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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964005

ABSTRACT

Grain legumes are a rich source of dietary protein for millions of people globally and thus a key driver for securing global food security. Legume plant-based 'dietary protein' biofortification is an economic strategy for alleviating the menace of rising malnutrition-related problems and hidden hunger. Malnutrition from protein deficiency is predominant in human populations with an insufficient daily intake of animal protein/dietary protein due to economic limitations, especially in developing countries. Therefore, enhancing grain legume protein content will help eradicate protein-related malnutrition problems in low-income and underprivileged countries. Here, we review the exploitable genetic variability for grain protein content in various major grain legumes for improving the protein content of high-yielding, low-protein genotypes. We highlight classical genetics-based inheritance of protein content in various legumes and discuss advances in molecular marker technology that have enabled us to underpin various quantitative trait loci controlling seed protein content (SPC) in biparental-based mapping populations and genome-wide association studies. We also review the progress of functional genomics in deciphering the underlying candidate gene(s) controlling SPC in various grain legumes and the role of proteomics and metabolomics in shedding light on the accumulation of various novel proteins and metabolites in high-protein legume genotypes. Lastly, we detail the scope of genomic selection, high-throughput phenotyping, emerging genome editing tools, and speed breeding protocols for enhancing SPC in grain legumes to achieve legume-based dietary protein security and thus reduce the global hunger risk.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae , Grain Proteins , Malnutrition , Edible Grain/genetics , Edible Grain/metabolism , Fabaceae/genetics , Food Security , Genome-Wide Association Study , Grain Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Malnutrition/metabolism , Plant Breeding , Plant Proteins/genetics , Vegetables/genetics
2.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 41(1): 29, 2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Relapse or repeated episodes is the admission of a child with the diagnosis of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) after being discharged to a status of treated and cured from a stabilizing center. A child may experience more than one episode of SAM depending on the improvement of the underlying comorbidity. Thus, this study aimed to estimate the time to readmission of SAM and associated factors for under-five children in North West Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution-based retrospective cohort study was employed in 760 files of under-five children spanning from 2014/15 to 2019/20. The data extraction tool was developed from SAM treatment guidelines and medical history sheets. Epi Data version 3.2 and STATA version 14 were used for data entry and final analysis, respectively. After checking all assumptions, the multivariable Cox Proportional Hazard model was fitted to the isolated independent predictors for time to readmission. A categorical variable with p < 0.05 was considered a risk factor for the relapse of SAM. RESULT: The mean (± SD) age of participant children was 27.8 (± 16.5) months with mean (± SD) time to relapse of SAM cases were 30.4(± 21.39) weeks posttreatment discharge. The overall incidence density rate of relapse was determined as 10.8% (95% CI 8.3; 12.6). The average time (± SD) for treatment recovery from the first admission of the SAM case was 28.8(± 18.7) days. Time of readmission was significantly associated with living in rural resident (AHR 5⋅3 = 95% CI, 2⋅95, 13⋅87, p = 0.021), having HIV infection (AHR6⋅8 = 95%CI; 4.1-11.9 p = 0.001), and first admission with edema (AHR = 3.5 = 95% CI; 1.92, 6.2, p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Nearly one in every ten severely acute malnourished under-five children relapsed within a mean time to relapse 30.4(± 21.39) weeks posttreatment discharge. Time to relapse was significantly associated with being a rural resident for children, having edema during the first admission, and being HIV-infected cases. A protocol ought to be drafted for extending Supplementary Nutrition in Acute Malnutrition management program following discharge is highly needed.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Malnutrition , Severe Acute Malnutrition , Child , Child, Preschool , Ethiopia/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals, General , Humans , Infant , Patient Discharge , Patient Readmission , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Severe Acute Malnutrition/epidemiology , Severe Acute Malnutrition/therapy
3.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite significant improvements in COVID-19 therapy, many patients still present with persistent symptoms and quality-of-life alterations. The aim of this study was to simultaneously investigate the long-term evolution of autonomy, malnutrition and long-lasting symptoms in people infected with COVID-19 and hospitalized in the ICU. METHOD: Patients' clinical characteristics; extent of their loss of autonomy based on "Autonomie Gérontologie Groupes Iso-Ressources" (AG-GIR) classification; nutritional status while following the French and Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) recommendations; and symptom evolutions before infection, during hospitalization and rehabilitation, and up to 6 months after returning home were determined in thirty-seven patients. RESULTS: Prior to a COVID-19 infection, all patients were autonomous, but upon admission to the rehabilitation center (CRM), 39% of them became highly dependent. After discharge from the center and 6 months after returning home, only 6 and 3%, respectively, still required considerable assistance. Of these thirty-seven patients, 11% were moderately malnourished and 81% presented with severe malnutrition, with a significant correlation being observed between malnutrition and autonomy (p < 0.05). Except for fatigue, which persisted in 70% of the patients 6 months after discharge from rehabilitation, all other symptoms decreased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a striking decrease in autonomy associated with malnutrition after hospitalization for a COVID-19 infection and a clear beneficial effect from personalized rehabilitation. However, although almost all patients regained autonomy 6 months after returning home, they often still suffer from fatigue. Patient compliance with their nutritional recommendations deserves further improvement, preferably through personalized and persistent follow-up with the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/complications , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status
4.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(8 Pt B): 3074-3083, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927111

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The authors' aim was to examine the preoperative hormone and nutritional status in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: The authors' research was a single-center, prospective, observational study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03736499). PARTICIPANTS & INTERVENTIONS: The authors examined 252 patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery. Preoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), prolactin, and testosterone levels were collected and analyzed after the surgery. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT), and Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) were all calculated as a sum and groups. Frailty was calculated based on the modified Frailty Index-11. The primary outcome was overall mortality. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 64.23 years (standard deviation: 11.07 years). Thirty-three patients (13.01%) died during the median follow-up time of 20.48 months (interquartile range: 18.90-22.98 months). Thyroid hormones were examined as continuous variables and also in 3 groups based on low, normal, and high hormone levels. Continuous TSH (p = 0.230), continuous fT3 (p = 0.492), and continuous fT4 (p = 0.657) were not significantly associated with total mortality. After adjustment for the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II and postoperative complications, the following nutritional scores were associated with total mortality: GNRI < 91 (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 4.384; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.866-10.303, p = 0.001), the higher CONUT group (AHR: 1.736; 95% CI: 1.736-2.866, p = 0.031), and a PNI < 48 points (AHR: 3.465; 95% CI: 1.735-6.918, p < 0.001). The modified Frailty Index-11 was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Before cardiac surgery, nutritional status should be assessed because the findings may help to decrease mortality. The hormone levels were not associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Frailty , Malnutrition , Aged , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Hormones , Thyrotropin
5.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917653

ABSTRACT

Many studies have demonstrated that malnutrition has a negative impact on quality of life and mortality in patients with cancer. During the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown, dietary intake changes were detected in the Spanish population, reflecting an increase in the consumption of fruit, bread, flours, and eggs. The present study analyzed the nutritional status of 728 patients with cancer admitted once the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown finished, comparing it with the previous year as well as with mortality rates. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) was applied in the first 24 h after admission. Age, gender, days of stay, circulating concentrations of albumin, cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocytes, prealbumin, and mortality data were analyzed. Patients with cancer admitted between June and December of 2020 exhibited no statistical differences in BMI, age, or gender as compared to patients admitted in 2019. Statistically significant differences in nutritional status (p < 0.05), albumin (p < 0.001), and CRP (p = 0.005) levels regarding lockdown were observed in relation with a small non-significant reduction in mortality. In conclusion, following the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown, an improved nutritional status in cancer patients at admission was observed with a decrease in the percentage of weight loss and CRP levels together with an increase in albumin levels compared to oncological patients admitted the previous year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Neoplasms , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Inflammation , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Neoplasms/complications , Nutritional Status , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nutrients ; 14(12)2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896906

ABSTRACT

Most hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia patients are older adults and/or have nutrition-related issues. Many are bedridden in intensive care units (ICU), a well-documented cause of malnutrition, muscle wasting, and functional impairment. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of an intensive rehabilitation program over the nutritional/functional status of patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia. Post-COVID-19 pneumonia patients underwent a 30-day intensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation program including a personalized nutritional intervention designed to achieve a minimum intake of 30 kcal/kg/day and 1 g protein/kg/day. The nutritional and functional status was assessed in each patient at three different moments. Each assessment included Body Mass Index (BMI), Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC), Mid Arm Muscle Circumference (MAMC), Tricipital Skinfold (TSF), Hand Grip Strength (HGS), and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®). The study included 118 patients, with ages in the range 41-90 years old. BMI increased linearly over time (0.642 units, F-test = 26.458, p < 0.001). MUAC (0.322 units, F-test = 0.515, p = 0.474) and MAMC status (F-test = 1.089, p = 0.299) improved slightly, whereas TSF decreased (F-test = 1.885, p = 0.172), but all these arm anthropometry trends did not show significant variations, while HGS (4.131 units, F-test = 82.540, p < 0.001) and MNA® (1.483 units, F-test = 217.726, p < 0.001) reported a meaningful improvement. Post-COVID-19 pneumonia patients presented malnutrition and functional impairment. An interdisciplinary rehabilitation program, including personalized nutritional intervention, was effective for post-hospital COVID-19 pneumonia nutritional/functional rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Nutrition Disorders , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anthropometry , Body Mass Index , Functional Status , Hand Strength , Humans , Malnutrition/etiology , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status
7.
Maturitas ; 161: 40-43, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889670

ABSTRACT

We assessed the impact of malnutrition on 14-day, 28-day, and 3-month mortality risk in oldest-old inpatients aged ≥80 years with COVID-19 in the hospital-based GERIA-COVID cohort. Malnutrition was assessed on hospital admission using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI). Potential confounders were age, sex, functional abilities, number of acute health issues, CRP level, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, malignancies, use of antibiotics, and respiratory treatments. Seventy-eight participants (88.9 ± 4.3 years old, 55% women) were included. Of these, 82.1% had survived at day 14, 78.2% at day 28, and 70.5% after 3 months. No association between malnutrition according to the GNRI and 14-day (P = 0.324), 28-day (P = 0.166), or 3-month mortality (P = 0.109) was found. Thus, malnutrition according to the GNRI was not associated with mortality within the first 3 months of diagnosis of COVID-19 among oldest-old inpatients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Risk Factors
8.
Med J Malaysia ; 77(3): 313-319, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1871853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute illness and hospitalisation detriment the nutritional status of older patients. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of malnutrition, characteristics and in-hospital outcomes associated with malnutrition, and nutritional management among patients who were admitted to the Subacute Geriatric Ward. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of older patients (age ≥ 60) who were admitted to the Subacute Geriatric Ward of Kuala Lumpur Hospital from 1 March 2021 to 31 May 2021. Malnutrition was identified using the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF). The in-hospital outcomes evaluated were hospital-associated complications, namely delirium, functional decline, incontinence, inpatient falls, inpatient pressure injuries, hospital-acquired infection, institutionalisation, and inpatient mortality. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients were included (mean age 74.7, female 58.9%), of which 28 (38.4%) and 27 (37.0%) were malnourished and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Poorer nutritional status was associated with increased age, comorbidity burden, frailty, immobility, impaired basic activities of daily living, history of falls, cognitive impairment, incontinence, and arthritis. About 71.2% and 60.3% of patients were offered dietitian review and oral nutritional supplements, respectively. The in-hospital outcome rates were higher among malnourished patients, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, multiple hospital-associated complications were more common with poorer nutritional status (p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Hospital malnutrition is prevalent among older patients, and unidentified malnutrition is not justified due to its association with multiple adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Hospitalization , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 50: 196-206, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and disease severity in COVID-19 has been reported, whilst the impact of undernutrition remains less well-defined. Here we describe nutritional risk profiles of consecutive COVID-19 hospital inpatients, together with clinical outcomes and the impact of nutritional therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective case-control study of adult inpatients admitted to University College London Hospital between February and July 2020 with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Data were extracted from electronic health records and compared to a control group of consecutive patients admitted between March and April 2019. COVID-19 patients were classified as at low, moderate or high nutritional risk according to a local nutritional screening tool on admission. Data relating to demographics, nutritional therapy and clinical outcomes were collected and compared between nutritional risk groups. RESULTS: A significantly higher proportion of the COVID-19 group were found to be at high nutritional risk (132/381, 34.6% vs. 105/468, 22.4%; p < 0.0001). Within the COVID-19 group, multivariate analysis showed that those at moderate and high nutritional risk had increased odds of having an above-average peak CRP (p = 0.004) and a below-average nadir albumin (p = 0.0002). Inpatient length of stay was on average 5.8 days longer for COVID-19 patients at moderate and high nutritional risk compared to those at low nutritional risk (p = 0.0008). COVID-19 patients at moderate nutritional risk on admission had a higher proportion of ICU admissions (28/89, 31.5% vs. 32/160, 20.0%; p = 0.01). Mortality was significantly worse in COVID-19 patients at high nutritional risk compared to those at low nutritional risk (52/132, 39.4% vs. 24/160, 15.0%; p < 0.0001). Prescription of enteral nutrition in ward-based COVID-19 patients at high nutritional risk was associated with lower inpatient mortality (20/67, 29.9% vs. 22/38, 57.9%; p = 0.009). In crude analysis, the 30-day mortality rate post-discharge was higher in those at moderate and high nutritional risk compared to those at low nutritional risk (13/151, 8.6% vs. 4/136, 2.9%, p < 0.05). Amongst patients at high nutritional risk, nutritional therapy was less common amongst non-white patients compared to white patients (12/29, 41.4% vs. 46/66, 70.0%; p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Patients admitted with COVID-19 were at significant risk of undernutrition, which was associated with adverse clinical outcomes in our study. This risk was reduced by simple nutritional interventions. Mortality amongst patients at high nutritional risk persisted beyond discharge, suggesting close nutritional follow up in the period following hospital admission is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , Aftercare , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Nutritional Support , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Transl Behav Med ; 12(4): 516-525, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864989

ABSTRACT

Land development, pollution, and waste have affected natural environments, contributing to hurricanes, wildfires, and pandemic infectious diseases like COVID-19. Globalized corporate food systems that produce ultra-refined foods with low nutritional value contribute to both environmental conditions and health conditions like obesity and undernutrition. This has the greatest impact on communities already suffering from elevated health risks driven by economic inequities rooted in racism. These interacting environmental, health, and social conditions represent a syndemic. We outline practical suggestions to address this syndemic of environmental degradation, pandemic infectious disease, chronic disease, undernutrition, and inequity through research and practice at many levels, including individual behavior, local communities, and regional, national and global policy. Collaboration with communities is central to simultaneously tackling interconnected human and environmental health threats. For example, community-led groups have increased access to healthy food in response to pandemic conditions. Building on behavioral medicine's rich foundation of ecological models, communities have partnered with local researchers to address the needs of equitable public transport and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through multilevel research and practice. Policymakers, researchers, practitioners, and community members should collaborate with each other and across disciplines to find lasting, multiduty solutions to improve physical, psychosocial, and planetary health.


Subject(s)
Behavioral Medicine , COVID-19 , Malnutrition , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Policy , Syndemic
11.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 78 Suppl 2: 40-50, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the last 30-40 years, we have seen an improvement in global child undernutrition, with major reductions in wasting and stunting. Meanwhile, childhood obesity has dramatically increased, initially in high-income populations and subsequently in the more economically vulnerable. These trends are related to significant changes in diet and external factors, including new environmental threats. SUMMARY: Obesity rates first increased in older children, then gradually in infants. And in the next couple of years, there will be more overweight and obese than moderately or severely underweight children in the world. The changes in childhood nutritional landscape are a result of poor diets. Today, almost 50% of the world's population consumes either too many or too few calories. Dietary disparities between countries result in disparities of under- and overnutrition and impact the global health landscape. Most children with obesity, wasting, and micronutrient deficiencies live in lower income countries and in lower income families within any country. High energy-low nutrient diets are contributing to the increase in non-communicable diseases, which will manifest later in this generation of children. In 1990, child wasting was the #1 leading risk factor for mortality for all ages, and high BMI was #16; today, they are #11 and #5, respectively. COVID-19 and climate change are new major threats to global nutrition. Current and future efforts to improve the state of child nutrition require multisectoral approaches to reprioritize actions which address current trends and emerging threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Pediatric Obesity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Diet , Humans , Infant , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Nutritional Status , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control
12.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855723

ABSTRACT

Climate change, rapid urbanization, war, and economic recession are key drivers of the current food systems' disruption, which has been exacerbated by the COVID pandemic. Local, regional, and global food systems are unable to provide consumers with nutritious and affordable diets. Suboptimal diets exacerbate the triple burden of malnutrition, with micronutrient deficiencies affecting more than two billion people, two billion people suffering from overweight, and more than 140 million children who are stunted. The unaffordability of nutritious diets represents an obstacle for many, especially in low- and middle-income countries where healthy diets are five times more expensive than starchy staple diets. Food system transformations are urgently required to provide consumers with more affordable and nutritious diets that are capable of meeting social and environmental challenges. In this review, we underline the critical role of innovation within the food system transformation discourse. We aim to define principles for implementing evidence-based and long-term food system innovations that are economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable and, above all, aimed at improving diets and public health. We begin by defining and describing the role of innovation in the transformation of food systems and uncover the major barriers to implementing these innovations. Lastly, we explore case studies that demonstrate successful innovations for healthier diets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Climate Change , Diet , Diet, Healthy , Humans
13.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221096249, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846766

ABSTRACT

Nutrition is a critical part of health and development but over 3 million people in the UK are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition (93% living in the community). As part of a wider nutritional clinical review program across England, this specific pilot focused on proactive nutritional reviews within 1 rural practice, to explore how exacerbation of illness for patients with long-term conditions may be prevented and quality of life improved through the avoidance of malnutrition; identified through the timely delivery of holistic clinical assessments; and managed with nutritional interventions that patients actively engage with. These objectives were of particular significance in 2020 due to the challenges posed by Covid-19 in the delivery of healthcare. Within the pilot activity, a selection of patients at the practice were identified based on predetermined criteria. The intervention was delivered remotely by a clinical pharmacist. Two methods of communication with patients were explored during the pilot-initially communicating by letter, and latterly by telephone call. From a registered patient population of 6138, 59 of these patients were flagged to the practice for assessment as required and 102 patients were prioritized for remote assessment. Following a notes review, 60 patients were contacted via telephone with no action for 39 patients; 16 patients agreeing to a "food-first" approach; and 5 patients prescribed ONS. Results from the pilot and wider program activity demonstrate that patients willingly engaged in a proactive approach to remote assessments when using appropriate communication channels. It has also demonstrated that through guidelines adherence resulting in more appropriate prescribing, there are significant cost savings to be made through the implementation of remote nutritional assessments in primary care. Further research is required to address the system-wide benefit that these reviews and the identification of adults at risk of malnutrition could deliver.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , COVID-19/complications , England , Humans , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Quality of Life
14.
PLoS Med ; 19(3): e1003923, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community-based management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) involves weekly or biweekly outpatient clinic visits for clinical surveillance and distribution of therapeutic foods. Distance to outpatient clinics and high opportunity costs for caregivers can represent major barriers to access. Reducing the frequency of outpatient visits while providing training to caregivers to recognize clinical danger signs at home between outpatient visits may increase acceptability, coverage, and public health impact of SAM treatment. We investigated the effectiveness of monthly clinic visits compared to the standard weekly follow-up in the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated SAM in northwestern Nigeria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster randomized crossover trial to test the noninferiority of nutritional recovery in children with uncomplicated SAM receiving monthly follow-up compared to the standard weekly schedule. From January 2018 to November 2019, 3,945 children aged 6 to 59 months were enrolled at 10 health centers (5 assigned to monthly follow-up and 5 assigned to weekly follow-up) in Sokoto, Nigeria. In total, 96% of children (n = 1,976 in the monthly follow-up group and 1,802 in the weekly follow-up group) were followed until program discharge, and 91% (n = 1,873 in the monthly follow-up group and 1,721 in the weekly follow-up group) were followed to 3 months postdischarge. The mean age at admission was 15.8 months (standard deviation [SD] 7.1), 2,097/3,945 (53.2%) were girls, and the mean midupper arm circumference (MUAC) at admission was 105.8 mm (SD 6.0). In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, the primary outcome of nutritional recovery, defined as having MUAC ≥125 mm on 2 consecutive visits, was analyzed using generalized linear models, with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering. Nutritional recovery was lower in the monthly follow-up group compared to the weekly group (1,036/1,976, 52.4% versus 1,059/1,802, 58.8%; risk difference: -6.8%), and noninferiority was not demonstrated (lower bound of the confidence interval [CI] was -11.5%, lower than the noninferiority margin of 10%). The proportion of children defaulting was lower in the monthly group than in the weekly group (109/1,976, 5.5% versus 151/1,802, 8.4%, p = 0.03). Three months postdischarge, children in the monthly group were less likely to relapse compared to those in the weekly group (58/976, 5.9% versus 78/1,005, 7.8%, p = 0.03), but cumulative mortality at 3 months postdischarge was higher in the monthly group (159/1,873, 8.5% versus 106/1,721, 6.2%, p < 0.001). Study results may depend on context-specific factors including baseline level of care and the clinical status of children presenting to health centers, and, thus, generalizability of these results may be limited. CONCLUSIONS: Where feasible, a weekly schedule of clinic visits should be preferred to maintain effectiveness of SAM treatment. Where geographic coverage of programs is low or frequent travel to outpatient clinics is difficult or impossible, a monthly schedule of visits may provide an alternative model to deliver treatment to those in need. Modifications to the outpatient follow-up schedule, for example, weekly clinic visits until initial weight gain has been achieved followed by monthly visits, could increase the effectiveness of the model and add flexibility for program delivery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03140904.


Subject(s)
Malnutrition , Severe Acute Malnutrition , Aftercare , Child , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nigeria/epidemiology , Patient Discharge
15.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834856

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Poor physical performance has been shown to be a good predictor of complications in some pathologies. The objective of our study was to evaluate, in patients with colorectal neoplasia prior to surgery, physical performance and its relationship with postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality, at 1 month and at 6 months. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study on patients with preoperative colorectal neoplasia, between October 2018 and July 2021. Physical performance was evaluated using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) test and hand grip strength (HGS). For a decrease in physical performance, SPPB < 10 points or HGS below the EWGSOP2 cut-off points was considered. Nutritional status was evaluated using subjective global assessment (SGA). The prevalence of postoperative complications and mortality during admission, at 1 month, and at 6 months was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 296 patients, mean age 60.4 ± 12.8 years, 59.3% male, were evaluated. The mean BMI was 27.6 ± 5.1 kg/m2. The mean total SPPB score was 10.57 ± 2.07 points. A total of 69 patients presented a low SPPB score (23.3%). Hand grip strength showed a mean value of 33.1 ± 8.5 kg/m2 for men and 20.7 ± 4.3 kg/m2 for women. A total of 58 patients presented low HGS (19.6%). SGA found 40.2% (119) of patients with normal nourishment, 32.4% (96) with moderate malnutrition, and 27.4% (81) with severe malnutrition. Postoperative complications were more frequent in patients with a low SPPB score (60.3% vs. 38.6%; p = 0.002) and low HGS (64.9% vs. 39.3%, p = 0.001). A low SPPB test score (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.37-4.79, p = 0.003) and low HGS (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.37-5.29, p = 0.004) were associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications after adjusting for tumor stage and age. Patients with a low SPPB score presented an increase in in-hospital mortality (8.7% vs. 0.9%; p = 0.021), at 1 month (8.7% vs. 1.3%; p = 0.002) and at 6 months (13.1% vs. 2.2%, p < 0.001). Patients with low HGS presented an increase in mortality at 6 months (10.5% vs. 3.3%; p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in physical performance, evaluated by the SPPB test or hand grip strength, was elevated in patients with colorectal cancer prior to surgery and was related to an increase in postoperative complications and mortality.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Malnutrition , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Physical Functional Performance , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prospective Studies
16.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1148, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the skeletal muscle index at the third lumbar vertebra (L3 SMI) had reasonable specificity and sensitivity in nutritional assessment and prognostic prediction in digestive system cancers, but its performance in lung cancer needs further investigation. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 110 patients with advanced lung cancer. The L3 SMI, the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score (PG-SGA score), body mass index (BMI), and serological indicators were analyzed. According to PG-SGA scores, patients were divided into severe malnutrition (≥9 points), mild to moderate malnutrition (≥3 points and ≤ 8 points), and no malnutrition (≤2 points) groups. Pearson correlation and logistic regression analysis were adopted to find factors related to malnutrition, and a forest plot was drawn. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to compare the diagnostic values of malnutrition among factors, which were expressed by the area under curve (AUC). RESULTS: 1. The age of patients in the severe malnutrition group, the mild to moderate malnutrition group, and the no malnutrition group significantly differed, with mean ages of 63.46 ± 10.01 years, 60.42 ± 8.76 years, and 55.03 ± 10.40 years, respectively (OR = 1.062, 95%CI: 1.008 ~ 1.118, P = 0.024; OR = 1.100, 95%CI: 1.034 ~ 1.170, P = 0.002). Furthermore, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) of the severe malnutrition group was significantly higher than that of the no malnutrition group, with statistical significance. The difference between the mild to moderate malnutrition group and the no malnutrition group were not statistically significant, with NLR of 4.07 ± 3.34 and 2.47 ± 0.92, respectively (OR = 1.657,95%CI: 1.036 ~ 2.649, P = 0.035). The L3 SMI of patients in the severe malnutrition and mild to moderate malnutrition groups were significantly lower than that of the patients in the no malnutrition group, with statistical significance. The L3 SMI of patients in the severe malnutrition group, mild to moderate malnutrition group, and no malnutrition group were 27.40 ± 4.25 cm2/m2, 38.19 ± 6.17 cm2/m2, and 47.96 ± 5.02 cm2/m2, respectively (OR = 0.600, 95%CI: 0.462 ~ 0.777, P < 0.001; OR = 0.431, 95%CI: 0.320 ~ 0.581, P < 0.001). 2. The Pearson correlation analysis showed that the PG-SGA score positively correlated with age (r = 0.296, P < 0.05) but negatively correlated with L3 SMI (r = - 0.857, P < 0.05). The L3 SMI was also negatively correlated with age (r = - 0.240, P < 0.05). 3. The multivariate analysis showed that the L3 SMI was an independent risk factor for malnutrition (OR = 0.446, 95%CI: 0.258 ~ 0.773, P = 0.004; OR = 0.289, 95%CI: 0.159 ~ 0.524, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: 1. The differences in the L3 SMI was statistically significant among advanced lung cancer patients with different nutritional statuses. 2. In the nutritional assessment of patients with lung cancer, the L3 SMI was consistent with the PG-SGA. 3. The L3 SMI is an independent predictor of malnutrition in patients with advanced lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms/complications , Malnutrition/etiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Vertebral Body/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 37(3): 605-614, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have been performed to determine predictors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, studies that address the geriatric age group are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and the Geriatric 8 (G8) screening tools in predicting clinical outcomes in older adults hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients aged ≥60 years who were hospitalized with COVID-19 in the second wave of the pandemic were included in the study. COVID-19 infection was demonstrated by a positive real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab or positive radiological findings. Disease severity was determined as defined by the National Institutes of Health. Patient demographics, laboratory values on admission, comorbidities, and medications were recorded. The NRS-2002 and the G8 screening tools were performed for all patients by the same geriatrician. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 121 patients were included. Mean age was 75 ± 9 years, and 51% were female. Mean body mass index was 27 ± 4.5 kg/m2 . Sixty-nine percent of the patients had nutrition risk according to the NRS-2002. Eighty-nine percent of the patients had a G8 score ≤14. In-hospital mortality occurred in 26 (22%) patients. Older age and having nutrition risk as determined by the NRS-2002 were independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality in older patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The NRS-2002 tool provides rapid assessment for risk stratification in hospitalized older patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status
19.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A higher risk for severe clinical courses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been linked to deficiencies of several micronutrients. We therefore studied the prevalence of deficiencies of eight different micronutrients in a cohort of hospitalized COVID-19-patients. METHODS: We measured admission serum/plasma levels of vitamins A, B12, D, and E, as well as folic acid, zinc, selenium, and copper in 57 consecutively admitted adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 and analyzed prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies and correlations among micronutrient levels. Further, we studied associations of micronutrient levels with severe disease progression, a composite endpoint consisting of in-hospital mortality and/or need for intensive care unit (ICU) treatment with logistic regression. RESULTS: Median age was 67.0 years (IQR 60.0, 74.2) and 60% (n = 34) were male. Overall, 79% (n = 45) of patients had at least one deficient micronutrient level and 33% (n = 19) had ≥3 deficiencies. Most prevalent deficiencies were found for selenium, vitamin D, vitamin A, and zinc (51%, 40%, 39%, and 39%, respectively). We found several correlations among micronutrients with correlation coefficients ranging from r = 0.27 to r = 0.42. The strongest associations with lower risk for severe COVID-19 disease progression (adjusted odds ratios) were found for higher levels of vitamin A (0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.69, p = 0.01), zinc (0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.98, p = 0.03), and folic acid (0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.98, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We found a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in mostly older patients hospitalized for COVID-19, particularly regarding selenium, vitamin D, vitamin A, and zinc. Several deficiencies were associated with a higher risk for more severe COVID-19 courses. Whether supplementation of micronutrients is useful for prevention of severe clinical courses or treatment of COVID-19 warrants further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Selenium , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Folic Acid , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Micronutrients , Prevalence , Vitamin A , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Zinc/therapeutic use
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Childhood malnutrition is an important public health problem. Animal protein provides essential amino acids in a more adequate pattern than plant-based protein. However, the production of sufficient animal-sourced protein to feed the growing world population is a serious challenge. This review aims to explore the evidence on the use of edible insects as an alternative source of protein and micronutrients in complementary foods for children and their potential to address childhood malnutrition. METHODS: Searches were conducted in two electronic databases PubMed and Cochrane. The reference lists of included studies were also searched. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in this review. All insect-enriched formulations (e.g., biscuits, cereals, porridge, paste, etc.) exceeded the daily recommended amount of protein and fat for children's complementary foods and showed good acceptability. Only two studies assessed the efficacy of insect-enriched foods on nutritional indicators and found no effect on the reduction of stunting and wasting. However, one study found improvements in the haemoglobin levels and fewer cases of anaemia in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Insect-enriched complementary foods for children are safe, acceptable and have the potential to tackle micronutrient deficiencies. More studies are needed to examine their effect on nutritional status in children.


Subject(s)
Edible Insects , Malnutrition , Animals , Child , Food, Fortified , Humans , Infant , Micronutrients , Nutritional Status
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