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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 638, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increased risk of loss to follow-up among TB smokers raises concern over the secondary spread within the community. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with loss to follow-up among TB patients who smoke. METHODS: All registered TB patients who smoke in the state of Selangor between 2013 and 2017 via the Malaysian Tuberculosis Information System (MyTB) database were included for analysis. TB patients who smoke were considered those who are "current smoker" during the notification, while loss to follow-up was defined as a TB patient who had interrupted treatment for 2 months or longer. There were 3 main variable domains included for analysis: sociodemographic profiles, disease profiles, and comorbidities. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of loss to follow-up among TB patients who smoke. RESULTS: A total of 14.1% (N = 813) of TB patients who smoke loss to follow-up. The determinants of loss to follow-up among TB smokers were working age population aged 32-41 and 42-53 years old (AOR 1.08; 95%CI 1.23,2.08) and (AOR 1.44; 95%CI 1.11,1.87) respectively, Malaysian nationality (AOR 2.34; 95%CI 1.66,3.30), patients staying in urban area (AOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.23,1.97), income level less than RM2160 (AOR 1.59; 95% CI 1.14,2.20), un-employed (AOR 1.30; 95%CI 1.09-1.55), have low education level i.e., secondary school education, primary school education and no formal education (AOR 1.60; 95%CI 1.22,2.10), (AOR 1.73; 95%CI 1.16,2.57) and (AOR 2.29; 95% CI 1.57,3.33) respectively, previously treated TB cases (AOR 2.19; 95% CI 1.71,2.81), active TB case detection methods (AOR 2.06; 95%CI 1.40,3.02), moderate lesion x-ray (AOR 1.60; 95%CI 1.13,2.27) and HIV positive (AOR 1.36; 95%CI 1.02,1.82). All the significant factors gave rise to the final model of determinants, with a predictability of 67.2% (95% CI 65.0,69.3). CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of loss to follow-up among TB patients who smoke highlight the importance of providing early risk detection that examines the three main domains of risk factors such as socioeconomic, disease profiles and comorbidities. Potential integrated intervention should aim to reduce the proportion of smoking among TB patients through the stop smoking programme together with directly observed therapy (DOT).


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Registries , Smoking/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 667, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779627

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic placed an unprecedented overload on healthcare system globally. With all medical resources being dedicated to contain the spread of the disease, the pandemic may have impacted the burden of other infectious diseases such as dengue, particularly in countries endemic for dengue fever. Indeed, the co-occurrence of COVID-19 made dengue diagnosis challenging because of some shared clinical manifestations between the two pathogens. Furthermore, the sudden emergence and novelty of this global public health crisis has forced the suspension or slow-down of several research trials due to the lack of sufficient knowledge on how to handle the continuity of research trials during the pandemic. We report on challenges we have faced during the COVID-19 pandemic and measures that were implemented to continue the iDEM project (intervention for Dengue Epidemiology in Malaysia). METHODS: This randomized controlled trial aims to assess the effectiveness of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) on the incidence of dengue in urban Malaysia by combining: targeted outdoor residual spraying (TORS), deployment of auto-dissemination devices (ADDs), and active community engagement (CE). Our operational activities started on February 10, 2020, a few weeks before the implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions to contain the spread of COVID-19 in Malaysia. RESULTS: The three main issues affecting the continuity of the trial were: ensuring the safety of field workers during the interventions; ensuring the planned turnover of TORS application and ADD deployment and services; and maintaining the CE activities as far as possible. CONCLUSIONS: Even though the pandemic has created monumental challenges, we ensured the safety of field workers by providing complete personal protective equipment and regular COVID-19 testing. Albeit with delay, we maintained the planned interval time between TORS application and ADDs services by overlapping the intervention cycles instead of having them in a sequential scheme. CE activities continued remotely through several channels (e.g., phone calls and text messages). Sustained efforts of the management team, significant involvement of the Malaysian Ministry of Health and a quick and smart adaptation of the trial organisation according to the pandemic situation were the main factors that allowed the successful continuation of our research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: ISRCTN-81915073 . Date of registration: 17/04/2020, 'Retrospectively registered'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 13(1): 1-5, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771578

ABSTRACT

Objective: Aged-care facilities are high-risk settings for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks because residents have risk factors such as advanced age and multiple comorbidities. This report details a COVID-19 outbreak at an aged-care facility in Selangor, Malaysia during March-April 2020. Methods: Epidemiological and environmental data were gathered via telephone interviews and field investigations. Swab samples were taken from all residents and staff for laboratory investigation. Possible contributing factors to the outbreak were explored. Results: There were a total of 18 individuals at the institution: nine elderly residents and nine staff. The attack rate was 66.67% (6/9) among the elderly residents and 55.56% (5/9) among the staff. The most common symptoms reported were fever, cough, shortness of breath and diarrhoea. The fatality rate among COVID-19 cases was 18.18% (2/11). Both fatal cases occurred in people of advanced age (86 and 92 years old), who had comorbidities and had fever at presentation. The factors contributing to the outbreak included a delay in isolating symptomatic residents, the use of common facilities, caregivers providing support to more than one resident and a lack of natural ventilation. Discussion: Prevention and control measures must be aggressively implemented in high-risk sites to significantly reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality during COVID-19 outbreaks. Specific guidelines should be developed detailing the management of outbreaks in institutions such as aged-care facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence , Malaysia/epidemiology , Nursing Homes
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22105, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758317

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic first emerged in Malaysia in Jan 2020. As of 12th Sept 2021, 1,979,698 COVID-19 cases that occurred over three major epidemic waves were confirmed. The virus contributing to the three epidemic waves has not been well-studied. We sequenced the genome of 22 SARS-CoV-2 strains detected in Malaysia during the second and the ongoing third wave of the COVID-19 epidemic. Detailed phylogenetic and genetic variation analyses of the SARS-CoV-2 isolate genomes were performed using these newly determined sequences and all other available sequences. Results from the analyses suggested multiple independent introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into Malaysia. A new B.1.524(G) lineage with S-D614G mutation was detected in Sabah, East Malaysia and Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia on 7th October 2020 and 14th October 2020, respectively. This new B.1.524(G) group was not the direct descendant of any of the previously detected lineages. The new B.1.524(G) carried a set of genetic variations, including A701V (position variant frequency = 0.0007) in Spike protein and a novel G114T mutation at the 5'UTR. The biological importance of the specific mutations remained unknown. The sequential appearance of the mutations, however, suggests that the spread of the new B.1.524(G) lineages likely begun in Sabah and then spread to Selangor. The findings presented here support the importance of SARS-CoV-2 full genome sequencing as a tool to establish an epidemiological link between cases or clusters of COVID-19 worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Phylogeny
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 836358, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753421

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected human health and socioeconomic backgrounds. This study examined the spatiotemporal spread pattern of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia from the index case to 291,774 cases in 13 months, emphasizing on the spatial autocorrelation of the high-risk cluster events and the spatial scan clustering pattern of transmission. Methodology: We obtained the confirmed cases and deaths of COVID-19 in Malaysia from the official GitHub repository of Malaysia's Ministry of Health from January 25, 2020 to February 24, 2021, 1 day before the national vaccination program was initiated. All analyses were based on the daily cumulated cases, which are derived from the sum of retrospective 7 days and the current day for smoothing purposes. We examined the daily global, local spatial autocorrelation and scan statistics of COVID-19 cases at district level using Moran's I and SaTScan™. Results: At the initial stage of the outbreak, Moran's I index > 0.5 (p < 0.05) was observed. Local Moran's I depicted the high-high cluster risk expanded from west to east of Malaysia. The cases surged exponentially after September 2020, with the high-high cluster in Sabah, from Kinabatangan on September 1 (cumulative cases = 9,354; Moran's I = 0.34; p < 0.05), to 11 districts on October 19 (cumulative cases = 21,363, Moran's I = 0.52, p < 0.05). The most likely cluster identified from space-time scanning was centered in Jasin, Melaka (RR = 11.93; p < 0.001) which encompassed 36 districts with a radius of 178.8 km, from November 24, 2020 to February 24, 2021, followed by the Sabah cluster. Discussion and Conclusion: Both analyses complemented each other in depicting underlying spatiotemporal clustering risk, giving detailed space-time spread information at district level. This daily analysis could be valuable insight into real-time reporting of transmission intensity, and alert for the public to avoid visiting the high-risk areas during the pandemic. The spatiotemporal transmission risk pattern could be used to monitor the spread of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Spatial Analysis
6.
Geospat Health ; 17(s1)2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726245

ABSTRACT

The Malaysian government has introduced the National COVID-19 Immunisation Programme (PICK) as a new mechanism to address the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Unfortunately, the number of PICK registrations is still unsatisfactory and is now even lower. The low level of participation of the Sabah (East Malaysia) population significantly impacts the PICK registrations. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors that cause vaccine hesitancy among the people of Sabah. This study seeks to identify these trends based on zone and district boundaries. A total of 1024 respondents were sampled in this study. Raw data collected through the survey method were analysed using K-means clustering, principal component analysis (PCA), and spatial analysis. The study discovered that factors including confidence, authority, mainstream media, complacency, social media, and convenience are the top causes of vaccine hesitancy among respondents. This study also revealed that the Sabah population's key variables causing vaccine hesitancy to vary by region (zones and districts). The conclusion is significant as a source of supporting data for stakeholders seeking to identify the Sabah population's constraints in each region and therefore, it would help improve PICK management's performance in Sabah.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization Programs , Malaysia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 49, 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724574

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Medical schools throughout the world were forced to modify their programming during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Malaysia, virtual learning plans were implemented for non-clinical programming, while clinical posting modifications were designed to meet local SOPs. The prolonged enforcement of these modifications to undergraduate medical education will have affected student experiences, including well-being. Since these feelings can relate to perceived relatedness, autonomy, and competence, it is important to identify any potential factors that may lead to reduced intrinsic motivation in students. It is also important to consider how demographic features may contribute to student perspectives, which can be studied using the unique diversity represented by Malaysian students. METHODS: A quantitative survey was distributed to Malaysian medical students to assess their overall wellbeing, autonomy in educational decision making, student experiences, and position on changes to graduation timing. Intrinsic components were identified using Principal Component Analysis and were aligned with the three needs for self-determination, namely relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Finally, trends in responses for participants from various sub-populations were assessed using ANOVA testing. RESULTS: Responses were collected from 442 students representing 23 accredited Malaysian medical schools. Upon validation and reliability testing, eight components were identified with themes relating to: mental health, social concerns, communication, timing of modifications, depth of learning, and student-centred learning. Of these, gender was related to mental health, student-centred learning, and delayed graduation, while stage was related to student-centred learning and delayed graduation in addition to concerns about depth of learning and timing of modifications. Interestingly, ethnicity was related to differences in opinions about delayed graduation and income was related to social concerns. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that, while students were satisfied in general with the content and delivery of their programmes given the circumstances, there is evidence to suggest negative effects on emotional wellbeing and expression of student voice, due to the modifications that were made. Additionally, these feelings related to the three motivational needs, suggesting that students were experiencing a dampened motivational profile during the pandemic. Further, motivational profiles were distinct between student sub-groups, providing insight for developing appropriate and inclusive accommodations moving forward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Clinical Competence , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Mental Health , Motivation , Pandemics , Personal Autonomy , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Medical/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703016

ABSTRACT

More than 1.75 million COVID-19 infections and 16 thousand associated deaths have been reported in Malaysia. A meta-analysis on the prevalence of COVID-19 in different clinical stages before the National COVID-19 Vaccination Program in Malaysia is still lacking. To address this, the disease severity of a total of 215 admitted COVID-19 patients was initially recorded in the early phase of this study, and the data were later pooled into a meta-analysis with the aim of providing insight into the prevalence of COVID-19 in 5 different clinical stages during the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia. We have conducted a systematic literature search using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and two preprint databases (bioRxiv and medRxiv) for relevant studies with specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality assessment for the included studies was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The heterogeneity was examined with an I2 index and a Q-test. Funnel plots and Egger's tests were performed to determine publication bias in this meta-analysis. Overall, 5 studies with 6375 patients were included, and the pooled prevalence rates in this meta-analysis were calculated using a random-effect model. The highest prevalence of COVID-19 in Malaysia was observed in Stage 2 cases (32.0%), followed by Stage 1 (27.8%), Stage 3 (17.1%), Stage 4 (7.6%), and Stage 5 (3.4%). About two-thirds of the number of cases have at least one morbidity, with the highest percentage of hypertension (66.7%), obesity (55.5%), or diabetes mellitus (33.3%) in Stage 5 patients. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested a high prevalence of COVID-19 occurred in Stage 2. The prevalence rate in Stage 5 appeared to be the lowest among COVID-19 patients before implementing the vaccination program in Malaysia. These meta-analysis data are critically useful for designing screening and vaccination programs and improving disease management in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2111, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692556

ABSTRACT

Alterations in the three chemosensory modalities-smell, taste, and chemesthesis-have been implicated in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet emerging data suggest a wide geographic and ethnic variation in the prevalence of these symptoms. Studies on chemosensory disorders in COVID-19 have predominantly focused on Caucasian populations whereas Asians remain understudied. We conducted a nationwide, multicentre cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire on a cohort of RT-PCR-confirmed adult COVID-19 patients in Malaysia between 6 June and 30 November 2020. The aim of our study was to investigate their presenting symptoms and assess their chemosensory function using self-ratings of perceived smell, taste, chemesthesis, and nasal blockage. In this cohort of 498 patients, 41.4% reported smell and/or taste loss when diagnosed with COVID-19, which was the commonest symptom. Blocked nose, loss of appetite, and gastrointestinal disturbances were independent predictors of smell and/or taste loss on multivariate analysis. Self-ratings of chemosensory function revealed a reduction in smell, taste, and chemesthesis across the entire cohort of patients that was more profound among those reporting smell and/or taste loss as their presenting symptom. Perceived nasal obstruction accounted for only a small proportion of changes in smell and taste, but not for chemesthesis, supporting viral disruption of sensorineural mechanisms as the dominant aetiology of chemosensory dysfunction. Our study suggests that chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 is more widespread than previously reported among Asians and may be related to the infectivity of viral strains.Study Registration: NMRR-20-934-54803 and NCT04390165.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Olfaction Disorders , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686778

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 dispersion occurs at different levels of gradients across geographies, the application of spatiotemporal science via computational methods can provide valuable insights to direct available resources and targeted interventions for transmission control. This ecological-correlation study evaluates the spatial dispersion of COVID-19 and its temporal relationships with crucial demographic and socioeconomic determinants in Malaysia, utilizing secondary data sources from public domains. By aggregating 51,476 real-time active COVID-19 case-data between 22 January 2021 and 4 February 2021 to district-level administrative units, the incidence, global and local Moran indexes were calculated. Spatial autoregressive models (SAR) complemented with geographical weighted regression (GWR) analyses were executed to determine potential demographic and socioeconomic indicators for COVID-19 spread in Malaysia. Highest active case counts were based in the Central, Southern and parts of East Malaysia regions of Malaysia. Countrywide global Moran index was 0.431 (p = 0.001), indicated a positive spatial autocorrelation of high standards within districts. The local Moran index identified spatial clusters of the main high-high patterns in the Central and Southern regions, and the main low-low clusters in the East Coast and East Malaysia regions. The GWR model, the best fit model, affirmed that COVID-19 spread in Malaysia was likely to be caused by population density (ß coefficient weights = 0.269), followed by average household income per capita (ß coefficient weights = 0.254) and GINI coefficient (ß coefficient weights = 0.207). The current study concluded that the spread of COVID-19 was concentrated mostly in the Central and Southern regions of Malaysia. Population's average household income per capita, GINI coefficient and population density were important indicators likely to cause the spread amongst communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Spatial Analysis
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2197, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684111

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to develop an automated web application to generate validated daily effective reproduction numbers (Rt) which can be used to examine the effects of super-spreading events due to mass gatherings and the effectiveness of the various Movement Control Order (MCO) stringency levels on the outbreak progression of COVID-19 in Malaysia. The effective reproduction number, Rt, was estimated by adopting and modifying an Rt estimation algorithm using a validated distribution mean of 3.96 and standard deviation of 4.75 with a seven-day sliding window. The Rt values generated were validated using thea moving window SEIR model with a negative binomial likelihood fitted using methods from the Bayesian inferential framework. A Pearson's correlation between the Rt values estimated by the algorithm and the SEIR model was r = 0.70, p < 0.001 and r = 0.81, p < 0.001 during the validation period The Rt increased to reach the highest values at 3.40 (95% CI 1.47, 6.14) and 1.72 (95% CI 1.54, 1.90) due to the Sri Petaling and Sabah electoral process during the second and third waves of COVID-19 respectively. The MCOs was able to reduce the Rt values by 63.2 to 77.1% and 37.0 to 47.0% during the second and third waves of COVID-19, respectively. Mass gathering events were one of the important drivers of the COVID-19 outbreak in Malaysia. However, COVID-19 transmission can be fuelled by noncompliance to Standard Operating Procedure, population mobility, ventilation and environmental factors.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Web Browser
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 461, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629128

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronaviruses (CoVs) are natural commensals of bats. Two subgenera, namely Sarbecoviruses and Merbecoviruses have a high zoonotic potential and have been associated with three separate spillover events in the past 2 decades, making surveillance of bat-CoVs crucial for the prevention of the next epidemic. The study was aimed to elucidate the presence of coronavirus in fresh bat guano sampled from Wind Cave Nature Reserve (WCNR) in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Samples collected were placed into viral transport medium, transported on ice within the collection day, and preserved at - 80 °C. Nucleic acid was extracted using the column method and screened using consensus PCR primers targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. Amplicons were sequenced bidirectionally using the Sanger method. Phylogenetic tree with maximum-likelihood bootstrap and Bayesian posterior probability were constructed. RESULTS: CoV-RNA was detected in ten specimens (47.6%, n = 21). Six alphacoronavirus and four betacoronaviruses were identified. The bat-CoVs can be phylogenetically grouped into four novel clades which are closely related to Decacovirus-1 and Decacovirus-2, Sarbecovirus, and an unclassified CoV. CoVs lineages unique to the Island of Borneo were discovered in Sarawak, Malaysia, with one of them closely related to Sarbecovirus. All of them are distant from currently known human coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Coronavirus , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Borneo , Coronavirus/genetics , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Phylogeny
13.
Trop Biomed ; 38(4): 568-577, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675713

ABSTRACT

We report two confirmed human bite cases by Lactrodectus geometricus , also known as the brown widow spider. These are the first reported bite envenomation incidents by L. geometricus in Malaysia. The incidents occurred in Tawau, Sabah and Paka, Terengganu. Both men were bitten on their ear while putting on motorcycle helmets. The spiders appeared to have nested in the helmets. The dead specimens were collected and sent to the Invertebrate and Vertebrate Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Parasitology, Universiti Malaya for identification. The species identity was confirmed by DNA barcoding.


Subject(s)
Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Spiders , Animals , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 189-196, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the association between smoking and the severity of COVID-19 infection during the initial wave of this pandemic in Malaysia. METHODS: This is a multi-center observational study using secondary hospital data collected retrospectively from February 1, 2020, until May 30, 2020. Clinical records of all real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 cases with smoking status, co-morbidities, clinical features, and disease management were retrieved. Severity was assessed by the presence of complications and outcomes of COVID-19 infection. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between COVID-19 disease severity and smoking status. RESULTS: A total of 5,889 COVID-19 cases were included in the analysis. Ever smokers had a higher risk of having COVID-19 complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2.55), renal injury (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.10-2.14), and acute liver injury (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.01-1.74), compared with never smokers. However, in terms of disease outcomes, there were no differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Although no significant association was found in terms of disease outcomes, smoking is associated with a higher risk of having complications owing to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662658

ABSTRACT

With many countries experiencing a resurgence in COVID-19 cases, it is important to forecast disease trends to enable effective planning and implementation of control measures. This study aims to develop Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models using 593 data points and smoothened case and covariate time-series data to generate a 28-day forecast of COVID-19 case trends during the third wave in Malaysia. SARIMA models were developed using COVID-19 case data sourced from the Ministry of Health Malaysia's official website. Model training and validation was conducted from 22 January 2020 to 5 September 2021 using daily COVID-19 case data. The SARIMA model with the lowest root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAE) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) was selected to generate forecasts from 6 September to 3 October 2021. The best SARIMA model with a RMSE = 73.374, MAE = 39.716 and BIC = 8.656 showed a downward trend of COVID-19 cases during the forecast period, wherein the observed daily cases were within the forecast range. The majority (89%) of the difference between the forecasted and observed values was well within a deviation range of 25%. Based on this work, we conclude that SARIMA models developed in this paper using 593 data points and smoothened data and sensitive covariates can generate accurate forecast of COVID-19 case trends.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bayes Theorem , Forecasting , Humans , Incidence , Malaysia/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 4168619, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639379

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread all over the world, causing unpredictable economic losses and public fear. Although vaccines against this virus have been developed and administered for months, many countries still suffer from secondary COVID-19 infections, including the United Kingdom, France, and Malaysia. Observations of COVID-19 infections in the United Kingdom and France and their governance measures showed a certain number of similarities. A further investigation of these countries' COVID-19 transmission patterns suggested that when a turning point appeared, the values of their stringency indices per population density (PSI) were nearly proportional to their absolute infection rate (AIR). To justify our assumptions, we developed a mathematical model named VSHR to predict the COVID-19 turning point for Malaysia. VSHR was first trained on 30-day infection records prior to the United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Belgium's known turning points. It was then transferred to Malaysian COVID-19 data to predict this nation's turning point. Given the estimated AIR parameter values in 5 days, we were now able to locate the turning point's appearance on June 2nd, 2021. VSHR offered two improvements: (1) gathered countries into groups based on their SI patterns and (2) generated a model to identify the turning point for a target country within 5 days with 90% CI. Our research on COVID-19's turning point for a country is beneficial for governments and clinical systems against future COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(12): 1816-1824, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635712

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the second wave of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, Malaysia reported several COVID-19 clusters related to healthcare workers. Thus, addressing and understanding the risk of exposure in healthcare workers is important to prevent future infection and reduce secondary COVID-19 transmission within the healthcare settings. In this study, we aim to assess exposure and prevention practices against COVID-19 among healthcare workers at the Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz, a university teaching hospital based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. METHODOLOGY: A total of 571 healthcare workers at COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 wards as well as the emergency department and laboratory staff at COVID-19 testing labs were recruited. The presence of novel human coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and IgM/IgG antibodies were confirmed in all healthcare workers. The healthcare workers responded to an online Google Forms questionnaire that evaluates demographic information and comorbidities, exposure and adherence to infection prevention and control measures against COVID-19. Descriptive analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 24.0. RESULTS: Three healthcare workers (0.5%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, while the remaining 568 (99.5%) were negative. All were negative for IgM and IgG antibodies during recruitment (day 1) and follow-up (day 15). More than 90% of the healthcare workers followed infection prevention and control practices recommendations regardless of whether they have been exposed to occupational risk for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The healthcare workers' high level of adherence to infection prevention practices at this hospital helped reduce and minimize their occupational exposure to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns have affected daily lives of the communities worldwide. This study aims to determine the lifestyle behaviours and their associations with body weight changes among Malaysian adults during the Movement Control Order (MCO) due to COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 1319 Malaysian adults participated in this cross-sectional online survey. Information on anthropometric data including body weight and height, and lifestyle behaviours including eating pattern, physical activity, and sleep pattern were self-reported by the respondents. A multivariable generalised linear mixed model was used to assess the associations between lifestyle behaviours and body weight changes with adjustment of confounding factors; namely, age, sex, ethnicity, and body weight status before MCO. RESULTS: During MCO, 41.2% of the respondents perceived that their eating patterns were healthier, but 36.3% reduced their physical activities, and 25.7% had a poorer sleep quality. Further, the proportion of adults who reported having lose weight (32.2%) was almost similar to those who reported having gained weight (30.7%). Lifestyle behaviours including less frequent practice of healthy cooking methods and lunch skipping were associated with weight gain, while less frequent consumption of high fat foods, more frequent physical activity, and good sleep latency were associated with lower risk of weight gain. In contrast, practicing healthy eating concept, skipped lunch, and more frequent physical activity were significantly associated with weight loss. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle behaviours were associated with body weight changes during MCO. While the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown is necessary to prevent further spread of the disease, promoting healthy lifestyle practices during lockdown should be implemented for a healthy weight and better health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Life Style , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media , Weight Gain , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Self Report
20.
Postgrad Med ; 134(2): 224-229, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612255

ABSTRACT

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the delivery of healthcare to vulnerable older adults, prompting the expansion of telemedicine usage. This study surveyed the acceptance of virtual medical consultations among older adults and caregivers within geriatric outpatient services in a tertiary hospital during the pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among caregivers and patients attending geriatric outpatient services in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The survey measured the availability of equipment for virtual consultations, prior knowledge and experience of telemedicine, and willingness to consult geriatricians through virtual technology, using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) scale. RESULTS: A total of 197 caregivers and 42 older patients with a mean age of 54.28 (±13.22) and 75.62 (±7.32) years, respectively, completed the survey. One hundred and fifty-six (79.2%) of the caregivers were adult children accompanying patients. The mean UTAUT score was 65.97 (±13.71) out of 90, with 66.64 (±13.25) for caregivers and 62.79 (±15.44) for older adults, suggesting a high acceptance of adopting virtual consultations in lieu of face-to-face care. The independent predictors of acceptance of virtual consultation were : possession of an electronic device capable of video-communication, living with someone, living in a care home, weekly online banking usage, and perceived familiarity with virtual platforms. CONCLUSION: Caregivers and patients indicated a high level of acceptance of virtual medical consultations, which is likely facilitated by caregivers such as adult children or spouses at home or staff in care homes. To minimize the transmission of COVID-19 in a highly vulnerable group, virtual consultations are an acceptable alternative to face-to-face consultations for older people and their caregivers in our setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
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