Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 190
Filter
1.
Med J Malaysia ; 78(3): 421-426, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235551

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe, acute, respiratory syndromecoronavirus- 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections can be complicated by central nervous system (CNS) disease. One of the CNS disorders associated with Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID- 19) is posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). This narrative review summarises and discusses previous and recent findings on SARS-CoV-2 associated PRES. METHODS: A literature search was carried out in PubMed and Google Scholar using suitable search terms and reference lists of articles found were searched for further articles. RESULTS: By the end of February 2023, 82 patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated PRES were recorded. The latency between the onset of COVID-19 and the onset of PRES ranged from 1 day to 70 days. The most common presentations of PRES were mental deterioration (n=47), seizures (n=46) and visual disturbances (n=18). Elevated blood pressure was reported on admission or during hospitalisation in 48 patients. The most common comorbidities were arterial hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PRES was best diagnosed by multimodal cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Complete recovery was reported in 35 patients and partial recovery in 21 patients, while seven patients died. CONCLUSIONS: PRES can be a CNS complication associated with COVID-19. COVID-19 patients with mental dysfunction, seizures or visual disturbances should immediately undergo CNS imaging through multimodal MRI, electroencephalography (EEG) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in order not to miss PRES.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Humans , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnosis , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Seizures/etiology , Electroencephalography/adverse effects , Electroencephalography/methods , Hypertension/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
2.
Neuroradiology ; 65(7): 1179-1181, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327104

ABSTRACT

We present a pediatric case of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis associated with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA 2.0 infection. A previously healthy girl presented with ataxia and diplopia three weeks after the COVID-19 confirmation from a nasopharyngeal swab. Acute and symmetrical motor weakness and drowsiness ensued within the following 3 days. She then became spastic tetraplegic. MRI revealed multifocal lesions in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, and brainstem, with hemorrhagic changes confirmed with T1-hyperintensity and hypointensity on susceptibility-weighted images. Peripheral areas of decreased diffusion, increased blood flow, and rim contrast enhancement were noted in the majority of lesions. She was treated with a combination of intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Neurological deterioration ensued with coma, ataxic respiratory pattern and decerebrate posture. Repeated MRI performed on day 31 revealed progression of abnormalities, hemorrhages and brain herniation. Despite the administration of plasma exchange, she died two months after admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic , Child , Female , Humans , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 64(6): 918-929, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stressful events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, are major contributors to anxiety and depression, but only a subset of individuals develop psychopathology. In a population-based sample (N = 174) with a high representation of marginalized individuals, this study examined adolescent functional network connectivity as a marker of susceptibility to anxiety and depression in the context of adverse experiences. METHODS: Data-driven network-based subgroups were identified using an unsupervised community detection algorithm within functional neural connectivity. Neuroimaging data collected during emotion processing (age 15) were extracted from a priori regions of interest linked to anxiety and depression. Symptoms were self-reported at ages 15, 17, and 21 (during COVID-19). During COVID-19, participants reported on pandemic-related economic adversity. Differences across subgroup networks were first examined, then subgroup membership and subgroup-adversity interaction were tested to predict change in symptoms over time. RESULTS: Two subgroups were identified: Subgroup A, characterized by relatively greater neural network variation (i.e., heterogeneity) and density with more connections involving the amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and ventral striatum; and the more homogenous Subgroup B, with more connections involving the insula and dorsal anterior cingulate. Accounting for initial symptoms, subgroup A individuals had greater increases in symptoms across time (ß = .138, p = .042), and this result remained after adjusting for additional covariates (ß = .194, p = .023). Furthermore, there was a subgroup-adversity interaction: compared with Subgroup B, Subgroup A reported greater anxiety during the pandemic in response to reported economic adversity (ß = .307, p = .006), and this remained after accounting for initial symptoms and many covariates (ß = .237, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS: A subgrouping algorithm identified young adults who were susceptible to adversity using their personalized functional network profiles derived from a priori brain regions. These results highlight potential prospective neural signatures involving heterogeneous emotion networks that predict individuals at the greatest risk for anxiety when experiencing adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Young Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Prospective Studies , Brain Mapping/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Anxiety/epidemiology , Brain
4.
Eur Radiol ; 33(6): 3867-3877, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312112

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infection is a systemic disease with various cardiovascular symptoms and complications. Cardiac MRI with late gadolinium enhancement is the modality of choice for the assessment of myocardial involvement. T1 and T2 mapping can increase diagnostic accuracy and improve further management. Our study aimed to evaluate the different aspects of myocardial damage in cases of COVID-19 infection using cardiac MRI. METHODS: This descriptive retrospective study included 86 cases, with a history of COVID-19 infection confirmed by positive RT-PCR, who met the inclusion criteria. Patients had progressive chest pain or dyspnoea with a suspected underlying cardiac cause, either by an abnormal electrocardiogram or elevated troponin levels. Cardiac MRI was performed with late contrast-enhanced (LGE) imaging, followed by T1 and T2 mapping. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients have elevated hsTnT with a median hsTnT value of 133 ng/L (IQR: 102 to 159 ng/L); normal value < 14 ng/L. Other sixty-two patients showed elevated hsTnI with a median hsTnI value of 1637 ng/L (IQR: 1340 to 2540 ng/L); normal value < 40 ng/L. CMR showed 52 patients with acute myocarditis, 23 with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and 11 with myocardial infarction. Invasive coronary angiography was performed only in selected patients. CONCLUSION: Different COVID-19-related cardiac injuries may cause similar clinical symptoms. Cardiac MRI is the modality of choice to differentiate between the different types of myocardial injury such as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and infection-related cardiomyopathy or even acute coronary syndrome secondary to vasculitis or oxygen-demand mismatch. KEY POINTS: • It is essential to detect early COVID-related cardiac injury using different cardiac biomarkers and cardiac imaging, as it has a significant impact on patient management and outcome. • Cardiac MRI is the modality of choice to differentiate between the different aspects of COVID-related myocardial injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Contrast Media , COVID-19/complications , Gadolinium , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/adverse effects
5.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 40(1): 2174274, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to analyze and summarize the most common adverse events (AEs) and complications after magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapy in uterine fibroids (UFs) and to establish the risk factors of their occurrence. METHODS: We searched for original research studies evaluating MRgFUS therapy in UFs with outcomes containing AEs and/or complications in different databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, COCHRANE) until March 2022. Reviews, editorials, opinions or letters, case studies, conference papers and abstracts were excluded from the analysis. The systematic literature search identified 446 articles, 43 of which were analyzed. RESULTS: According to available evidence, the overall incidence of serious complications in MRgFUS therapy is relatively low. No AEs/complications were reported in 11 out of 43 analyzed studies. The mean occurrence of all AEs in the analyzed material was 24.67%. The most commonly described AEs included pain, skin burns, urinary tract infections and sciatic neuropraxia. Major AEs, such as skin ulcerations or deep vein thrombosis, occurred in 0.41% of cases in the analyzed material. CONCLUSION: MRgFUS seems to be safe in UF therapy. The occurrence of AEs, especially major ones, is relatively low in comparison with other methods. The new devices and more experience of their users seem to reduce AE rate. The lack of unification in AE reporting and missing data are the main issues in this area. More prospective, randomized studies with unified reporting and long follow-up are needed to determine the safety in a long-term perspective.


Subject(s)
High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation , Leiomyoma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional , Uterine Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional/methods , Leiomyoma/diagnostic imaging , Leiomyoma/therapy , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation/adverse effects , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
6.
Skeletal Radiol ; 52(9): 1721-1728, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293802

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to establish the prevalence bone marrow edema of the phalanges of the feet and hands before and during the COVID-19 pandemic on MRI studies and correlate with clinically chilblain skin lesions and epidemiological data. METHODS: This observational retrospective study. In patients with confirmed bone marrow edema of the phalanges, epidemiological data and clinical findings were collected, including the history of current or remote COVID-19 infection and vaccination status. The two-proportion test was used to compare the frequency of bone marrow edema in the phalanges before and during the pandemic, and the comparison between the categories variables was performed using the one-proportion test. RESULTS: Of the total of 7215 patients, only 20 presented isolated bone marrow edema of the digits in MRI studies; 2 (0.05%) were found two years before the pandemic's beginning, and 18 (0.64%) after the pandemic's onset, demonstrating an increase of 13-fold in this period. 16 were women with a mean age of 40.3 years and 4 were men with a mean age of 53.5 years. The most frequently reported clinical symptoms by the patients were pain (85.0%), and erythema of the skin (45.0%). Of the 18 patients found after the pandemic's onset, only 27.8% had COVID-19 infections confirmed by RT-PCR before the imaging study, and all cases were mild. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a significant increase in the prevalence of bone marrow edema of the phalanges after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in middle-aged and younger women.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Diseases , COVID-19 , Chilblains , Skin Diseases , Male , Middle Aged , Humans , Female , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chilblains/diagnostic imaging , Chilblains/epidemiology , Pandemics , Bone Marrow/diagnostic imaging , Bone Marrow/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence , Bone Marrow Diseases/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Edema/pathology
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 5808, 2023 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290766

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment is one of the most prevalent symptoms of post Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome COronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) state, which is known as Long COVID. Advanced neuroimaging techniques may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiological brain changes and the underlying mechanisms in post-COVID-19 subjects. We aimed at investigating regional cerebral perfusion alterations in post-COVID-19 subjects who reported a subjective cognitive impairment after a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, using a non-invasive Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) MRI technique and analysis. Using MRI-ASL image processing, we investigated the brain perfusion alterations in 24 patients (53.0 ± 14.5 years, 15F/9M) with persistent cognitive complaints in the post COVID-19 period. Voxelwise and region-of-interest analyses were performed to identify statistically significant differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps between post-COVID-19 patients, and age and sex matched healthy controls (54.8 ± 9.1 years, 13F/9M). The results showed a significant hypoperfusion in a widespread cerebral network in the post-COVID-19 group, predominantly affecting the frontal cortex, as well as the parietal and temporal cortex, as identified by a non-parametric permutation testing (p < 0.05, FWE-corrected with TFCE). The hypoperfusion areas identified in the right hemisphere regions were more extensive. These findings support the hypothesis of a large network dysfunction in post-COVID subjects with cognitive complaints. The non-invasive nature of the ASL-MRI method may play an important role in the monitoring and prognosis of post-COVID-19 subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neuroimaging/methods , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/blood supply , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Spin Labels
9.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 39(4): 821-830, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301369

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19)-related myocardial injury is an increasingly recognized complication and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the most commonly used non-invasive imaging technique for myocardial involvement. This study aims to assess myocardial structure by T2*-mapping which is a non-invasive gold-standard imaging tool for the assessment of cardiac iron deposition in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia without significant cardiac symptoms. Twenty-five patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and 20 healthy subjects were prospectively enrolled.Cardiac volume and function parameters, myocardial native-T1, and T2*-mapping were measured. The association of serum ferritin level and myocardial mapping was analyzed. There was no difference in terms of cardiac volume and function parameters. The T2*-mapping values were lower in patients with COVID-19 compared to controls (35.37 [IQR 31.67-41.20] ms vs. 43.98 [IQR 41.97-46.88] ms; p < 0.0001), while no significant difference was found in terms of native-T1 mapping value(p = 0.701). There was a positive correlation with T2*mapping and native-T1 mapping values (r = 0.522, p = 0.007) and negative correlation with serum ferritin values (r = - 0.653, p = 0.000), while no correlation between cardiac native-T1 mapping and serum ferritin level. Negative correlation between serum ferritin level and T2*-mapping values in COVID-19 patients may provide a non-contrast-enhanced alternative to assess tissue structural changes in patients with COVID-19. T2*-mapping may provide a non-contrast-enhanced alternative to assess tissue alterations in patients with COVID-19. Adding T2*-mapping cardiac MRI in patients with myocardial pathologies would improve the revealing of underlying mechanisms. Further in vivo and ex vivo animal or human studies designed with larger patient cohorts should be planned.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Predictive Value of Tests , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Myocardium/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Ferritins , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Contrast Media
10.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 41(12): 3812-3823, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288807

ABSTRACT

The accurate segmentation of multiple types of lesions from adjacent tissues in medical images is significant in clinical practice. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) based on the coarse-to-fine strategy have been widely used in this field. However, multi-lesion segmentation remains to be challenging due to the uncertainty in size, contrast, and high interclass similarity of tissues. In addition, the commonly adopted cascaded strategy is rather demanding in terms of hardware, which limits the potential of clinical deployment. To address the problems above, we propose a novel Prior Attention Network (PANet) that follows the coarse-to-fine strategy to perform multi-lesion segmentation in medical images. The proposed network achieves the two steps of segmentation in a single network by inserting a lesion-related spatial attention mechanism in the network. Further, we also propose the intermediate supervision strategy for generating lesion-related attention to acquire the regions of interest (ROIs), which accelerates the convergence and obviously improves the segmentation performance. We have investigated the proposed segmentation framework in two applications: 2D segmentation of multiple lung infections in lung CT slices and 3D segmentation of multiple lesions in brain MRIs. Experimental results show that in both 2D and 3D segmentation tasks our proposed network achieves better performance with less computational cost compared with cascaded networks. The proposed network can be regarded as a universal solution to multi-lesion segmentation in both 2D and 3D tasks. The source code is available at https://github.com/hsiangyuzhao/PANet.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neuroimaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods
11.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol ; 14(5): e1807, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287988

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there have been significant innovations in the development of nanoparticle-based vaccines and vaccine delivery systems. For the purposes of both design and evaluation, these nanovaccines are imaged using the wealth of understanding established around medical imaging of nanomaterials. An important insight to the advancement of the field of nanovaccines can be given by an analysis of the design rationale of an imaging platform, as well as the significance of the information provided by imaging. Nanovaccine imaging strategies can be categorized by the imaging modality leveraged, but it is also worth understanding the superiority or convenience of a given modality over others in a given context of a particular nanovaccine. The most important imaging modalities in this endeavor are optical imaging including near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF), emission tomography methods such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with or without computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR), the emerging magnetic particle imaging (MPI), and finally, multimodal applications of imaging which include molecular imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging. One finds that each of these modalities has strengths and weaknesses, but optical and PET imaging tend, in this context, to be currently the most accessible, convenient, and informative modalities. Nevertheless, an important principle is that there is not a one-size-fits-all solution, and that the specific nanovaccine in question must be compatible with a particular imaging modality. This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Vaccines , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Nanomedicine , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods
12.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 19(1): e1010818, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280349

ABSTRACT

Neurons regulate the activity of blood vessels through the neurovascular coupling (NVC). A detailed understanding of the NVC is critical for understanding data from functional imaging techniques of the brain. Many aspects of the NVC have been studied both experimentally and using mathematical models; various combinations of blood volume and flow, local field potential (LFP), hemoglobin level, blood oxygenation level-dependent response (BOLD), and optogenetics have been measured and modeled in rodents, primates, or humans. However, these data have not been brought together into a unified quantitative model. We now present a mathematical model that describes all such data types and that preserves mechanistic behaviors between experiments. For instance, from modeling of optogenetics and microscopy data in mice, we learn cell-specific contributions; the first rapid dilation in the vascular response is caused by NO-interneurons, the main part of the dilation during longer stimuli is caused by pyramidal neurons, and the post-peak undershoot is caused by NPY-interneurons. These insights are translated and preserved in all subsequent analyses, together with other insights regarding hemoglobin dynamics and the LFP/BOLD-interplay, obtained from other experiments on rodents and primates. The model can predict independent validation-data not used for training. By bringing together data with complementary information from different species, we both understand each dataset better, and have a basis for a new type of integrative analysis of human data.


Subject(s)
Neurovascular Coupling , Humans , Mice , Animals , Neurovascular Coupling/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Brain/physiology , Pyramidal Cells , Hemoglobins , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
13.
Brachytherapy ; 22(2): 146-156, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280319

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of treating cervical cancer patients with MRI-guided brachytherapy (MRgBT) using 24 Gy in 3 fractions (F) versus a standard, more resource-intensive regimen of 28 Gy in 4F, and its ability to meet EMBRACE II planning aims. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective review of 224 patients with FIGO Stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with 28 Gy/4F (n = 91) and 24 Gy/3F (n = 133) MRgBT between 2016-2021 was conducted. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to compare dosimetric parameters between the two groups, adjusting for CTVHR and T stage. RESULTS: Most patients had squamous cell carcinoma, T2b disease, and were treated with intracavitary applicator plus interstitial needles (96%). The 28 Gy/4F group had higher CTVHR (median 28 vs. 26 cm3, p = 0.04), CTVIR D98% (mean 65.5 vs. 64.5 Gy, p = 0.03), rectum D2cm3 (mean 61.7 vs. 59.2 Gy, p = 0.04) and bladder D2cm3 (81.3 vs. 77.9 Gy, p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients meeting the EMBRACE II OAR dose constraints and planning aims, except fewer patients treated with 28 Gy/4F met rectum D2cm3 < 65 Gy (73 vs. 85%, p = 0.027) and ICRU rectovaginal point < 65 Gy (65 vs. 84%, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Cervical cancer patients treated with 24 Gy/3F MRgBT had comparable target doses and lower OAR doses compared to those treated with 28 Gy/4F. A less-resource intense fractionation schedule of 24 Gy/3F is an alternative to 28 Gy/4F in cervix MRgBT.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Radiotherapy Dosage , Brachytherapy/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted/methods
14.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 25(1): 21, 2023 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259089

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic that has affected nearly 600 million people to date across the world. While COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory illness, cardiac injury is also known to occur. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is uniquely capable of characterizing myocardial tissue properties in-vivo, enabling insights into the pattern and degree of cardiac injury. The reported prevalence of myocardial involvement identified by CMR in the context of COVID-19 infection among previously hospitalized patients ranges from 26 to 60%. Variations in the reported prevalence of myocardial involvement may result from differing patient populations (e.g. differences in severity of illness) and the varying intervals between acute infection and CMR evaluation. Standardized methodologies in image acquisition, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of CMR abnormalities across would likely improve concordance between studies. This consensus document by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) provides recommendations on CMR imaging and reporting metrics towards the goal of improved standardization and uniform data acquisition and analytic approaches when performing CMR in patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/standards , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/etiology
15.
Eur J Neurol ; 30(4): 970-981, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) has high impact on quality of life, with myalgia and fatigue affecting at least 25% of PCC patients. This case-control study aims to noninvasively assess muscular alterations via quantitative muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as possible mechanisms for ongoing musculoskeletal complaints and premature exhaustion in PCC. METHODS: Quantitative muscle MRI was performed on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner of the whole legs in PCC patients compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls, including a Dixon sequence to determine muscle fat fraction (FF), a multi-echo spin-echo sequence for quantitative water mapping reflecting putative edema, and a diffusion-weighted spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence to assess microstructural alterations. Clinical examination, nerve conduction studies, and serum creatine kinase were performed in all patients. Quantitative muscle MRI results were correlated to the results of the 6-min walk test and standardized questionnaires assessing quality of life, fatigue, and depression. RESULTS: Twenty PCC patients (female: n = 15, age = 48.8 ± 10.1 years, symptoms duration = 13.4 ± 4.2 months, body mass index [BMI] = 28.8 ± 4.7 kg/m2 ) were compared to 20 healthy controls (female: n = 15, age = 48.1 ± 11.1 years, BMI = 22.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2 ). Neither FF nor T2 revealed signs of muscle degeneration or inflammation in either study groups. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) revealed reduced mean, axial, and radial diffusivity in the PCC group. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative muscle MRI did not depict any signs of ongoing inflammation or dystrophic process in the skeletal muscles in PCC patients. However, differences observed in muscle DTI depict microstructural abnormalities, which may reflect potentially reversible fiber hypotrophy due to deconditioning. Further longitudinal and interventional studies should prove this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Case-Control Studies , Quality of Life , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology
16.
Brachytherapy ; 22(3): 343-351, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257330

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To provide educational support to brachytherapy users during the COVID-19 pandemic, online workshops were developed and implemented by BrachyAcademy, non-profit peer-to-peer educational initiative in Elekta. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In 2021-2022 two online workshops were organized. Participating teams had to send a clinical case of locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) including brachytherapy Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) files and questions to the faculty. During the workshop, feedback was given to each clinical case by five faculty members (two Radiation Oncologists, one Radiologist, two Medical Physicists). Participants competed a post-workshop questionnaire which included combination of qualitative and quantitative questions via yes/no responses, Likert scale, and 1 to 10 scale. RESULTS: Twenty-one teams from eight countries (Europe, Asia, Latin America) participated in two online workshops. The total number of participants was 49. The clinical cases represented LACC with The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages from IB3 to IVA. During both, Workshop1 (W1) and Workshop 2 (W2) the following areas of improvement were identified: familiarity with the GEC ESTRO and The International Commission on Radiation Units & Measurements, Report 89 (ICRU 89) recommendations for contouring and planning based on clinical drawings and MRI sequencing choice; appropriate applicator selection; experience with interstitial needles; appropriate applicator reconstruction; dose optimization. The participants rated both workshops with overall scores 8,3 for W1, and 8,5 for W2. In 82% participants the training course fully met expectations for W1, and in 76% in W2. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully implemented the online workshops on image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) in LACC. Main performance issues and areas for improvement were identified based on multidisciplinary discussion of participant's clinical cases through all steps of the brachytherapy procedure. We encourage teams to consider online workshops in addition to hands-on training.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , COVID-19 , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Brachytherapy/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Pandemics , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Radiotherapy Dosage
17.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 124(6): 442-448, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus and turned into a pandemic in a short time, affects many organs and systems, especially the nervous system. In the present study, it was aimed to determine the morphological and volumetric changes in cortical and subcortical structures in recovered COVID-19 patients. BACKGROUND: We think that COVID-19 has a long-term effect on cortical and subcortical structures. METHODS: In our study, 50 post-COVID-19 patients and 50 healthy volunteers participated. In both groups, brain parcellations were made with Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) and regions showing density changes in the brain and cerebellum were determined. Gray matter (GM), white matter, cerebrospinal fluid and total intracranial volume were calculated. RESULTS: Neurological symptoms developed in 80% of COVID-19 patients. In post-COVID-19 patients, a decrease in GM density was detected in pons, gyrus frontalis inferior, gyri orbitales, gyrus rectus, gyrus cinguli, lobus parietalis, gyrus supramarginalis, gyrus angularis, hippocampus, lobulus semilunaris superior of cerebellum, declive, and Brodmann area 7-11-39-40. There was a significant decrease in GM density in these regions and an increase in GM density in amygdala (p<0.001). The GM volume of post-COVID-19 group was found to be less than in the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: As a result, it was seen that COVID-19 negatively affected many structures related to the nervous system. This study is a pioneering study to determine the consequences of COVID-19, especially in the nervous system, and to determine the etiology of these possible problems (Tab. 4, Fig. 5, Ref. 25). Text in PDF www.elis.sk Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, Voxel-based morphometry (VBM), brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Cerebellum/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(6): e027801, 2023 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264637

ABSTRACT

Background Meta-analysis can identify biological factors that moderate cardiac magnetic resonance myocardial tissue markers such as native T1 (longitudinal magnetization relaxation time constant) and T2 (transverse magnetization relaxation time constant) in cohorts recovering from COVID-19 infection. Methods and Results Cardiac magnetic resonance studies of patients with COVID-19 using myocardial T1, T2 mapping, extracellular volume, and late gadolinium enhancement were identified by database searches. Pooled effect sizes and interstudy heterogeneity (I2) were estimated with random effects models. Moderators of interstudy heterogeneity were analyzed by meta-regression of the percent difference of native T1 and T2 between COVID-19 and control groups (%ΔT1 [percent difference of the study-level means of myocardial T1 in patients with COVID-19 and controls] and %ΔT2 [percent difference of the study-level means of myocardial T2 in patients with COVID-19 and controls]), extracellular volume, and the proportion of late gadolinium enhancement. Interstudy heterogeneities of %ΔT1 (I2=76%) and %ΔT2 (I2=88%) were significantly lower than for native T1 and T2, respectively, independent of field strength, with pooled effect sizes of %ΔT1=1.24% (95% CI, 0.54%-1.9%) and %ΔT2=3.77% (95% CI, 1.79%-5.79%). %ΔT1 was lower for studies in children (median age: 12.7 years) and athletes (median age: 21 years), compared with older adults (median age: 48 years). Duration of recovery from COVID-19, cardiac troponins, C-reactive protein, and age were significant moderators for %ΔT1 and/or %ΔT2. Extracellular volume, adjusted by age, was moderated by recovery duration. Age, diabetes, and hypertension were significant moderators of the proportion of late gadolinium enhancement in adults. Conclusions T1 and T2 are dynamic markers of cardiac involvement in COVID-19 that reflect the regression of cardiomyocyte injury and myocardial inflammation during recovery. Late gadolinium enhancement and to a lesser extent extracellular volume, are more static biomarkers moderated by preexisting risk factors linked to adverse myocardial tissue remodeling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contrast Media , Child , Humans , Aged , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Gadolinium , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocardium/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Predictive Value of Tests
19.
NMR Biomed ; 36(8): e4923, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274196

ABSTRACT

Hyperpolarized 129 Xe MRI (Xe-MRI) is increasingly used to image the structure and function of the lungs. Because 129 Xe imaging can provide multiple contrasts (ventilation, alveolar airspace size, and gas exchange), imaging often occurs over several breath-holds, which increases the time, expense, and patient burden of scans. We propose an imaging sequence that can be used to acquire Xe-MRI gas exchange and high-quality ventilation images within a single, approximately 10 s, breath-hold. This method uses a radial one-point Dixon approach to sample dissolved 129 Xe signal, which is interleaved with a 3D spiral ("FLORET") encoding pattern for gaseous 129 Xe. Thus, ventilation images are obtained at higher nominal spatial resolution (4.2 × 4.2 × 4.2 mm3 ) compared with gas-exchange images (6.25 × 6.25 × 6.25 mm3 ), both competitive with current standards within the Xe-MRI field. Moreover, the short 10 s Xe-MRI acquisition time allows for 1 H "anatomic" images used for thoracic cavity masking to be acquired within the same breath-hold for a total scan time of about 14 s. Images were acquired using this single-breath method in 11 volunteers (N = 4 healthy, N = 7 post-acute COVID). For 11 of these participants, a separate breath-hold was used to acquire a "dedicated" ventilation scan and five had an additional "dedicated" gas exchange scan. The images acquired using the single-breath protocol were compared with those from dedicated scans using Bland-Altman analysis, intraclass correlation (ICC), structural similarity, peak signal-to-noise ratio, Dice coefficients, and average distance. Imaging markers from the single-breath protocol showed high correlation with dedicated scans (ventilation defect percent, ICC = 0.77, p = 0.01; membrane/gas, ICC = 0.97, p = 0.001; red blood cell/gas, ICC = 0.99, p < 0.001). Images showed good qualitative and quantitative regional agreement. This single-breath protocol enables the collection of essential Xe-MRI information within one breath-hold, simplifying scanning sessions and reducing costs associated with Xe-MRI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Xenon Isotopes , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiration , Breath Holding , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Gases
20.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 68: 1-10, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244051

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment represents a leading residual symptom of COVID-19 infection, which lasts for months after the virus clearance. Up-to-date scientific reports documented a wide spectrum of brain changes in COVID-19 survivors following the illness's resolution, mainly related to neurological and neuropsychiatric consequences. Preliminary insights suggest abnormal brain metabolism, microstructure, and functionality as neural under-layer of post-acute cognitive dysfunction. While previous works focused on brain correlates of impaired cognition as objectively assessed, herein we investigated long-term neural correlates of subjective cognitive decline in a sample of 58 COVID-19 survivors with a multimodal imaging approach. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) analyses revealed widespread white matter disruption in the sub-group of cognitive complainers compared to the non-complainer one, as indexed by increased axial, radial, and mean diffusivity in several commissural, projection and associative fibres. Likewise, the Multivoxel Pattern Connectivity analysis (MVPA) revealed highly discriminant patterns of functional connectivity in resting-state among the two groups in the right frontal pole and in the middle temporal gyrus, suggestive of inefficient dynamic modulation of frontal brain activity and possible metacognitive dysfunction at rest. Beyond COVID-19 actual pathophysiological brain processes, our findings point toward brain connectome disruption conceivably translating into clinical post-COVID cognitive symptomatology. Our results could pave the way for a potential brain signature of cognitive complaints experienced by COVID-19 survivors, possibly leading to identify early therapeutic targets and thus mitigating its detrimental long-term impact on quality of life in the post-COVID-19 stages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Humans , Diffusion Tensor Imaging/methods , Quality of Life , COVID-19/complications , Brain/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Cognition , Survivors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL