follow-up. MRI data, including (if available) T1, T2, extra cellular volume, presence of myocardial or pericardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and left and right ventricular ejection fraction were extracted. STATISTICAL TESTS: The main results of the included studies are summarized. No additional statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: Of 1601 articles retrieved from the initial search, 12 cohorts and 10 case series met our eligibility criteria. The rate of raised T1 in COVID-19 adult survivors varied across studies from 0% to 73%. Raised T2 was detected in none of patients in 4 out of 15 studies, and in the remaining studies, its rate ranged from 2% to 60%. In most studies, LGE (myocardial or pericardial) was observed in COVID-19 survivors, the rate ranging from 4% to 100%. Myocardial LGE mainly had nonischemic patterns. None of the cohort studies observed myocardial LGE in "healthy" controls. Most studies found that patients who recovered from COVID-19 had a significantly greater T1 and T2 compared to participants in the corresponding control group. DATA CONCLUSION: Findings of MRI studies suggest the presence of myocardial and pericardial involvement in a notable number of patients recovered from COVID-19. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contrast Media , Adult , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Survivors , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Right
18.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(9): 1250-1261, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been implicated in a wide spectrum of cardiac manifestations following the acute phase of the disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the range of cardiac sequelae after COVID-19 recovery. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Scopus (inception through 17 February 2021) and Google scholar (2019 through 17 February 2021). STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Prospective and retrospective studies, case reports and case series. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients assessed for cardiac manifestations after COVID-19 recovery. EXPOSURE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection diagnosed by PCR. METHODS: Systematic review. RESULTS: Thirty-five studies (fifteen prospective cohort, seven case reports, five cross-sectional, four case series, three retrospective cohort and one ambidirectional cohort) evaluating cardiac sequelae in 52 609 patients were included. Twenty-nine studies used objective cardiac assessments, mostly cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in 16 studies, echocardiography in 15, electrocardiography (ECG) in 16 and cardiac biomarkers in 18. Most studies had a fair risk of bias. The median time from diagnosis/recovery to cardiac assessment was 48 days (1-180 days). Common short-term cardiac abnormalities (<3 months) included increased T1 (proportion: 30%), T2 (16%), pericardial effusion (15%) and late gadolinium enhancement (11%) on CMR, with symptoms such as chest pain (25%) and dyspnoea (36%). In the medium term (3-6 months), common changes included reduced left ventricular global longitudinal strain (30%) and late gadolinium enhancement (10%) on CMR, diastolic dysfunction (40%) on echocardiography and elevated N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (18%). In addition, COVID-19 survivors had higher risk (risk ratio 3; 95% CI 2.7-3.2) of developing heart failure, arrythmias and myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 appears to be associated with persistent/de novo cardiac injury after recovery, particularly subclinical myocardial injury in the earlier phase and diastolic dysfunction later. Larger well-designed and controlled studies with baseline assessments are needed to better measure the extent of cardiac injury and its clinical impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 77, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory illness, myocardial injury is increasingly reported and associated with adverse outcomes. However, the pathophysiology, extent of myocardial injury and clinical significance remains unclear. METHODS: COVID-HEART is a UK, multicentre, prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 and elevated troponin (sex-specific > 99th centile). Baseline assessment will be whilst recovering in-hospital or recently discharged, and include cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, quality of life (QoL) assessments, electrocardiogram (ECG), serum biomarkers and genetics. Assessment at 6-months includes repeat CMR, QoL assessments and 6-min walk test (6MWT). The CMR protocol includes cine imaging, T1/T2 mapping, aortic distensibility, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging in selected patients. The main objectives of the study are to: (1) characterise the extent and nature of myocardial involvement in COVID-19 patients with an elevated troponin, (2) assess how cardiac involvement and clinical outcome associate with recognised risk factors for mortality (age, sex, ethnicity and comorbidities) and genetic factors, (3) evaluate if differences in myocardial recovery at 6 months are dependent on demographics, genetics and comorbidities, (4) understand the impact of recovery status at 6 months on patient-reported QoL and functional capacity. DISCUSSION: COVID-HEART will provide detailed characterisation of cardiac involvement, and its repair and recovery in relation to comorbidity, genetics, patient-reported QoL measures and functional capacity. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 58667920. Registered 04 August 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/virology , Research Design , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Contrast Media , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Observation , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , United Kingdom , Walk Test
20.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(10): 1665-1667, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265654

ABSTRACT

Vaccination plays an important role in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 to minimie the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its life-threatening complications. Myocarditis has been reported as a possible and rare adverse consequence of different vaccines, and its clinical presentation can range from influenza-like symptoms to acute heart failure. We report a case of a 30-year-old man who presented progressive dyspnea and constrictive retrosternal pain after receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Cardiac magnetic resonance and laboratory data revealed typical findings of acute myopericarditis.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/administration & dosage , Bisoprolol/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , /adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Troponin I/blood
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