Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 43.382
Filter
1.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(9): 933-939, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta and Omicron variants have become the dominant variants worldwide, and studies focused on liver injury in these patients are limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 157 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were enrolled, including 77 Delta variant-infected patients and 80 Omicron variant-infected patients. Liver injury data and clinical data were summarized and compared between patients infected with the two variants, additionally, patients with or without liver injury were also compared and multivariate analysis was performed to explore the predictive factors related to liver injury in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. RESULTS: Liver injury was found in 18 (23.4%)/15 (18.8%) in Delta/Omicron variant-infected patients on admission, and 4 (5.2%)/1 (1.3%) in Delta/Omicron variant-infected patients during hospitalization, respectively. The ratios of liver injury did not differ between the two groups ( χ2 = 1.571; P = 0.210). Among these patients, 17 (77.3%) and 12 (75.0%) Delta and Omicron variant-infected patients were considered to be related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the biomarkers of liver function were mildly elevated, dominated by the parameter of cholangiocyte injury: 76.5% (13/17) and 83.3% (10/12) in Delta and Omicron variant-infected patients, and most of these patients recovered to normal during follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that male sex [odds ratio (OR), 4.476; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.235-16.222; P = 0.023] and high levels of peak viral load in the nasopharynx (OR, 3.022; 95% CI, 1.338-6.827; P = 0.008) were independent factors related to liver injury. CONCLUSION: Cholangiocyte injury biomarkers are dominated in Delta and Omicron variant-infected patients, male sex and high levels of peak viral load in the nasopharynx are predictive factors related to liver injury in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Liver , Male , Viral Load
2.
Dimens Crit Care Nurs ; 41(5): 246-255, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a public health emergency, the psychological stress of nursing staff should be assessed, and nurses who cared for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were constantly under pressure. Currently, frontline health care workers are experiencing mental health issues. The personal quality of life is directly related to the working environment, especially at this moment, when nursing could be a highly stressful and emotionally draining job. OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the primary objectives of the study were to describe the quality of life, posttraumatic stress disorder, and self-efficacy and to identify any associated factors of pediatric critical care nurses. This study is a multicenter cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data were collected between February and May 2021 from pediatric critical care nurses. The following instruments were used: the Nursing Quality of Life Scale, the Nursing Profession Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Impact of Event Scale. RESULTS: One hundred twelve nurses participated in this study with a 40% of response rate. Data suggest a better global perception of quality of life by male subjects (F = 6.65, P = .011). The nurses who cared for COVID-19 patients reported a lower quality of social life (F = 4.09, P = .045); furthermore, the nurses who had clinically vulnerable people in their families reported a worse quality of physical life (F = 4.37, P = .045). Approximately 50% of nurses reported sleep disturbances, and 37% reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, especially female nurses (F = 8.55, P = .04). CONCLUSION: According to this study, female nurses were more likely to experience posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, findings also highlighted a lower quality of social life for those with clinically vulnerable relatives may be due to a self-limitation of interactions with other people. Finally, sleep disturbances were prevalent, potentially affecting nurses' mental health and performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses, Pediatric , Nurses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11125, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028698

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a biosafety level (BSL)-3 pathogen; therefore, its research environment is limited. Pseudotyped viruses that mimic the infection of SARS-CoV-2 have been widely used for in vitro evaluation because they are available in BSL-2 containment laboratories. However, in vivo application is inadequate. Therefore, animal models instigated with animal BSL-2 will provide opportunities for in vivo evaluation. Hamsters (6-10-week-old males) were intratracheally inoculated with luciferase-expressing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus. The lungs were harvested 24-72 h after inoculation and luminescence was measured using an in vivo imaging system. Lung luminescence after inoculation with the SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus increased in a dose-dependent manner and peaked at 48 h. The VSV-G (envelope G) pseudotyped virus also induced luminescence; however, a 100-fold concentration was required to reach a level similar to that of the SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus. The SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus is applicable to SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infections in a hamster model. Because of the single-round infectious virus, the model can be used to study the steps from viral binding to entry, which will be useful for future research on SARS-CoV-2 entry without using live SARS-CoV-2 or transgenic animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Male , Respiratory Rate , Respiratory System , Viral Pseudotyping
4.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 20: eAO6241, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical and sociodemographic characteristics associated with death and hospitalization of healthcare workers due to COVID-19, in addition to calculating the incidence rates per profession. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study using secondary open data from the State Health Department of Espírito Santo (ES), Brazil. The cases of COVID-19 in healthcare workers were recorded between February 27 and August 17, 2020, in Espírito Santo, excluding cases with missing information. RESULTS: Of the confirmed cases, 75.6% (n=9,191) were female. The overall case fatality rate was 0.27% and the general hospitalization rate was 0.99%. The clinical outcome of death and the occurrence of hospitalization were associated with male sex, age ≥50 years, higher education, fever, difficulty breathing, cough, cardiac comorbidity, diabetes and obesity (p<0.05). Only the occurrence of hospitalization was associated with case reported in the metropolitan region of Vitória, runny nose, sore throat, headache and renal comorbidity (p<0.05). The profession with the highest incidence rate was nurse (16,053.2 cases/100,000 nurses). CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated high frequency of cases among women, low overall case fatality rate, and high incidence in nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 56: 50, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological profile of cases and the pattern of spatial diffusion of the largest measles epidemic in Brazil that occurred in the post-elimination period in the state of São Paulo. METHOD: A cross-sectional study based on confirmed measles cases in 2019. Bivariate analysis was performed for socioeconomic, clinical, and epidemiological variables, according to prior vaccination and hospitalization, combined with an analysis of spatial diffusion of cases using the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. RESULTS: Of the 15,598 confirmed cases, 2,039 were hospitalized and 17 progressed to death. The epidemic peak occurred in epidemiological week 33, after confirmation of the first case, in the epidemiological week 6. Most cases were male (52.1%), aged between 18 and 29 years (38.7%), identified as whites (70%). Young adults (39.7%) and children under five years (32.8%) were the most affected age groups. A higher proportion of previous vaccination was observed in whites as compared to Blacks, browns, yellows and indigenous people (p < 0.001), as well as in the most educated group compared to the other categories (p < 0.001). The risk of hospitalization was higher in children than in the older age group (RI = 2.19; 95%CI: 1.66-2.88), as well as in the unvaccinated than in the vaccinated (RI = 1.59; 95%CI: 1.45-1.75). The pattern of diffusion by contiguity combined with diffusion by relocation followed the urban hierarchy of the main cities' regions of influence. CONCLUSION: In addition to routine vaccination in children, the findings indicate the need for immunization campaigns for young adults. In addition, studies that seek to investigate the occurrence of clusters of vulnerable populations, prone to lower vaccination coverage, are essential to broaden the understanding of the dynamics of transmission and, thus, reorienting control strategies that ensure disease elimination.


Subject(s)
Measles , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization , Infant , Male , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Vaccination , Young Adult
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 345, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025519

ABSTRACT

Introduction: on January 7th 2020, SARS-CoV-2 was identified in Wuhan, China, and on March 11th, 2020, the World Health Organization declared it a "Pandemic". The aim of this research is to assess depression, anxiety, work, and social status in healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: the research was designed to be a cross-sectional face-to-face survey. The study included 111 healthcare employees and 222 non-healthcare workers between the ages of 18 and 65 who applied to the hospital. For some reason, no one was excluded from the research. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related questions, depression, anxiety, work-social adjustment scores, and pandemic-social status-operation connections were all assessed using a self-report questionnaire containing psychometric measures. Results: the mean age of the participants in the study was 33.67±10.01 and 59% of the participants were female. PHQ9: 11.67±6.41, GAD7: 9.06±5.81, and W&SAS: 17.55±10.98 were the scores of the healthcare professional groups. PHQ9: 10.25±6.21, GAD7: 7.59±5.65, and W&SAS: 14.75±10.27 were the non-healthcare professional groups' results. When the PHQ9, GAD7, and W&SAS scores of both groups were compared, there was no statistically significant difference in the PHQ9 depression score between the two groups (p=0.107), the GAD7 (p<0.05) and W&SAS (p<0.05) scores of the healthcare professionals were statistically significantly higher. Conclusion: in comparison to the non-healthcare worker group, healthcare professionals had the same level of depression, greater levels of moderate and high anxiety, and higher levels of work-social adjustment disorder. Unlike the literature, we found that the degree of depression fell to the same level as the non-health professional group in our study, but it was still disadvantaged in terms of anxiety and work-social adjustment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 29(2): 242-250, abr.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2022160

ABSTRACT

Resumo "Ageísmo" é o preconceito ou discriminação contra a pessoa idosa, seja por meio da estigmatização ou de práticas discriminatórias da sociedade e de suas instituições. No atual contexto da pandemia de covid-19, a postura ageísta da sociedade ocidental e, consequentemente, dos protocolos para distribuição de recursos em saúde tem sido fortemente evidenciada, trazendo consigo prejuízo importante à assistência a essa população. Este ensaio teórico discute manifestações e consequências do ageísmo em políticas de distribuição de recursos na pandemia, pensando as implicações bioéticas desse tipo de discriminação no que se refere aos princípios da justiça e da dignidade humana.


Abstract Ageism is the prejudice or discrimination of older adults, whether through stigmatization or discriminatory practices by society and its institutions. The current covid-19 pandemic context has shown Western society's ageist stance and, consequently, of its protocols on the distribution of health resources, leading to severe negative repercussions to the care of this population. This theoretical essay discusses the manifestations and consequences of ageism in the context of health resource distribution policies during the pandemic, considering the bioethical implications involved in this type of discrimination when considering the principles of justice and human dignity.


Resumen El "edadismo" se refiere al prejuicio y discriminación a las personas mayores, ya sea por estigmatización o prácticas discriminatorias por parte de la sociedad y sus instituciones. En el contexto actual de la pandemia de covid-19, se ha evidenciado fuertemente la postura edadista de la sociedad occidental y, en consecuencia, de los protocolos que involucran la distribución de los recursos en salud, trayendo consigo un daño importante a la atención en salud de esta población. Este ensayo teórico discute las manifestaciones y consecuencias del edadismo en el contexto de las políticas de distribución de recursos en salud en la pandemia, considerando las implicaciones éticas de esa discriminación respecto a los principios de justicia y dignidad humana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bioethics , Aged , Ageism , COVID-19 , Health Policy
8.
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto, Online) ; 32: e3217, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2022156

ABSTRACT

Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic exerted a tremendous toll on individuals' mental health. This study aimed to examine the associations between men's common mental disorders (CMD), intolerance of uncertainty (IU), and social support (SS). A cross-sectional online study was carried out in all Brazilian states. Participants were 1.006 adult men recruited through social media using a snowball technique. Men completed the Self-Report Questionnaire-20, the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, the Two-Way Social Support Scale, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. In addition, a t-Test and a regression analysis were performed. Men in the clinical group reported significantly higher levels of IU and lower levels of SS. Furthermore, SS moderated the relationship between IU and CMD, suggesting that SS might help protect men's mental health against the deleterious effects of IU in a pandemic scenario. These results indicate that different forms of social support seem to be a promising focus of psychosocial intervention in this context.


Resumo A pandemia da COVID-19 impactou consideravelmente a saúde mental dos indivíduos. Este estudo teve por objetivo examinar associações entre transtornos mentais comuns (TMC) de homens, a intolerância à incerteza (II) e apoio social (AS). Trata-se de um estudo transversal online realizado em todos os estados brasileiros, com 1.006 homens adultos recrutados em redes sociais mediante a técnica de bola de neve. Os participantes responderam ao Self-Report Questionnaire-20, à Escala de Intolerância à Incerteza, à Escala de Apoio Social Two-way e a um questionário sociodemográfico. Teste t e análise de regressão foram realizados. Os homens do grupo clínico relataram significativamente níveis maiores de II e níveis inferiores de AS. Além disso, o AS moderou a relação entre II e TMC, sugerindo que AS protege a saúde mental dos homens contra efeitos deletérios da II na pandemia. Esses resultados sugerem que o apoio social parece ser um foco promissor de intervenção psicossocial nesse contexto.


Resumen La pandemia de COVID-19 afectó considerablemente la salud mental individual. Este estudio examinó las asociaciones entre los trastornos mentales comunes (TMC) de los hombres, la intolerancia a la incertidumbre (II) y el apoyo social (AS). Es un estudio transversal online realizado en los estados brasileños, con 1.006 hombres adultos reclutados en redes sociales mediante la técnica de bola de nieve. Respondieron el Self-Report Questionnaire-20, la Escala de Intolerancia a Incertidumbre, la Escala de Apoyo Social Two-way y un cuestionario sociodemográfico. Se realizaron el test t y el análisis de regresión. Hombres del grupo clínico informaron significativamente niveles superiores de II e inferiores de AS. Además, AS moderó la relación entre II y TMC, lo que sugiere que AS protege la salud mental de los hombres contra los efectos nocivos de II en la pandemia. Estos resultados sugieren que el apoyo social es un foco prometedor de intervención psicosocial en este contexto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Social Support , Mental Health , Psychological Distress , Psychosocial Intervention , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604226, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023032

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study examined factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention at the very beginning of the vaccination campaign in a representative sample of the population in southern Switzerland. Methods: In March 2021, we measured vaccination intention, beliefs, attitudes, and trust in a sample of the Corona Immunitas Ticino study. Results: Of the 2681 participants, 1933 completed the questionnaire (response rate = 72%; 55% female; meanage = 41, SD = 24, rangeage = 5-91). Overall, 68% reported an intention to get vaccinated. Vaccination intention was higher in social/healthcare workers, and increased with age, trust in public health institutions, and confidence in the vaccine efficacy. Prior infection of a family member, predilection for waiting for more evidence on the safety and efficacy of the vaccine, and for alternative protective means were negatively associated with intention. Conclusion: In view of needs of COVID-19 vaccine boosters and of suboptimal vaccination coverage, our results have relevant public health implications and suggest that communication about vaccine safety and efficacy, and aims of vaccination programs, should be bi-directional, proportionate, and tailored to the concerns, expectations, and beliefs of different population subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland , Vaccination , Young Adult
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e39094, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficacious mental health interventions for sexual and gender minority youth have had limited reach, given their delivery as time-intensive, in-person sessions. Internet-based interventions may facilitate reach to sexual and gender minority youth; however, there is little research examining their efficacy. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the results of a pilot randomized controlled trial of imi, a web application designed to improve mental health by supporting lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other sexual and gender minority identity affirmation, coping self-efficacy, and coping skill practice. METHODS: Sexual and gender minority youth (N=270) aged 13 to 19 (mean 16.5, SD 1.5) years and living in the United States were recruited through Instagram advertisements. Approximately 78% (210/270) of the sample identified as racial or ethnic minorities. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to the full imi intervention web application (treatment; 135/270, 50%) or a resource page-only version of the imi site (control; 135/270, 50%). The imi application covered four topical areas: gender identity; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other sexual and gender minority identity; stress and coping; and internalized homophobia and transphobia. Participants explored these areas by engaging with informational resources, exercises, and peer stories at a self-guided pace. Both arms were assessed via web-based surveys at baseline and 4-week follow-up for intervention satisfaction, stress appraisals (ie, challenge, threat, and resource), coping skills (ie, instrumental support, positive reframing, and planning), and mental health symptoms among other outcomes. Main intent-to-treat analyses compared the arms at week 4, controlling for baseline values on each outcome. RESULTS: Survey retention was 90.4% (244/270) at week 4. Participants in the treatment arm reported greater satisfaction with the intervention than participants in the control arm (t241=-2.98; P=.003). The treatment arm showed significantly greater improvement in challenge appraisals (ie, belief in one's coping abilities) than the control (Cohen d=0.26; P=.008). There were no differences between the arms for threat (d=0.10; P=.37) or resource (d=0.15; P=.14) appraisals. The treatment arm showed greater increases in coping skills than the control arm (instrumental support: d=0.24, P=.005; positive reframing: d=0.27, P=.02; planning: d=0.26, P=.02). Mental health symptoms improved across both the treatment and control arms; however, there were no differences between arms. Within the treatment arm, higher engagement with imi (≥5 sessions, >10 minutes, or >10 pages) predicted greater improvement in stress appraisals (all P values <.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results provide initial evidence that asynchronous psychosocial interventions delivered via a web application to sexual and gender minority youth can support their ability to cope with minority stress. Further research is needed to examine the long-term effects of the imi application. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05061966; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05061966.


Subject(s)
Gender Identity , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Sexual Behavior/psychology , United States
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e34858, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A computer application called the National Death Information System (SINADEF) was implemented in Peru so that physicians can prepare death certificates in electronic format and the information is available online. In 2018, only half of the estimated deaths in Peru were certified using SINADEF. When a death is certified in paper format, the probability being entered in the mortality database decreases. It is important to know, from the user's perspective, the factors that can influence the successful implementation of SINADEF. SINADEF can only be successfully implemented if it is known whether physicians believe that it is useful and easy to operate. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the perceptions of physicians and other factors as predictors of their behavioral intention to use SINADEF to certify a death. METHODS: This study had an observational, cross-sectional design. A survey was provided to physicians working in Peru, who used SINADEF to certify a death for a period of 12 months, starting in November 2019. A questionnaire was adapted based on the Technology Acceptance Model. The questions measured the dimensions of subjective norm, image, job relevance, output quality, demonstrability of results, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention to use. Chi-square and logistic regression tests were used in the analysis, and a confidence level of 95% was chosen to support a significant association. RESULTS: In this study, 272 physicians responded to the survey; 184 (67.6%) were men and the average age was 45.3 (SD 10.1) years. The age range was 24 to 73 years. In the bivariate analysis, the intention to use SINADEF was found to be associated with (1) perceived usefulness, expressed as "using SINADEF avoids falsifying a death certificate" (P<.001), "using SINADEF reduces the risk of errors" (P<.001), and "using SINADEF allows for filling out a certificate in less time" (P<.001); and (2) perceived ease of use, expressed as "I think SINADEF is easy to use" (P<.001). In the logistic regression, perceived usefulness (odds ratio [OR] 8.5, 95% CI 2.2-32.3; P=.002), perceived ease of use (OR 10.1, 95% CI 2.4-41.8; P=.001), and training in filling out death certificates (OR 8.3, 95% CI 1.6-42.8; P=.01) were found to be predictors of the behavioral intention to use SINADEF. CONCLUSIONS: The behavioral intention to use SINADEF was related to the perception that it is an easy-to-use system, the belief that it improves the performance of physicians in carrying out the task at hand, and with training in filling out death certificates.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Information Systems , Male , Middle Aged , Peru , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271285, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021870

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: When facing major emergency public accidents, men and women may react differently. Our research aimed to assess the influence of gender difference on social support, information preference, biological rhythm, psychological distress, and the possible interaction among these factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 3,237 respondents aged 12 years and older finished the online survey. Levels of social support, information preference, biological rhythm, and psychological distress were assessed using validated scales. A path analysis was conducted to explore possible associations among these variables. RESULTS: The path analysis indicated that women with high levels of social support had a lower possibility of biological rhythm disorders and lower levels of somatization symptoms of psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. The influence of social support on somatization symptoms was exerted via biological rhythm. Women tended to believe both negative and positive information, while men preferred more extreme information. CONCLUSION: Our results highlighted gender difference in study variables during the COVID-19 pandemic and the importance of social support in alleviating psychological distress and biological rhythm disorders. Moreover, we confirmed that information preference differed significantly by somatization symptoms of psychological distress, suggesting extra efforts to provide more individualized epidemic information. Longitudinal research is required to further explore casual inferences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Periodicity , SARS-CoV-2
13.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271162, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: While the LGBTQ+ community has been disproportionally impacted by COVID-19 medical complications, little research has considered non-medical impact. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analyses of USA-based respondents from a global cross-sectional online mixed-methods survey collecting sexual orientation, gender identity, and the perceived stress scale (PSS). Bivariate and multivariate ordinal regression statistics were performed. RESULTS: Fourteen percent (n = 193,14.2%) identified as LGBTQ+. Variables significantly associated with LGBTQ+ included: COVID testing/treatment affordability, canceled activities, stocking food/medications, quitting job, lost income, and inability to procure groceries/cleaning supplies/medications. Adjusting for Hispanic ethnicity and income, BIPOC LGBTQ+ individuals had twice the odds (OR:2.02;95%CI:1.16-3.53) of moderate compared to low PSS scores, and high compared to moderate PSS scores, compared to white non-LGBTQ+ individuals. Adjusting for Hispanic ethnicity, income, age, and education, deaf LGBTQ+ individuals had twice the odds (OR:2.00;95%CI:1.12-3.61) of moderate compared to low PSS scores, and high compared to moderate PSS scores, compared to hearing non-LGBTQ+ individuals. CONCLUSION: The LBGTQ+ community has increased stress due to COVID-19. Public health interventions must mitigate stress in BIPOC and deaf LGBTQ+ communities, addressing their intersectional experiences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
14.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271089, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021863

ABSTRACT

Stay-at-home-orders, online learning, and work from home policies are some of the responses governments, universities, and other institutions adopted to slow the spread of COVID-19. However, research shows these measures have increased pre-existing gender disparities in the workplace. The working conditions for women during the pandemic worsened due to increased family care responsibilities and unequal distribution of domestic labor. In the academy, working from home has resulted in reduced research time and increased teaching and family care responsibilities, with a larger proportion of that burden falling to women. We investigate the persistence of gender inequity among academic scientists resulting from university COVID-19 responses over time. We draw on two surveys administered in May 2020 and May 2021 to university-based biologists, biochemists, and civil and environmental engineers, to analyze how the pandemic response has disproportionately impacted women in academia and the endurance of those inequities. Results show significantly greater negative impacts from the pandemic on women's research activities and work-life balance, compared to men. We conclude by discussing the implications of our results, and the need for the academy to better predict and adjust to the gender disparities its policies create.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Engineering , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Universities , Workplace
15.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270868, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021857

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy is a global health challenge in controlling the virulence of pandemics. The prevalence of vaccine hesitancy will put highly vulnerable groups, such as the elderly or groups with pre-existing health conditions, at a higher risk, as seen with the outbreak of the pandemic Covid-19. Based on the trends of vaccine hesitancy in the state of Sabah, located in East Malaysia, this study seeks to identify several variables that contribute to vaccine hesitancy. In addition to this, this study also determines which groups are affected by vaccine hesitancy based on their demographics. This study is based on a sampling of 1,024 Sabahan population aged 18 and above through an online and face-to-face questionnaire. The raw data was analysed using the K-Means Clustering Analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and frequency. The K-Means Clustering found that more than half of the total number of respondents (Cluster 2 = 51.9%) tend to demonstrate vaccine hesitancy. Based on the PCA analysis, six main factors were found to cause vaccine hesitancy in Sabah: confidence (var(X) = 21.6%), the influence of local authority (var(X) = 12.1%), ineffectiveness of mainstream media (var(X) = 8.4%), complacency (var(X) = 7.4%), social media (var(X) = 6.4%), and convenience issues (var(X) = 5.8%). Findings from both Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests demonstrate that several factors of group demographics, such as employment status, level of education, religion, gender, and marital status, may explain the indicator of vaccine hesitancy. In particular, specific groups tend to become vaccine hesitancy such as, unemployed, self-employed, students, male, single, level of education, and Muslim. Findings from this empirical study are crucial to inform the relevant local authorities on the level of vulnerability among certain groups in facing the hazards of COVID-19. The main contribution of this study is that it seeks to analyse the factors behind vaccine hesitancy and identifies which groups more likely hesitant toward vaccines based on their demographics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
16.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270192, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has led to overloading of health systems all over the world. For reliable risk stratification, knowledge on factors predisposing to SARS-CoV-2 infection and to severe COVID-19 disease course is needed for decision-making at the individual, provider, and government levels. Data to identify these factors should be easily obtainable. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Retrospective cohort study of nationwide e-health databases in Estonia. We used longitudinal health records from 66,295 people tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA from 26 February 2020 to 28 February 2021 and 254,958 randomly selected controls from the reference population with no known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection or clinical COVID-19 diagnosis (case to control ratio 1:4) to predict risk factors of infection and severe course of COVID-19. We analysed sociodemographic and health characteristics of study participants. The SARS-CoV-2 infection risk was slightly higher among women, and was higher among those with comorbid conditions or obesity. Dementia (RRR 3.77, 95%CI 3.30⎼4.31), renal disease (RRR 1.88, 95%CI 1.56⎼2.26), and cerebrovascular disease (RRR 1.81, 95%CI 1.64⎼2.00) increased the risk of infection. Of all SARS-CoV-2 infected people, 92% had a non-severe disease course, 4.8% severe disease (requiring hospitalisation), 1.7% critical disease (needing intensive care), and 1.5% died. Male sex, increasing age and comorbid burden contributed significantly to more severe COVID-19, and the strength of association for male sex increased with the increasing severity of COVID-19 outcome. The strongest contributors to critical illness (expressed as RRR with 95% CI) were renal disease (7.71, 4.71⎼12.62), the history of previous myocardial infarction (3.54, 2.49⎼5.02) and obesity (3.56, 2.82⎼4.49). The strongest contributors to a lethal outcome were renal disease (6.48, 3.74⎼11.23), cancer (3.81, 3.06⎼4.75), liver disease (3.51, 1.36⎼9.02) and cerebrovascular disease (3.00, 2.31⎼3.89). CONCLUSIONS: We found divergent effect of age and gender on infection risk and severity of COVID-19. Age and gender did not contribute substantially to infection risk, but did so for the risk of severe disease Co-morbid health conditions, especially those affecting renin-angiotensin system, had an impact on both the risk of infection and severe disease course. Age and male sex had the most significant impact on the risk of severe COVID-19. Taking into account the role of ACE2 receptors in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as its modulating action on the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular and renal diseases, further research is needed to investigate the influence of hormonal status on ACE2 expression in different tissues, which may be the basis for the development of COVID-19 therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Estonia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270060, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An ideal test for COVID-19 would combine the sensitivity of laboratory-based PCR with the speed and ease of use of point-of-care (POC) or home-based rapid antigen testing. We evaluated clinical performance of the Diagnostic Analyzer for Selective Hybridization (DASH) SARS-CoV-2 POC rapid PCR test. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults with and without symptoms of COVID-19 at four clinical sites where we collected two bilateral anterior nasal swabs and information on COVID-19 symptoms, vaccination, and exposure. One swab was tested with the DASH SARS-CoV-2 POC PCR and the second in a central laboratory using Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 PCR. We assessed test concordance and calculated sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values using Xpert as the "gold standard". RESULTS: We enrolled 315 and analyzed 313 participants with median age 42 years; 65% were female, 62% symptomatic, 75% had received ≥2 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, and 16% currently SARS-CoV-2 positive. There were concordant results for 307 tests indicating an overall agreement for DASH of 0.98 [95% CI 0.96, 0.99] compared to Xpert. DASH performed at 0.96 [95% CI 0.86, 1.00] sensitivity and 0.98 [95% CI 0.96, 1.00] specificity, with a positive predictive value of 0.85 [95% CI 0.73, 0.96] and negative predictive value of 0.996 [95% CI 0.99, 1.00]. The six discordant tests between DASH and Xpert all had high Ct values (>30) on the respective positive assay. DASH and Xpert Ct values were highly correlated (R = 0.89 [95% CI 0.81, 0.94]). CONCLUSIONS: DASH POC SARS-CoV-2 PCR was accurate, easy to use, and provided fast results (approximately 15 minutes) in real-life clinical settings with an overall performance similar to an EUA-approved laboratory-based PCR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Point-of-Care Systems , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269471, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxic respiratory failure (AHRF) is a hallmark of severe COVID-19 pneumonia and often requires supplementary oxygen therapy. Critically ill COVID-19 patients may require invasive mechanical ventilation, which carries significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding of the relationship between dynamic changes in blood oxygen indices and clinical variables is lacking. We evaluated the changes in blood oxygen indices-PaO2, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, oxygen content (CaO2) and oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER) in COVID-19 patients through the first 30-days of intensive care unit admission and explored relationships with clinical outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of all adult COVID-19 patients in a single institution requiring invasive mechanical ventilation between March 2020 and March 2021. We collected baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes and blood oxygen indices. 36,383 blood gas data points were analysed from 184 patients over 30-days. Median participant age was 59.5 (IQR 51.0, 67.0), BMI 30.0 (IQR 25.2, 35.5) and the majority were men (62.5%) of white ethnicity (70.1%). Median duration of mechanical ventilation was 15-days (IQR 8, 25). Hospital survival at 30-days was 72.3%. Non-survivors exhibited significantly lower PaO2 throughout intensive care unit admission: day one to day 30 averaged mean difference -0.52 kPa (95% CI: -0.59 to -0.46, p<0.01). Non-survivors exhibited a significantly lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio with an increased separation over time: day one to day 30 averaged mean difference -5.64 (95% CI: -5.85 to -5.43, p<0.01). While all patients had sub-physiological CaO2, non-survivors exhibited significantly higher values. Non-survivors also exhibited significantly lower oxygen extraction ratio with an averaged mean difference of -0.08 (95% CI: -0.09 to -0.07, p<0.01) across day one to day 30. CONCLUSIONS: As a novel cause of acute hypoxic respiratory failure, COVID-19 offers a unique opportunity to study a homogenous cohort of patients with hypoxaemia. In mechanically ventilated adult COVID-19 patients, blood oxygen indices are abnormal with substantial divergence in PaO2/FiO2 ratio and oxygen extraction ratio between survivors and non-survivors. Despite having higher CaO2 values, non-survivors appear to extract less oxygen implying impaired oxygen utilisation. Further exploratory studies are warranted to evaluate and improve oxygen extraction which may help to improve outcomes in severe hypoxaemic mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hypoxia , Male , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269299, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021778

ABSTRACT

The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic left the Indian healthcare system overwhelmed. The severity of a third wave will depend on the success of the vaccination drive; however, even with a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine, hesitancy can be an obstacle to achieving high levels of coverage. Our study aims to estimate the population's acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in an Indian district. A pilot community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March-May 2021. The data was collected from eight primary health centres in Tamil Nadu. The eligible study participants were interviewed using a self-constructed questionnaire. A total of 3,130 individuals responded to the survey. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to assess the factors influencing COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and refusal. Results of our study showed that 46% percent (n = 1432) of the respondents would accept the COVID-19 vaccine if available. Acceptance for the COVID-19 vaccine was higher among males (54%), individuals aged 18-24years (62%), those with higher education (77%), having the higher income (73%), and employed (51%). Individuals with no education (OR: 2.799, 95% CI = 1.103-7.108), and low income (OR: OR: 10.299, 95% CI: 4.879-21.741), were significant predictors of vaccine hesitancy (p < 0.05). Living in urban residence (OR: 0.699, 95% CI = 0.55-0.888) and age between 18 to 25 years (OR: 0.549, 95% CI = 0.309-0.977) were protective factor of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. While individuals in the age group 25-54years (OR = 1.601, 95%CI = 1.086-2.359), fewer education (OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 2.448-9.412,), low income (OR = 2.628, 95% CI = 1.777-3.887) and unemployment (OR = 1.351, 95% CI = 1.06-1.722) had high odds of refusing the COVID-19 vaccine. Concerns and suspicions about the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine (63%) was the major reasons causing hesitancy towards the COVID-19 vaccine The public health authorities and government need to design, develop and implement targeted interventions to enhance awareness about COVID-19 vaccines, and barriers and enablers to vaccine acceptance among individuals across diverse settings. Emphasis on involving local and religious leaders, ASHA workers, community healthcare workers, Anganwadi workers, and auxiliary nurse midwives can help to overcome context-specific barriers in areas of low COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, especially in rural settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urination Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination , Young Adult
20.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269018, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021768

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus urged all members of the society to adopt COVID-responsible behavioral patterns and practice them in everyday life. Given the variability in its adoption, it is critical to understand psychological factors associated with socially responsible behavior during the pandemic. This might be even more important among adolescents, who are less endangered by the virus but contribute to its spread. In this article, we focus on adolescent boys' and girls' agency and communion orientations to explain the level of importance they attribute to the instituted measures to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus (personal norm), as well as their behavioral adherence to those measures. In total, 12,552 adolescents (67.6% girls, Mage = 15.06, SDage = 2.44, age range 10-21) answered inventory assessing adolescents' agentic and communal orientation (GRI-JUG) and items related to personal norm regarding the instituted measures and behavioral adherence to the measures. The results showed a small positive role of communion in both boys' and girls' personal norm and behavioral adherence, whereas agency played a very small negative role in boys' and girls' personal norm and boys' behavioral adherence to measures. Nevertheless, these findings could indicate the importance of enhancing communal traits and behaviors in both genders in order to assure socially responsible behavior during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Social Behavior , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL