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1.
Malar J ; 20(1): 475, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the government of Uganda implemented a strict lockdown policy in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) was performed to assess whether major changes in outpatient attendance, malaria burden, and case management occurred after the onset of the COVID-19 epidemic in rural Uganda. METHODS: Individual level data from all outpatient visits collected from April 2017 to March 2021 at 17 facilities were analysed. Outcomes included total outpatient visits, malaria cases, non-malarial visits, proportion of patients with suspected malaria, proportion of patients tested using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and proportion of malaria cases prescribed artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations and fractional regression was used to model count and proportion outcomes, respectively. Pre-COVID trends (April 2017-March 2020) were used to predict the'expected' trend in the absence of COVID-19 introduction. Effects of COVID-19 were estimated over two six-month COVID-19 time periods (April 2020-September 2020 and October 2020-March 2021) by dividing observed values by expected values, and expressed as ratios. RESULTS: A total of 1,442,737 outpatient visits were recorded. Malaria was suspected in 55.3% of visits and 98.8% of these had a malaria diagnostic test performed. ITSA showed no differences between observed and expected total outpatient visits, malaria cases, non-malarial visits, or proportion of visits with suspected malaria after COVID-19 onset. However, in the second six months of the COVID-19 time period, there was a smaller mean proportion of patients tested with RDTs compared to expected (relative prevalence ratio (RPR) = 0.87, CI (0.78-0.97)) and a smaller mean proportion of malaria cases prescribed AL (RPR = 0.94, CI (0.90-0.99)). CONCLUSIONS: In the first year after the COVID-19 pandemic arrived in Uganda, there were no major effects on malaria disease burden and indicators of case management at these 17 rural health facilities, except for a modest decrease in the proportion of RDTs used for malaria diagnosis and the mean proportion of malaria cases prescribed AL in the second half of the COVID-19 pandemic year. Continued surveillance will be essential to monitor for changes in trends in malaria indicators so that Uganda can quickly and flexibly respond to challenges imposed by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Chronic Disease Indicators , Humans , Infection Control , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/therapy , Malaria/transmission , Rural Health , Uganda/epidemiology
2.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(7): e0051421, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486483

ABSTRACT

Accurate SARS-CoV-2 serological assays are critical for COVID-19 serosurveillance. However, previous studies have indicated possible cross-reactivity of these assays, including in areas where malaria is endemic. We tested 213 well-characterized prepandemic samples from Nigeria using two SARS-CoV-2 serological assays, Abbott Architect IgG and Euroimmun NCP IgG assay, both targeting SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. To assess antibody binding strength, an avidity assay was performed on these samples and on plasma from SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive persons. Thirteen (6.1%) of 212 samples run on the Abbott assay and 38 (17.8%) of 213 run on the Euroimmun assay were positive. Anti-Plasmodium IgG levels were significantly higher among false positives for both Abbott and Euroimmun; no association was found with active Plasmodium falciparum infection. An avidity assay using various concentrations of urea wash in the Euroimmun assay reduced loosely bound IgG: of 37 positive/borderline prepandemic samples, 46%, 86%, 89%, and 97% became negative using 2 M, 4 M, 5 M, and 8 M urea washes, respectively. The wash slightly reduced avidity of antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 patients within 28 days of PCR confirmation; thereafter, avidity increased for all urea concentrations except 8 M. This validation found moderate to substantial cross-reactivity on two SARS-CoV-2 serological assays using samples from a setting where malaria is endemic. A simple urea wash appeared to alleviate issues of cross-reactivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Nigeria , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(2): 344-354, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352940

ABSTRACT

Cambodia has made impressive progress in reducing malaria trends and, in 2018, reported no malaria-related deaths for the first time. However, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic presents a potential challenge to the country's goal for malaria elimination by 2025. The path toward malaria elimination depends on sustained interventions to prevent rapid resurgence, which can quickly set back any gains achieved.Malaria Consortium supported mobile malaria workers (MMWs) to engage with target communities to build acceptance, trust, and resilience. At the start of the pandemic, Malaria Consortium conducted a COVID-19 risk assessment and quickly developed and implemented a mitigation plan to ensure MMWs were able to continue providing malaria services without putting themselves or their patients at risk. Changes in malaria intervention coverage and community uptake have been monitored to gauge the indirect effects of COVID-19. Comparisons have been made between output indicators reported in 2020 and from the same month-period of the previous year.In general, malaria service intervention coverage and utilization rates did not decline in 2020. Rather, the reported figures show there was a substantial increase in service utilization. Preliminary internal reviews and community meetings show that despite a heightened public risk perception toward COVID-19, malaria testing motivation has been well sustained throughout the pandemic. This may be attributable to proactive program planning and data monitoring and active engagement with the communities and the national authorities to circumvent the indirect effect of COVID-19 on intervention coverage in Cambodia during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Health Services , Malaria/prevention & control , Pandemics , Cambodia , Disease Eradication , Goals , Health Planning , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Residence Characteristics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Malar J ; 20(1): 339, 2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented challenges to health systems worldwide, including the control of non-COVID-19 diseases. Malaria cases and deaths may increase due to the direct and indirect effects of the pandemic in malaria-endemic countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This scoping review aims to summarize information on public health-relevant effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the malaria situation in SSA. METHODS: Review of publications and manuscripts on preprint servers, in peer-reviewed journals and in grey literature documents from 1 December, 2019 to 9 June, 2021. A structured search was conducted on different databases using predefined eligibility criteria for the selection of articles. RESULTS: A total of 51 papers have been included in the analysis. Modelling papers have predicted a significant increase in malaria cases and malaria deaths in SSA due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many papers provided potential explanations for expected COVID-19 effects on the malaria burden; these ranged from relevant diagnostical and clinical aspects to reduced access to health care services, impaired availability of curative and preventive commodities and medications, and effects on malaria prevention campaigns. Compared to previous years, fewer country reports provided data on the actual number of malaria cases and deaths in 2020, with mixed results. While highly endemic countries reported evidence of decreased malaria cases in health facilities, low endemic countries reported overall higher numbers of malaria cases and deaths in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this review provide evidence for a significant but diverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on malaria in SSA. There is the need to further investigate the public health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on the malaria burden. Protocol registered on Open Science Framework: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/STQ9D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Public Health , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Global Health , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/mortality , Malaria/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
J Midwifery Womens Health ; 66(3): 343-350, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325030

ABSTRACT

Malaria is a common infection world-wide, which carries significant risk of morbidity and mortality. Health care providers in the United States may lack experience in recognizing and treating this disease. The pathophysiology of malaria differs during pregnancy, resulting in increased risk for serious morbidity and mortality for the woman and her fetus. Screening for risk factors, especially immigration from and travel to endemic countries, is critical. Symptoms of malaria can mimic influenza-type illnesses, causing delay in diagnosis. Consultation with an infectious disease specialist and hospitalization may be required for appropriate testing and treatment. Chemoprophylaxis and counseling regarding methods to reduce risk are important components of prevention. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization have established protocols for treatment and are helpful resources for clinicians. A team approach to care based on the woman's stage of illness and recovery, can involve midwives, physicians, specialists and others.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Malaria , Plasmodium , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , Pregnancy , Severity of Illness Index , United States
9.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(7): e0051421, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276889

ABSTRACT

Accurate SARS-CoV-2 serological assays are critical for COVID-19 serosurveillance. However, previous studies have indicated possible cross-reactivity of these assays, including in areas where malaria is endemic. We tested 213 well-characterized prepandemic samples from Nigeria using two SARS-CoV-2 serological assays, Abbott Architect IgG and Euroimmun NCP IgG assay, both targeting SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. To assess antibody binding strength, an avidity assay was performed on these samples and on plasma from SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive persons. Thirteen (6.1%) of 212 samples run on the Abbott assay and 38 (17.8%) of 213 run on the Euroimmun assay were positive. Anti-Plasmodium IgG levels were significantly higher among false positives for both Abbott and Euroimmun; no association was found with active Plasmodium falciparum infection. An avidity assay using various concentrations of urea wash in the Euroimmun assay reduced loosely bound IgG: of 37 positive/borderline prepandemic samples, 46%, 86%, 89%, and 97% became negative using 2 M, 4 M, 5 M, and 8 M urea washes, respectively. The wash slightly reduced avidity of antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 patients within 28 days of PCR confirmation; thereafter, avidity increased for all urea concentrations except 8 M. This validation found moderate to substantial cross-reactivity on two SARS-CoV-2 serological assays using samples from a setting where malaria is endemic. A simple urea wash appeared to alleviate issues of cross-reactivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Nigeria , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(3): 453-465, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263258

ABSTRACT

The role of the emergency provider lies at the forefront of recognition and treatment of novel and re-emerging infectious diseases in children. Familiarity with disease presentations that might be considered rare, such as vaccine-preventable and non-endemic illnesses, is essential in identifying and controlling outbreaks. As we have seen thus far in the novel coronavirus pandemic, susceptibility, severity, transmission, and disease presentation can all have unique patterns in children. Emergency providers also have the potential to play a public health role by using lessons learned from the phenomena of vaccine hesitancy and refusal.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Pediatrics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Chickenpox/diagnosis , Chickenpox/therapy , Chickenpox/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/therapy , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Child , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Decision Trees , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/therapy , Dengue/transmission , Emergency Medicine , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/therapy , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/therapy , Malaria/transmission , Measles/diagnosis , Measles/therapy , Measles/transmission , Physician's Role , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Travel-Related Illness , Vaccination , Vaccination Refusal , Whooping Cough/diagnosis , Whooping Cough/therapy , Whooping Cough/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/therapy , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(5): 625-629, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262626

ABSTRACT

In tropical countries, endemic diseases such as malaria can be challenging to distinguish from COVID-19 because of the similarities in presenting symptoms. Here we reported a case of a young soldier with fever and myalgia six days before admission, with non-productive cough, chills, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, and headache for two days. Previously, he had experienced four times of malaria infection. He had a history of positive non-falciparum malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) two days before admission. Significant findings were epigastric tenderness, splenomegaly, and severe thrombocytopenia of 36×103 cells / µL. A naso-oropharyngeal swab examination revealed a positive SARS-CoV-2 infection. Consequently, he was hospitalized for 12 days, successfully treated, and discharged without sequelae. Thus, in light of a pandemic, physicians need to raise the suspicion of concurrent COVID-19 infection with other tropical diseases, especially at-risk patients, because malaria and COVID-19 may share similar manifestations. Moreover, further ancillary testing, such as RDT, may be warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Malaria/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antiviral Agents , Azithromycin , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection , Humans , Indonesia , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Male , Oseltamivir , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Trop Doct ; 51(4): 606-607, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261234

ABSTRACT

As international travels and destinations increase, travel-related infections increase. It is reported that 6-87% of the travellers contract travel-related infection during or after the trip. Vector-associated pathogens comprise a significant percentage of travel-related infections. Apart from the ubiquitous COVID19, threats such as Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika virus and tick-borne agents have emerged or re-emerged in recent years. The fact that these infections are carried with similar vectors and cause similar symptoms makes diagnosis difficult. Herein, a case of travel-associated infection with nonspecific symptoms is presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chikungunya Fever , Dengue , Malaria , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Travel-Related Illness , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 254, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218865

ABSTRACT

Since the announcement of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in January 30th 2020, 68 countries reported to the World Health Organization that they were experiencing disruptions in malaria diagnosis and treatment. This situation had the potential to lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment, which could result in an increase in severe cases and deaths. This analysis was based on findings from a field visit, carried out between June 30th and July 1st, 2020, to a warehouse, to two health facilities, and a meeting with a community health worker, and an descriptive epidemiologic data analysis of health information system (HIS) to evaluate trends of the number of people tested for malaria and number of malaria cases reported, by comparing data from 2018, 2019 and 2020 for the period between January and May. The two health facilities and the warehouse had about two months of stock of antimalarial drugs, and patients with malaria symptoms were being tested for malaria at the COVID-19 screening site. The HIS data showed that the number of reported malaria cases decreased by 3.0% (177.646/172.246) in April, and 7.0% (173.188/161.812) in May, when comparing 2019 and 2020 data. People tested for malaria in community increased by 39.0% (190.370/264.730), between 2019 and 2020. The COVID-19 may have had a negative impact on the diagnosis and treatment of malaria in health facility (HF). The decrease in people tested for malaria in the health facilities may have overwhelmed the activities of the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/supply & distribution , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Mass Screening/methods , Mozambique/epidemiology
14.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(7): e0051421, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186207

ABSTRACT

Accurate SARS-CoV-2 serological assays are critical for COVID-19 serosurveillance. However, previous studies have indicated possible cross-reactivity of these assays, including in areas where malaria is endemic. We tested 213 well-characterized prepandemic samples from Nigeria using two SARS-CoV-2 serological assays, Abbott Architect IgG and Euroimmun NCP IgG assay, both targeting SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. To assess antibody binding strength, an avidity assay was performed on these samples and on plasma from SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive persons. Thirteen (6.1%) of 212 samples run on the Abbott assay and 38 (17.8%) of 213 run on the Euroimmun assay were positive. Anti-Plasmodium IgG levels were significantly higher among false positives for both Abbott and Euroimmun; no association was found with active Plasmodium falciparum infection. An avidity assay using various concentrations of urea wash in the Euroimmun assay reduced loosely bound IgG: of 37 positive/borderline prepandemic samples, 46%, 86%, 89%, and 97% became negative using 2 M, 4 M, 5 M, and 8 M urea washes, respectively. The wash slightly reduced avidity of antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 patients within 28 days of PCR confirmation; thereafter, avidity increased for all urea concentrations except 8 M. This validation found moderate to substantial cross-reactivity on two SARS-CoV-2 serological assays using samples from a setting where malaria is endemic. A simple urea wash appeared to alleviate issues of cross-reactivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Nigeria , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e3, 2020 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073597

ABSTRACT

The use of SARS-CoV-2 rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits by some African countries for screening has raised serious concerns over their role in malaria areas. Coupled with a lack of adequate personal protective equipment and the scarcity of knowledge on the possible interaction between malaria and COVID-19 both in terms of presentations and shared symptoms, this has left many frontline health workers with fears and anxieties. Several anecdotal reports have already raised questions pertaining to possible false-positive COVID-19 results in proven malaria cases by use of SARS-CoV-2 RDT kits with huge costs to already constrained budgets. The report raises concerns on the use of SARS-CoV-2 kits in malaria areas in terms of cost, to prompt research, allay fears and guide policy during this pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Malaria/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , False Positive Reactions , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/economics
16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 179: 113074, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064881

ABSTRACT

On global scale, the current situation of pandemic is symptomatic of increased incidences of contagious diseases caused by pathogens. The faster spread of these diseases, in a moderately short timeframe, is threatening the overall population wellbeing and conceivably the economy. The inadequacy of conventional diagnostic tools in terms of time consuming and complex laboratory-based diagnosis process is a major challenge to medical care. In present era, the development of point-of-care testing (POCT) is in demand for fast detection of infectious diseases along with "on-site" results that are helpful in timely and early action for better treatment. In addition, POCT devices also play a crucial role in preventing the transmission of infectious diseases by offering real-time testing and lab quality microbial diagnosis within minutes. Timely diagnosis and further treatment optimization facilitate the containment of outbreaks of infectious diseases. Presently, efforts are being made to support such POCT by the technological development in the field of internet of medical things (IoMT). The IoMT offers wireless-based operation and connectivity of POCT devices with health expert and medical centre. In this review, the recently developed POC diagnostics integrated or future possibilities of integration with IoMT are discussed with focus on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases like malaria, dengue fever, influenza A (H1N1), human papilloma virus (HPV), Ebola virus disease (EVD), Zika virus (ZIKV), and coronavirus (COVID-19). The IoMT-assisted POCT systems are capable enough to fill the gap between bioinformatics generation, big rapid analytics, and clinical validation. An optimized IoMT-assisted POCT will be useful in understanding the diseases progression, treatment decision, and evaluation of efficacy of prescribed therapy.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Internet of Things , Point-of-Care Testing , Animals , Artificial Intelligence , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Equipment Design , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Malaria/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 212, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058635

ABSTRACT

At the end of December 2019, they emerged a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), triggering a pandemic of an acute respiratory syndrome (COVID-19) in humans. We report the relevant features of the first two confirmed cases of COVID-19 recorded from the 29th April 2020 in the Far North Region of Cameroon. We did a review of the files of these two patients who were admitted to the internal medicine ward of a medical Centre in Maroua Town, Far North Region. We present 2 cases of symptomatic COVID-19 patients, both males and health personnel, with an average age of 53 years, with no recent history of travel to a COVID-19 zone at risk and working in a then COVID-19 free region. They presented with extreme fatigue as their main symptom. Both were treated initially for severe malaria with quinine sulfate infusion with initial relief of symptoms. In the first confirmed case, at his re-hospitalization with an acute respiratory syndrome, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test in search of SARS-CoV-2 was requested with his results available 7 days into admission. For the second case, he had his results 48 hours on admission while he was prepared to be discharged. Both control PCR tests for COVID-19 came back negative 14 days after hospitalization. Health personnel remains a group at risk for the COVID-19 infection. The clinical manifestation at an early stage may be atypical mimicking endemic tropical infections. Also, the therapeutic potential of quinine salts in the relief of symptoms of COVID-19 is questionable and remains a subject to explore in our context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Malaria/diagnosis , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cameroon , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Quinine/administration & dosage
19.
Malar J ; 19(1): 457, 2020 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992487

ABSTRACT

The incidence and mortality of COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization reports, shows a noticeable difference between North America, Western Europe, and South Asia on one hand and most African countries on the other hand, especially the malaria-endemic countries. Although this observation could be attributed to limited testing capacity, mitigation tools adopted and cultural habits, many theories have been postulated to explain this difference in prevalence and mortality. Because death tends to occur more in elders, both the role of demography, and how the age structure of a population may contribute to the difference in mortality rate between countries were discussed. The variable distribution of the ACEI/D and the ACE2 (C1173T substitution) polymorphisms has been postulated to explain this variable prevalence. Up-to-date data regarding the role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) in COVID-19 have been summarized. The article also sheds lights on how the similarity of malaria and COVID-19 symptoms can lead to misdiagnosis of one disease for the other or overlooking the possibility of co-infection. As the COVID-19 pandemic threatens the delivery of malaria services, such as the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying, as well as malaria chemoprevention there is an urgent need for rapid and effective responses to avoid malaria outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferons/physiology , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Prevalence
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 1, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965125

ABSTRACT

The devastating impact of infectious disease outbreaks and pandemics on health systems could be overwhelming especially when there is an overlap in clinical presentations with other disease conditions. A case in point is the disruptive effect of the Ebola Virus Disease outbreak on health service delivery and its consequences for malaria management in the affected West and Central African countries between 2014 and 2016. This could be the case with the current infectious disease pandemic (COVID-19) the world is experiencing as malaria illness shares many symptoms with COVID-19 illness. Caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19 is reported to have originated from Wuhan city, China in December 2019. COVID-19 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020 and declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Practically, all community infrastructure has been activated in affected countries in response to COVID-19. However, the deployment of huge resources in combating COVID-19 pandemic should not be a missed opportunity for the advancement of infectious diseases control including malaria. This calls for conscious and heightened effort to sustain the gains in malaria control. The WHO has emphasized that the response to the COVID-19 pandemic must utilize and strengthen existing infrastructure for addressing malaria and other infectious diseases globally. Leveraging these to maintain malaria control activities in endemic countries could boost and help to sustain the gains in malaria control in accordance with the 2016-2030 Global technical strategy for malaria (GTS) milestones. In addition, it will help to keep the "High burden to high impact" (HBHI) and other initiatives on track. This article highlights the commonalities of the two diseases, discusses implications and recommendations to support decision making strategies to keep malaria control on track in the COVID-19 pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic
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