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1.
Malar J ; 21(1): 121, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789122

ABSTRACT

Malaria is one of the most serious infectious diseases affecting predominantly low- and middle-income countries, where pregnant women are among the populations at risk. There are limited options to prevent or treat malaria in pregnancy, particularly in the first trimester, and existing ones may not work optimally in areas where the threat of drug resistance is rising. As malaria elimination is a key goal of the global health community, the inclusion of pregnant women in the adult population to protect from malaria will be key to achieving success. New, safe, and effective options are needed but it can take decades of evidence-gathering before a medicine is recommended for use in pregnancy. This is because pregnant women are typically not included in pre-registration clinical trials due to fear of causing harm. Data to support dosing and safety in pregnancy are subsequently collected in post-licensure studies. There have been growing calls in recent years that this practice needs to change, amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic and increasing public awareness that newly developed medicines generally cannot be administered to pregnant women from the onset. The development of new anti-malarials should ensure that data informing their use in pregnancy and breastfeeding are available earlier. To achieve this, a mindset change and a different approach to medications for pregnant women are needed. Changes in non-clinical, translational, and clinical approaches in the drug development pathway, in line with recent recommendations from the regulatory bodies are proposed in this Comment. The new approach applies to any malaria-endemic region, regardless of the type of Plasmodium responsible for malaria cases. By incorporating intentional and systematic data collection from pre-registration stages of development through post-licensure, it will be possible to inform on the benefit/risk balance of a new anti-malarial earlier and help ensure that the needs of pregnant individuals are addressed in a more timely and equitable manner in the future.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Malaria , Adult , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Drug Development , Female , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women
2.
OMICS ; 26(4): 179-188, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784298

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic disease, impacting multiple organs in the human body. But COVID-19 also impacts other diseases of relevance to public and planetary health. To understand and respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, we need an intersectional conceptual lens and systems thinking. For example, the strain on health care systems due to COVID-19 has adversely impacted global malaria elimination programs. With many epidemiological, clinical, and biological parallels documented, we examined in this study the scenario of malaria and COVID-19 syndemic in India. The disruptive influence of COVID-19 on the National Framework for Malaria Elimination (NFME), impact of unintended chemoprophylaxis, population genetic influences, and the shifting patterns of epidemiology are compared. Importantly, a time series analysis forecasted the burden of malaria increasing in the upcoming years. Although reported malaria cases showed a decline in 2020 compared to the previous years, an increase in cases was documented in 2021, with nine states reporting an increase up to July 2021. Pandemics often cause crosscutting disruptions in health care. Reshaping the priorities of the malaria elimination program and a diligent implementation of the priorities in the NFME would, therefore, be well-advised: (1) vector control, (2) antimalarial therapy recommendations, (3) monitoring drug resistance, (4) prevention of the spread of asymptomatic disease-causing low-density transmission, and (5) large-scale testing measures. In conclusion, the findings from the present study inform future comparative studies in other world regions to better understand the broader, systemic, temporal, and spatial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on existing and future diseases across public health systems and services.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Malaria , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Population Surveillance
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e053922, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Malaria is a vector-borne disease that remains a serious public health problem due to its climatic sensitivity. Accurate prediction of malaria re-emergence is very important in taking corresponding effective measures. This study aims to investigate the impact of climatic factors on the re-emergence of malaria in mainland China. DESIGN: A modelling study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Monthly malaria cases for four Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax and other Plasmodium) and monthly climate data were collected for 31 provinces; malaria cases from 2004 to 2016 were obtained from the Chinese centre for disease control and prevention and climate parameters from China meteorological data service centre. We conducted analyses at the aggregate level, and there was no involvement of confidential information. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The long short-term memory sequence-to-sequence (LSTMSeq2Seq) deep neural network model was used to predict the re-emergence of malaria cases from 2004 to 2016, based on the influence of climatic factors. We trained and tested the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), gated recurrent unit, LSTM, LSTMSeq2Seq models using monthly malaria cases and corresponding meteorological data in 31 provinces of China. Then we compared the predictive performance of models using root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute error evaluation measures. RESULTS: The proposed LSTMSeq2Seq model reduced the mean RMSE of the predictions by 19.05% to 33.93%, 18.4% to 33.59%, 17.6% to 26.67% and 13.28% to 21.34%, for P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and other plasmodia, respectively, as compared with other candidate models. The LSTMSeq2Seq model achieved an average prediction accuracy of 87.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The LSTMSeq2Seq model significantly improved the prediction of malaria re-emergence based on the influence of climatic factors. Therefore, the LSTMSeq2Seq model can be effectively applied in the malaria re-emergence prediction.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , China/epidemiology , Climate Change , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742478

ABSTRACT

According to the latest World Health Organization malaria report, 95% of 241 million global malaria cases and 96% of 627,000 malaria deaths that were recorded in 2020 occurred in Africa. Compared to 2019, 14 million more cases and 69,000 more malaria deaths were recorded, mainly because of disruptions to medical services during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria cases in children and adults living in the Dzanga Sangha region in the Central African Republic (CAR) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Rapid immunochromatographic assays for the qualitative detection of Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale/P. malariae) circulating in whole blood samples were used. A screening was performed in the group of 515 patients, 162 seemingly healthy children (aged 1-15) and 353 adults, all inhabiting the villages in the Dzanga Sangha region (southwest CAR) between August and September 2021. As much as 51.2% of asymptomatic children and 12.2% of adults had a positive result in malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs). Our findings demonstrated a very high prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infections in the child population. Limited access to diagnostics, treatment and prevention of malaria during the global COVID-19 pandemic and less medical assistance from developed countries may be one of the factors contributing to the increase in the prevalence of disease in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Central African Republic/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Malaria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Plasmodium falciparum
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736891

ABSTRACT

The conventional paper-based system for malaria surveillance is time-consuming, difficult to track and resource-intensive. Few digital platforms are in use but wide-scale deployment and acceptability remain to be seen. To address this issue, we created a malaria surveillance mobile app that offers real-time data to stakeholders and establishes a centralised data repository. The MoSQuIT app was designed to collect data from the field and was integrated with a web-based platform for data integration and analysis. The MoSQuIT app was deployed on mobile phones of accredited social health activists (ASHA) working in international border villages in the northeast (NE) Indian states of Assam, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh for 20 months in a phased manner. This paper shares the challenges and opportunities associated with the use of MoSQuIT for malaria surveillance. MoSQuIT employs the same data entry formats as the NVBDCP's malaria surveillance programme. Using this app, a total of 8221 fever cases were recorded, which included 1192 (14.5%) cases of P. falciparum malaria, 280 (3.4%) cases of P. vivax malaria and 52 (0.6%) mixed infection cases. Depending on network availability, GPS coordinates of the fever cases were acquired by the app. The present study demonstrated that mobile-phone-based malaria surveillance facilitates the quick transmission of data from the field to decision makers. Geospatial tagging of cases helped with easy visualisation of the case distribution for the identification of malaria-prone areas and potential outbreaks, especially in hilly and remote regions of Northeast India. However, to achieve the full operational potential of the system, operational challenges have to be overcome.


Subject(s)
Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria, Vivax , Malaria , Mobile Applications , Telemedicine , Fever , Humans , India/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 373, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to avert the negative effects of malaria, there remain barriers to the uptake of prevention measures, and these have hindered its eradication. This study explored the factors that influence uptake of malaria prevention strategies among pregnant women and children under-five years and the impact of COVID-19 in a malaria endemic rural district in Uganda. METHODS: This was a qualitative case study that used focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and key informant interviews involving pregnant women, caregivers of children under-five years, traditional birth attendants, village health teams, local leaders, and healthcare providers to explore malaria prevention uptake among pregnant women and children under-five years. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and data were analyzed using thematic content approach. RESULTS: Seventy-two participants were enrolled in the Focus Group Discussions, 12 in the in-depth interviews, and 2 as key informants. Pregnant women and caregivers of children under-five years were able to recognize causes of malaria, transmission, and symptoms. All participants viewed malaria prevention as a high priority, and the use of insecticide-treated mosquito bed nets (ITNs) was upheld. Participants' own experiences indicated adverse effects of malaria to both pregnant women and children under-five. Home medication and the use of local herbs were a common practice. Some participants didn't use any of the malaria prevention methods due to deliberate refusal, perceived negative effects of the ITNs, and family disparity. The Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) control measures did not abate the risk of malaria infection but these were deleterious to healthcare access and the focus of malaria prevention. CONCLUSIONS: Although pregnant women and caregivers of children under-five years recognized symptoms of malaria infection, healthcare-seeking was not apt as some respondents used alternative approaches and delayed seeking formal healthcare. It is imperative to focus on the promotion of malaria prevention strategies and address drawbacks associated with misconceptions about these interventions, and promotion of health-seeking behaviors. As COVID-19 exacerbated the effect of malaria prevention uptake and healthcare seeking, it's critical to recommit and integrate COVID-19 prevention measures in normative living and restrict future barriers to healthcare access.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Caregivers , Child , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiology
10.
Malar J ; 21(1): 48, 2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rwanda has achieved impressive reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality over the past two decades. However, the disruption of essential services due to the current Covid-19 pandemic can lead to a reversal of these gains in malaria control unless targeted, evidence-based interventions are implemented to mitigate the impact of the pandemic. The extent to which malaria services have been disrupted has not been fully characterized. This study was conducted to assess the impact of Covid-19 on malaria services in Rwanda. METHODS: A mixed-methods study was conducted in three purposively selected districts in Rwanda. The quantitative data included malaria aggregated data reported at the health facility level and the community level. The data included the number of malaria tests, uncomplicated malaria cases, severe malaria cases, and malaria deaths. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussions with community members and community health workers, as well as in-depth interviews with health care providers and staff working in the malaria programme. Interrupted time series analysis was conducted to compare changes in malaria presentations between the pre-Covid-19 period (January 2019 to February 2020) and Covid-19 period (from March 2020 to November 2020). The constant comparative method was used in qualitative thematic analysis. RESULTS: Compared to the pre-Covid-19 period, there was a monthly reduction in patients tested in health facilities of 4.32 per 1000 population and a monthly increase in patients tested in the community of 2.38 per 1000 population during the Covid-19 period. There was no change in the overall presentation rate for uncomplicated malaria. The was a monthly reduction in the proportion of severe malaria of 5.47 per 100,000 malaria cases. Additionally, although healthcare providers continued to provide malaria services, they were fearful that this would expose them and their families to Covid-19. Covid-19 mitigation measures limited the availability of transportation options for the community to seek care in health facilities and delayed the implementation of some key malaria interventions. The focus on Covid-19-related communication also reduced the amount of health information for other diseases provided to community members. CONCLUSION: The Covid-19 pandemic resulted in patients increasingly seeking care in the community and poses challenges to maintaining delivery of malaria services in Rwanda. Interventions to mitigate these challenges should focus on strengthening programming for the community and home-based care models and integrating malaria messages into Covid-19-related communication. Additionally, implementation of the interrupted interventions should be timed and overlap with the malaria transmission season to mitigate Covid-19 consequences on malaria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Community Health Workers , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Pandemics , Rwanda/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(2): 440-444, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650669

ABSTRACT

Inhabitants of the Greater Mekong Subregion in Cambodia are exposed to pathogens that might influence serologic cross-reactivity with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. A prepandemic serosurvey of 528 malaria-infected persons demonstrated higher-than-expected positivity of nonneutralizing IgG to spike and receptor-binding domain antigens. These findings could affect interpretation of large-scale serosurveys.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Antibodies, Viral , Cambodia/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 78, 2022 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite reports of malaria and coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) co-infection, malaria-endemic regions have so far recorded fewer cases of COVID-19 and deaths from COVID-19, indicating a probable protection from the poor outcome of COVID-19 by malaria. On the contrary, other evidence suggests that malaria might contribute to the death caused by COVID-19. Hence, this paper reviewed existing evidence hypothesizing poor outcome or protection of COVID-19 patients when co-infected with malaria. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines for systematic review were employed in this study. Published articles from December 2019 to May 2021on COVID-19 and malaria co-infection and outcome were systematically searched in relevant and accessible databases following a pre-defined strategy. Studies involving human, in vivo animal studies, and in vitro studies were included. RESULTS: Twenty three (23) studies were included in the review out of the 3866 records identified in the selected scientific databases. Nine (9) papers reported on co-infection of COVID-19 and malaria. Five (5) papers provided information about synergism of malaria and COVID-19 poor prognosis, 2 papers reported on syndemic of COVID-19 and malaria intervention, and 7 studies indicated that malaria protects individuals from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Low incidence of COVID-19 in malaria-endemic regions supports the hypothesis that COVID-19 poor prognosis is prevented by malaria. Although further studies are required to ascertain this hypothesis, cross-immunity and common immunodominant isotopes provide strong evidence to support this hypothesis. Also, increase in co-inhibitory receptors and atypical memory B cells indicate synergy between COVID-19 and malaria outcome, though, more studies are required to make a definite conclusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Malaria , Africa/epidemiology , Animals , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Malaria/complications , Malaria/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Malar J ; 20(1): 475, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the government of Uganda implemented a strict lockdown policy in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) was performed to assess whether major changes in outpatient attendance, malaria burden, and case management occurred after the onset of the COVID-19 epidemic in rural Uganda. METHODS: Individual level data from all outpatient visits collected from April 2017 to March 2021 at 17 facilities were analysed. Outcomes included total outpatient visits, malaria cases, non-malarial visits, proportion of patients with suspected malaria, proportion of patients tested using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and proportion of malaria cases prescribed artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations and fractional regression was used to model count and proportion outcomes, respectively. Pre-COVID trends (April 2017-March 2020) were used to predict the'expected' trend in the absence of COVID-19 introduction. Effects of COVID-19 were estimated over two six-month COVID-19 time periods (April 2020-September 2020 and October 2020-March 2021) by dividing observed values by expected values, and expressed as ratios. RESULTS: A total of 1,442,737 outpatient visits were recorded. Malaria was suspected in 55.3% of visits and 98.8% of these had a malaria diagnostic test performed. ITSA showed no differences between observed and expected total outpatient visits, malaria cases, non-malarial visits, or proportion of visits with suspected malaria after COVID-19 onset. However, in the second six months of the COVID-19 time period, there was a smaller mean proportion of patients tested with RDTs compared to expected (relative prevalence ratio (RPR) = 0.87, CI (0.78-0.97)) and a smaller mean proportion of malaria cases prescribed AL (RPR = 0.94, CI (0.90-0.99)). CONCLUSIONS: In the first year after the COVID-19 pandemic arrived in Uganda, there were no major effects on malaria disease burden and indicators of case management at these 17 rural health facilities, except for a modest decrease in the proportion of RDTs used for malaria diagnosis and the mean proportion of malaria cases prescribed AL in the second half of the COVID-19 pandemic year. Continued surveillance will be essential to monitor for changes in trends in malaria indicators so that Uganda can quickly and flexibly respond to challenges imposed by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Chronic Disease Indicators , Humans , Infection Control , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/therapy , Malaria/transmission , Rural Health , Uganda/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625591

ABSTRACT

Aiming to identify the potentially reduced malaria cases by stagnation of international traffic after the COVID-19 pandemic, a longitudinal analysis of malaria cases as well as entries of Japanese and foreigners was conducted using data from 5 April 1999 to 30 September 2021 in Japan. Multivariable risk ratios were calculated with the Poison regression model as a predictive model of malaria cases by the number of entries for Japanese and foreigners. A generalized regression model was used to examine an association of time trend with entries for Japanese and foreigners using data before 2019, to estimate the potentially reduced number of entries after 2020. The potentially reduced number of malaria cases was estimated by the potentially reduced number of entries for Japanese and foreigners after 2020 using a multivariable Poison regression model. The multivariable risk ratio (95% confidence intervals) of malaria case numbers per 100,000 persons increment of entries per day was 3.41 (1.50-7.77) for Japanese and 1.47 (0.92-2.35) for foreigners. During 2020, a potential reduction of 28 (95% confidence limit: 22-34) malaria cases was estimated, which accounted for 58% (52-63%) of malaria cases in Japan. These finding suggest that the stagnation of international traffic during the COVID-19 pandemic reduced the number of malaria cases in Japan. This model may be helpful for countries without indigenous malaria to predict future trends of imported malaria cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Malar J ; 20(1): 481, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malaria causes more than 200 million cases of illness and 400,000 deaths each year across 90 countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) set a goal for 35 countries to eliminate malaria by 2030, with an intermediate milestone of 10 countries by 2020. In 2017, the WHO established the Elimination-2020 (E-2020) initiative to help countries achieve their malaria elimination goals and included 21 countries with the potential to eliminate malaria by 2020. METHODS: Across its three levels of activity (country, region and global), the WHO developed normative and implementation guidance on strategies and activities to eliminate malaria; provided technical support and subnational operational assistance; convened national malaria programme managers at three global meetings to share innovations and best practices; advised countries on strengthening their strategy to prevent re-establishment and preparing for WHO malaria certification; and contributed to maintaining momentum towards elimination through periodic evaluations, monitoring and oversight of progress in the E-2020 countries. Changes in the number of indigenous cases in E-2020 countries between 2016 and 2020 are reported, along with the number of countries that eliminated malaria and received WHO certification. RESULTS: The median number of indigenous cases in the E-2020 countries declined from 165.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 14.25-563.75) in 2016 to 78 (IQR 0-356) in 2020; 12 (57%) countries reported reductions in indigenous cases over that period, of which 7 (33%) interrupted malaria transmission and maintained a malaria-free status through 2020 and 4 (19%) were certified malaria-free by the WHO. Two countries experienced outbreaks of malaria in 2020 and 2021 attributed, in part, to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Although the E-2020 countries contributed to the achievement of the 2020 global elimination milestone, the initiative highlights the difficulties countries face to interrupt malaria transmission, even when numbers of cases are very low. The 2025 global elimination milestone is now approaching, and the lessons learned, experience gained, and updated guidance developed during the E-2020 initiative will help serve the countries seeking to eliminate malaria by 2025.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Global Health , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , World Health Organization , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Malaria/transmission , Population Surveillance
17.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(11): e1009570, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595956

ABSTRACT

Time lags in reporting to national surveillance systems represent a major barrier for the control of infectious diseases, preventing timely decision making and resource allocation. This issue is particularly acute for infectious diseases like malaria, which often impact rural and remote communities the hardest. In Guyana, a country located in South America, poor connectivity among remote malaria-endemic regions hampers surveillance efforts, making reporting delays a key challenge for elimination. Here, we analyze 13 years of malaria surveillance data, identifying key correlates of time lags between clinical cases occurring and being added to the central data system. We develop nowcasting methods that use historical patterns of reporting delays to estimate occurred-but-not-reported monthly malaria cases. To assess their performance, we implemented them retrospectively, using only information that would have been available at the time of estimation, and found that they substantially enhanced the estimates of malaria cases. Specifically, we found that the best performing models achieved up to two-fold improvements in accuracy (or error reduction) over known cases in selected regions. Our approach provides a simple, generalizable tool to improve malaria surveillance in endemic countries and is currently being implemented to help guide existing resource allocation and elimination efforts.


Subject(s)
Malaria/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Guyana/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical , Retrospective Studies
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e048073, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583118

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This population-based open cohort study aims to investigate biological and sociodemographic drivers of malaria transmission in the main urban hotspot of Amazonian Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Nearly 20% of the households in the northwestern town of Mâncio Lima were randomly selected and 2690 participants were enrolled since April 2018. Sociodemographic, housing quality, occupational, behavioural and morbidity information and travel histories were collected during consecutive study visits. Blood samples from participants>3 months old were used for malaria diagnosis and human genetic studies; samples from participants with laboratory-confirmed malaria have been cryopreserved for genetic and phenotypic characterisation of parasites. Serology was introduced in 2020 to measure the prevalence and longevity of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. FINDINGS TO DATE: Malaria prevalence rates were low (up to 1.0% for Plasmodium vivax and 0.6% for P. falciparum) during five consecutive cross-sectional surveys between April-May 2018 and October-November 2020; 63% of infections diagnosed by microscopy were asymptomatic. Malaria risk is heterogeneously distributed, with 20% study participants contributing 86% of the overall burden of P. vivax infection. Adult males are at greatest risk of infection and human mobility across the urban-rural interface may contribute to sustained malaria transmission. Local P. vivax parasites are genetically diverse and fragmented into discrete inbred lineages that remain stable across space and time. FUTURE PLANS: Two follow-up visits, with similar study protocols, are planned in 2021. We aim to identify high-risk individuals that fuel onwards malaria transmission and represent a priority target for more intensive and effective control interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03689036.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria, Vivax , Malaria , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 366-371, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544350

ABSTRACT

Co-epidemics happening simultaneously can generate a burden on healthcare systems. The co-occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 with vector-borne diseases (VBD), such as malaria and dengue in resource-limited settings represents an additional challenge to the healthcare systems. Herein, we assessed the coinfection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD to highlight the need to carry out an accurate diagnosis and promote timely measures for these infections in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 105 subjects tested for the SARS-CoV-2 and VBD with a rapid detection test in April 2021. The participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (3.80%), malaria (13.3%), and dengue (27.6%). Low odds related to testing positivity to SARS-CoV-2 or VBD were observed in participants above or equal to 40 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.60, p = 0.536), while higher odds were observed in male (OR: 1.44, p = 0.392) and urbanized areas (OR: 3.78, p = 0.223). The overall co-infection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD was 11.4%. Our findings showed a coinfection between SARS-CoV-2 with malaria and dengue, which could indicate the need to integrate the screening for VBD in the SARS-CoV-2 testing algorithm and the adjustment of treatment protocols. Further studies are warranted to better elucidate the relationship between COVID-19 and VBD in Angola.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Vector Borne Diseases/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Angola/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Young Adult , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
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