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1.
Echocardiography ; 39(11): 1401-1411, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078440

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cardiac involvement in recovered COVID-19 patients assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Subjects recently recovered from COVID-19 and with an abnormal left ventricular global longitudinal strain were enrolled. Cardiac MRI in all the enrolled subjects was done at baseline (within 30-90 days following recovery from COVID-19) with a follow-up scan at 6 months in individuals with an abnormal baseline scan. Additionally, 20 age-and sex-matched individuals were enrolled as healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: All the 30 enrolled subjects were symptomatic during active COVID-19 disease and were categorized as mild: 11 (36.7%), moderate: 6 (20%), and severe: 13 (43.3%). Of the 30 patients, 16 (53.3%) had abnormal CMR findings. Myocardial edema was reported in 12 (40%) patients while 10 (33.3%) had late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). No difference was observed in terms of conventional left ventricular (LV) parameters; however, COVID-19-recovered patients had significantly lower right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction, RV stroke volume, and RV cardiac index compared to HCs. Follow-up scan was abnormal in 4/16 (25%) with LGE persisting in three patients (who had severe COVID-19 [3/4;75%]). Subjects with severe COVID-19 had a greater frequency of LGE (53.8%) and myocardial edema (61.5%) as compared to mild and moderate cases. Myocardial T1 (1284 ± 43.8 ms vs. 1147.6 ± 68.4 ms; p < .0001) and T2 values (50.8 ± 16.7 ms vs. 42.6 ± 3.6 ms; p = .04) were significantly higher in post COVID-19 subjects compared to HCs. Similarly, T1 and T2 values of severe COVID-19 patients were significantly higher compared to mild and moderate cases. CONCLUSIONS: An abnormal CMR was seen in half of the recovered patients with persistent abnormality in one-fourth at 6 months. Our study suggests a need for closer follow-up among recovered subjects in order to evaluate for long-term cardiovascular sequelae. COVID-19 causes structural changes in the myocardium in a small segment of patients with partial spontaneous resolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , COVID-19/complications , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Stroke Volume , Myocardium/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ventricular Function, Left , Predictive Value of Tests
2.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 56(4): 971-982, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027366

ABSTRACT

Understanding the pattern and severity of myocarditis caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is imperative for improving the care of the patients, and cardiac evaluation by MRI plays a key role in this regard. Our systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize cardiac MRI findings in COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of literature in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases using key terms covering COVID-19 vaccine, myocarditis, and cardiac MRI. Individual-level patient data (IPD) and aggregated-level data (AD) studies were pooled through a two-stage analysis method. For this purpose, all IPD were first gathered into a single data set and reduced to AD, and then this AD (from IPD studies) was pooled with existing AD (from the AD studies) using fixed/random effect models. I2 was used to assess the degree of heterogeneity, and the prespecified level of statistical significance (P value for heterogeneity) was <0.1. Based on meta-analysis of 102 studies (n = 468 patients), 79% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 54%-97%) of patients fulfilled Lake Louise criteria (LLC) for diagnosis of myocarditis. Cardiac MRI abnormalities included elevated T2 in 72% (95% CI: 50%-90%), myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in 93% (95% CI: 83%-99%; nearly all with a subepicardial and/or midwall pattern), impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (<50%) in 4% (95% CI: 1.0%-9.0%). Moreover, elevated T1 and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) (>30), reported only by some IPD studies, were detected in 74.5% (76/102) and 32% (16/50) of patients, respectively. In conclusion, our findings may suggest that over two-thirds of patients with clinically suspected myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination meet the LLC. COVID-19 vaccine-associated myocarditis may show a similar pattern compared to other acute myocarditis entities. Notably, preserved LVEF is probably a common finding in these patients. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Gadolinium/adverse effects , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
4.
J Hypertens ; 40(7): 1278-1287, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), cardiovascular risk factors and myocardial injury relate to increased mortality. We evaluated the extent of cardiac sequelae 6 months after hospital discharge in patients surviving ICU hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: All survivors of Maastricht-ICU were invited for comprehensive cardiovascular evaluation 6 months after discharge from ICU. Cardiac screening included an electrocardiogram, cardiac biomarkers, echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and, wherever indicated, cardiac computed tomography or coronary angiogram. RESULTS: Out of 52 survivors, 81% ( n  = 42) participated to the cardiovascular follow-up [median follow-up of 6 months, interquartile range (IQR) 6.1-6.7]. Eight patients (19%) had newly diagnosed coronary artery disease (CAD), of which two required a percutaneous intervention. Echocardiographic global longitudinal strain (GLS) was abnormal in 24% and CMR-derived GLS was abnormal in 12%, despite normal left ventricular ejection fraction in all. None of the patients showed elevated T 1 relaxation times and five patients (14%) had an elevated T 2 relaxation time. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) reflecting regional myocardial fibrosis was increased in eight patients (21%), of which three had myocarditis and three had pericarditis. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular follow-up at 6 months after ICU-admission for severe COVID-19 revealed that one out of five invasively mechanically ventilated survivors had CAD, a quarter had subclinical left ventricular dysfunction defined as reduced echocardiographic GLS, and 42% of the patients had CMR abnormalities (reduced LVEF, reduced GLS, LGE presence, and elevated T 2 ). On the basis of these findings, long-term cardiovascular follow-up is strongly recommended in all post-IC COVID-19 patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial Register number [NL8613]) https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/8613Video abstract:http://links.lww.com/HJH/B899 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , COVID-19/complications , Contrast Media , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
5.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 24(1): 33, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881271

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered the gold standard imaging modality for myocardial tissue characterization. Elevated transverse relaxation time (T2) is specific for increased myocardial water content, increased free water, and is used as an index of myocardial edema. The strengths of quantitative T2 mapping lie in the accurate characterization of myocardial edema, and the early detection of reversible myocardial disease without the use of contrast agents or ionizing radiation. Quantitative T2 mapping overcomes the limitations of T2-weighted imaging for reliable assessment of diffuse myocardial edema and can be used to diagnose, stage, and monitor myocardial injury. Strong evidence supports the clinical use of T2 mapping in acute myocardial infarction, myocarditis, heart transplant rejection, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Accumulating data support the utility of T2 mapping for the assessment of other cardiomyopathies, rheumatologic conditions with cardiac involvement, and monitoring for cancer therapy-related cardiac injury. Importantly, elevated T2 relaxation time may be the first sign of myocardial injury in many diseases and oftentimes precedes symptoms, changes in ejection fraction, and irreversible myocardial remodeling. This comprehensive review discusses the technical considerations and clinical roles of myocardial T2 mapping with an emphasis on expanding the impact of this unique, noninvasive tissue parameter.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Myocarditis , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Contrast Media , Edema , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Water
6.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 23(8): 1066-1074, 2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873887

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with cardiovascular manifestations are frequent. However, there is lacking evidence regarding cardiological follow-up of this cohort of patients. The aim of our study was to describe the early and mid-term cardiac abnormalities assessed by standard and speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), and cardiac MRI (CMR). METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 32 patients (21 male, 11 female), mean age 8.25 ± 4years, with diagnosis of MIS-C. During admission, all children underwent TTE, STE with analysis of left ventricle global longitudinal strain (GLS) and CMR. Patients underwent cardiological evaluation at 2 (T1) and 6 months (T2) after discharge. Cardiac MRI was repeated at 6 months after discharge. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at baseline was 58.8 ± 10% with 10 patients (31%) below 55%. Speckle-tracking echocardiography showed reduced mean LV GLS (-17.4 ± 4%). On CMR, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with non-ischaemic pattern was evident in 8 of 23 patients (35%). Follow-up data showed rapid improvement of LVEF at T1 (62.5 ± 7.5 vs. 58.8 ± 10.6%, P-value 0.044) with only three patients (10%) below ≤ 55% at T1. Left ventricular (LV) GLS remained impaired at T1 (-17.2 ± 2.7 vs.-17.4 ± 4, P-value 0.71) and significantly improved at T2 (-19 ± 2.6% vs. -17.4 ± 4%, P-value 0.009). LV GLS was impaired (>-18%) in 53% of patients at baseline and T1, whereas only 13% showed persistent LV GLS reduction at T2. Follow-up CMR showed LGE persistence in 33.4% of cases. CONCLUSION: Early cardiac involvement significantly improves during follow-up of MIS-C patients. However, subclinical myocardial dysfunction seems to be still detectable after 6 months of follow-up in a not negligible proportion of them.


Subject(s)
Heart Defects, Congenital , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Contrast Media , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
8.
Circulation ; 145(5): 345-356, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the clinical course and short-term outcomes of suspected myocarditis after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has important public health implications in the decision to vaccinate youth. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on patients <21 years old presenting before July 4, 2021, with suspected myocarditis within 30 days of COVID-19 vaccination. Lake Louise criteria were used for cardiac MRI findings. Myocarditis cases were classified as confirmed or probable on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. RESULTS: We report on 139 adolescents and young adults with 140 episodes of suspected myocarditis (49 confirmed, 91 probable) at 26 centers. Most patients were male (n=126, 90.6%) and White (n=92, 66.2%); 29 (20.9%) were Hispanic; and the median age was 15.8 years (range, 12.1-20.3; interquartile range [IQR], 14.5-17.0). Suspected myocarditis occurred in 136 patients (97.8%) after the mRNA vaccine, with 131 (94.2%) after the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; 128 (91.4%) occurred after the second dose. Symptoms started at a median of 2 days (range, 0-22; IQR, 1-3) after vaccination. The most common symptom was chest pain (99.3%). Patients were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (81.3%), intravenous immunoglobulin (21.6%), glucocorticoids (21.6%), colchicine (7.9%), or no anti-inflammatory therapies (8.6%). Twenty-six patients (18.7%) were in the intensive care unit, 2 were treated with inotropic/vasoactive support, and none required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or died. Median hospital stay was 2 days (range, 0-10; IQR, 2-3). All patients had elevated troponin I (n=111, 8.12 ng/mL; IQR, 3.50-15.90) or T (n=28, 0.61 ng/mL; IQR, 0.25-1.30); 69.8% had abnormal ECGs and arrhythmias (7 with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia); and 18.7% had left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram. Of 97 patients who underwent cardiac MRI at a median 5 days (range, 0-88; IQR, 3-17) from symptom onset, 75 (77.3%) had abnormal findings: 74 (76.3%) had late gadolinium enhancement, 54 (55.7%) had myocardial edema, and 49 (50.5%) met Lake Louise criteria. Among 26 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram, all with follow-up had normalized function (n=25). CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of suspected COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis occurring in persons <21 years have a mild clinical course with rapid resolution of symptoms. Abnormal findings on cardiac MRI were frequent. Future studies should evaluate risk factors, mechanisms, and long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Adolescent , Child , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
10.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 43(7): 1522-1529, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756787

ABSTRACT

Temporal association between BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and myocarditis (PCVM) has been reported. We herein present early and 6-month clinical follow-up and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) of patients with PVCM. A retrospective collection of data from 15 patients with PCVM and abnormal CMR was performed. Clinical manifestation, laboratory data, hospitalizations, treatment protocols, and imaging studies were collected early (up to 2 months) and later. In nine patients, an additional CMR evaluation was performed 6 months after diagnosis. PCVM was diagnosed in 15 patients, mean age 17 ± 1 (median 17.2, range 14.9-19 years) years, predominantly in males. Mean time from vaccination to onset of symptoms was 4.4 ± 6.7 (median 3, range 0-28) days. All patients had CMR post diagnosis at 4 ± 3 (median 3, range 1-9) weeks, 4/5 patients had hyper enhancement on the T2 sequences representing edemaQuery, and 12 pathological Late glandolinium enhancement. A repeat scan performed after 5-6 months was positive for scar formation in 7/9 patients. PCVM is a rare complication, affecting predominantly males and appearing usually within the first week after administration of the second dose of the vaccine. It usually is a mild disease, with clinical resolution with anti-inflammatory treatment. Late CMR follow up demonstrated resolution of the edema in all patients, while some had evidence of residual myocardial scarring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
12.
J Pediatr ; 238: 26-32.e1, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinical course and outcomes of children 12-18 years of age who developed probable myopericarditis after vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 25 children, aged 12-18 years, diagnosed with probable myopericarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination as per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for myopericarditis at 8 US centers between May 10, 2021, and June 20, 2021. We retrospectively collected the following data: demographics, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus detection or serologic testing, clinical manifestations, laboratory test results, imaging study results, treatment, and time to resolutions of symptoms. RESULTS: Most (88%) cases followed the second dose of vaccine, and chest pain (100%) was the most common presenting symptom. Patients came to medical attention a median of 2 days (range, <1-20 days) after receipt of Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. All adolescents had an elevated plasma troponin concentration. Echocardiographic abnormalities were infrequent, and 92% showed normal cardiac function at presentation. However, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, obtained in 16 patients (64%), revealed that 15 (94%) had late gadolinium enhancement consistent with myopericarditis. Most were treated with ibuprofen or an equivalent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for symptomatic relief. One patient was given a corticosteroid orally after the initial administration of ibuprofen or an nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; 2 patients also received intravenous immune globulin. Symptom resolution was observed within 7 days in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that symptoms owing to myopericarditis after the mRNA COVID-19 vaccination tend to be mild and transient. Approximately two-thirds of patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed evidence of myocardial inflammation despite a lack of echocardiographic abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 101, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine are known to cause minor side effects at the injection site and mild global systemic symptoms in first 24-48 h. Recently published case series have reported a possible association between acute myocarditis and COVID-19 vaccination, predominantly in young males. METHODS: We report a case series of 5 young male patients with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-confirmed acute myocarditis within 72 h after receiving a dose of an mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: Our case series suggests that myocarditis in this setting is characterized by myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement in the lateral wall of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium, reduced global LV longitudinal strain, and preserved LV ejection fraction. All patients in our series remained clinically stable during a relatively short inpatient hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: In conjunction with other recently published case series and national vaccine safety surveillance data, this case series suggests a possible association between acute myocarditis and COVID-19 vaccination in young males and highlights a potential pattern in accompanying CMR abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Adult , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 100, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of abnormal cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) findings in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of abnormal CMR findings in recovered COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies that report the prevalence of abnormal CMR findings in recovered COVID-19 patients. The number of patients with abnormal CMR findings and diagnosis of myocarditis on CMR (based on the Lake Louise criteria) and each abnormal CMR parameter were extracted. Subgroup analyses were performed according to patient characteristics (athletes vs. non-athletes and normal vs. undetermined cardiac enzyme levels). The pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) of each CMR finding were calculated. Study heterogeneity was assessed, and meta-regression analysis was performed to investigate factors associated with heterogeneity. RESULTS: In total, 890 patients from 16 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled prevalence of one or more abnormal CMR findings in recovered COVID-19 patients was 46.4% (95% CI 43.2%-49.7%). The pooled prevalence of myocarditis and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was 14.0% (95% CI 11.6%-16.8%) and 20.5% (95% CI 17.7%-23.6%), respectively. Further, heterogeneity was observed (I2 > 50%, p < 0.1). In the subgroup analysis, the pooled prevalence of abnormal CMR findings and myocarditis was higher in non-athletes than in athletes (62.5% vs. 17.1% and 23.9% vs. 2.5%, respectively). Similarly, the pooled prevalence of abnormal CMR findings and LGE was higher in the undetermined than in the normal cardiac enzyme level subgroup (59.4% vs. 35.9% and 45.5% vs. 8.3%, respectively). Being an athlete was a significant independent factor related to heterogeneity in multivariate meta-regression analysis (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of recovered COVID-19 patients exhibited one or more abnormal CMR findings. Athletes and patients with normal cardiac enzyme levels showed a lower prevalence of abnormal CMR findings than non-athletes and patients with undetermined cardiac enzyme levels. Trial registration The study protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database (registration number: CRD42020225234).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocardium/pathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Am Heart J ; 242: 61-70, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause myocardial injury and myocarditis, and reports of persistent cardiac pathology after COVID-19 have raised concerns of long-term cardiac consequences. We aimed to assess the presence of abnormal cardiovascular resonance imaging (CMR) findings in patients recovered from moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and its association with markers of disease severity in the acute phase. METHODS: Fifty-eight (49%) survivors from the prospective COVID MECH study, underwent CMR median 175 [IQR 105-217] days after COVID-19 hospitalization. Abnormal CMR was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% or myocardial scar by late gadolinium enhancement. CMR indices were compared to healthy controls (n = 32), and to circulating biomarkers measured during the index hospitalization. RESULTS: Abnormal CMR was present in 12 (21%) patients, of whom 3 were classified with major pathology (scar and LVEF <50% or LVEF <40%). There was no difference in the need of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, and vital signs between patients with vs without abnormal CMR after 6 months. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viremia and concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers during the index hospitalization were not associated with persistent CMR pathology. Cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations on admission, were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but these associations were not significant after adjusting for demographics and established cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: CMR pathology 6 months after moderate-to-severe COVID-19 was present in 21% of patients and did not correlate with severity of the disease. Cardiovascular biomarkers during COVID-19 were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but with no significant association after adjusting for confounders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID MECH Study ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cicatrix/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cicatrix/etiology , Female , Gadolinium , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume , Survivors , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
16.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(10): 1665-1667, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265654

ABSTRACT

Vaccination plays an important role in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 to minimie the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its life-threatening complications. Myocarditis has been reported as a possible and rare adverse consequence of different vaccines, and its clinical presentation can range from influenza-like symptoms to acute heart failure. We report a case of a 30-year-old man who presented progressive dyspnea and constrictive retrosternal pain after receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Cardiac magnetic resonance and laboratory data revealed typical findings of acute myopericarditis.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/administration & dosage , Bisoprolol/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , /adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Troponin I/blood
18.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(1): 36-44, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912219

ABSTRACT

It is now 30 years since Japanese investigators first described Takotsubo Syndrome (TTS) as a disorder occurring mainly in ageing women, ascribing it to the impact of multivessel coronary artery spasm. During the intervening period, it has become clear that TTS involves relatively transient vascular injury, followed by prolonged myocardial inflammatory and eventually fibrotic changes. Hence symptomatic recovery is generally slow, currently an under-recognised issue. It appears that TTS is induced by aberrant post-ß2-adrenoceptor signalling in the setting of "surge" release of catecholamines. Resultant activation of nitric oxide synthases and increased inflammatory vascular permeation lead to prolonged myocardial infiltration with macrophages and associated oedema formation. Initially, the diagnosis of TTS was made via exclusion of relevant coronary artery stenoses, plus the presence of regional left ventricular hypokinesis. However, detection of extensive myocardial oedema on cardiac MRI imaging offers a specific basis for diagnosis. No adequate methods are yet available for definitive diagnosis of TTS at hospital presentation. Other major challenges remaining in this area include understanding of the recently demonstrated association between TTS and antecedent cancer, the development of effective treatments to reduce risk of short-term (generally due to shock) and long-term mortality, and also to accelerate symptomatic recovery.


Subject(s)
Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis
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