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2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 805482, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581379

ABSTRACT

Control measures have significantly reduced malaria morbidity and mortality in the last two decades; however, the downward trends have stalled and have become complicated by the emergence of COVID-19. Significant efforts have been made to develop malaria vaccines, but currently only the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum has been recommended by the WHO, for widespread use among children in sub-Saharan Africa. The efficacy of RTS,S/AS01 is modest, and therefore the development of more efficacious vaccines is still needed. In addition, the development of transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) to reduce the parasite transmission from humans to mosquitoes is required toward the goal of malaria elimination. Few TBVs have reached clinical development, and challenges include low immunogenicity or high reactogenicity in humans. Therefore, novel approaches to accelerate TBV research and development are urgently needed, especially novel TBV candidate discovery. In this mini review we summarize the progress in TBV research and development, novel TBV candidate discovery, and discuss how to accelerate novel TBV candidate discovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria Vaccines , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Animals , Child , Humans , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Plasmodium falciparum , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17626, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392887

ABSTRACT

Antigen identification is an important step in the vaccine development process. Computational approaches including deep learning systems can play an important role in the identification of vaccine targets using genomic and proteomic information. Here, we present a new computational system to discover and analyse novel vaccine targets leading to the design of a multi-epitope subunit vaccine candidate. The system incorporates reverse vaccinology and immuno-informatics tools to screen genomic and proteomic datasets of several pathogens such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium falciparum, and Vibrio cholerae to identify potential vaccine candidates (PVC). Further, as a case study, we performed a detailed analysis of the genomic and proteomic dataset of T. cruzi (CL Brenner and Y strain) to shortlist eight proteins as possible vaccine antigen candidates using properties such as secretory/surface-exposed nature, low transmembrane helix (< 2), essentiality, virulence, antigenic, and non-homology with host/gut flora proteins. Subsequently, highly antigenic and immunogenic MHC class I, MHC class II and B cell epitopes were extracted from top-ranking vaccine targets. The designed vaccine construct containing 24 epitopes, 3 adjuvants, and 4 linkers was analysed for its physicochemical properties using different tools, including docking analysis. Immunological simulation studies suggested significant levels of T-helper, T-cytotoxic cells, and IgG1 will be elicited upon administration of such a putative multi-epitope vaccine construct. The vaccine construct is predicted to be soluble, stable, non-allergenic, non-toxic, and to offer cross-protection against related Trypanosoma species and strains. Further, studies are required to validate safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/methods , Vaccines/immunology , Vaccinology/methods , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Chagas Disease/immunology , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Cholera/immunology , Cholera/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Vibrio cholerae/immunology
4.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 803-814, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Additional interventions are needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by malaria. METHODS: We conducted a two-part, phase 1 clinical trial to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of CIS43LS, an antimalarial monoclonal antibody with an extended half-life, and its efficacy against infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Part A of the trial assessed the safety, initial side-effect profile, and pharmacokinetics of CIS43LS in healthy adults who had never had malaria. Participants received CIS43LS subcutaneously or intravenously at one of three escalating dose levels. A subgroup of participants from Part A continued to Part B, and some received a second CIS43LS infusion. Additional participants were enrolled in Part B and received CIS43LS intravenously. To assess the protective efficacy of CIS43LS, some participants underwent controlled human malaria infection in which they were exposed to mosquitoes carrying P. falciparum sporozoites 4 to 36 weeks after administration of CIS43LS. RESULTS: A total of 25 participants received CIS43LS at a dose of 5 mg per kilogram of body weight, 20 mg per kilogram, or 40 mg per kilogram, and 4 of the 25 participants received a second dose (20 mg per kilogram regardless of initial dose). No safety concerns were identified. We observed dose-dependent increases in CIS43LS serum concentrations, with a half-life of 56 days. None of the 9 participants who received CIS43LS, as compared with 5 of 6 control participants who did not receive CIS43LS, had parasitemia according to polymerase-chain-reaction testing through 21 days after controlled human malaria infection. Two participants who received 40 mg per kilogram of CIS43LS and underwent controlled human malaria infection approximately 36 weeks later had no parasitemia, with serum concentrations of CIS43LS of 46 and 57 µg per milliliter at the time of controlled human malaria infection. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults who had never had malaria infection or vaccination, administration of the long-acting monoclonal antibody CIS43LS prevented malaria after controlled infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; VRC 612 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04206332.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacokinetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacokinetics , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/pharmacokinetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous/adverse effects , Injections, Subcutaneous/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification
5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 4549-4552, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341084

ABSTRACT

Malaria vaccines hold significant promise for life-saving benefit, especially to children who bear the major burden of malaria mortality. The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine provides moderate efficacy and is being tested in implementation studies. In parallel, multiple strategies are being advanced to test next-generation malaria vaccines, including novel approaches that build on principles learned from RTS,S development, vaccination with radiation-attenuated sporozoites, and development of monoclonal antibodies targeting immunogenic peptides. Novel vaccine delivery approaches are also being advanced, including self-amplifying RNA vaccine delivery, self-assembling protein nanoparticle methods, circumsporozoite protein-based approaches, and whole organism vaccination. Techniques employed for COVID-19 vaccine development should also be considered for malaria vaccination, including sustained release polymer nanoparticle hydrogel vaccination and charge-altering releasable transporters. As vaccine science advances and new approaches optimize knowledge gained, highly effective malaria vaccines that provide sustained protection are within reach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria Vaccines , Malaria, Falciparum , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
Vaccine ; 39(4): 687-698, 2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of immune responses to RTS,S/AS01 has traditionally focused on immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies that are only moderately associated with protection. The role of other antibody isotypes that could also contribute to vaccine efficacy remains unclear. Here we investigated whether RTS,S/AS01E elicits antigen-specific serum IgA antibodies to the vaccine and other malaria antigens, and we explored their association with protection. METHODS: Ninety-five children (age 5-17 months old at first vaccination) from the RTS,S/AS01E phase 3 clinical trial who received 3 doses of RTS,S/AS01E or a comparator vaccine were selected for IgA quantification 1 month post primary immunization. Two sites with different malaria transmission intensities (MTI) and clinical malaria cases and controls, were included. Measurements of IgA against different constructs of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) vaccine antigen and 16 vaccine-unrelated Plasmodium falciparum antigens were performed using a quantitative suspension array assay. RESULTS: RTS,S vaccination induced a 1.2 to 2-fold increase in levels of serum/plasma IgA antibodies to all CSP constructs, which was not observed upon immunization with a comparator vaccine. The IgA response against 13 out of 16 vaccine-unrelated P. falciparum antigens also increased after vaccination, and levels were higher in recipients of RTS,S than in comparators. IgA levels to malaria antigens before vaccination were more elevated in the high MTI than the low MTI site. No statistically significant association of IgA with protection was found in exploratory analyses. CONCLUSIONS: RTS,S/AS01E induces IgA responses in peripheral blood against CSP vaccine antigens and other P. falciparum vaccine-unrelated antigens, similar to what we previously showed for IgG responses. Collectively, data warrant further investigation of the potential contribution of vaccine-induced IgA responses to efficacy and any possible interplay, either synergistic or antagonistic, with protective IgG, as identifying mediators of protection by RTS,S/AS01E immunization is necessary for the design of improved second-generation vaccines. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT008666191.


Subject(s)
Malaria Vaccines , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Adolescent , Antibodies, Protozoan , Antigens, Protozoan , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Infant , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Plasmodium falciparum , Protozoan Proteins
7.
Med Hypotheses ; 140: 109756, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-620753
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