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1.
PLoS Med ; 19(3): e1003923, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community-based management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) involves weekly or biweekly outpatient clinic visits for clinical surveillance and distribution of therapeutic foods. Distance to outpatient clinics and high opportunity costs for caregivers can represent major barriers to access. Reducing the frequency of outpatient visits while providing training to caregivers to recognize clinical danger signs at home between outpatient visits may increase acceptability, coverage, and public health impact of SAM treatment. We investigated the effectiveness of monthly clinic visits compared to the standard weekly follow-up in the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated SAM in northwestern Nigeria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster randomized crossover trial to test the noninferiority of nutritional recovery in children with uncomplicated SAM receiving monthly follow-up compared to the standard weekly schedule. From January 2018 to November 2019, 3,945 children aged 6 to 59 months were enrolled at 10 health centers (5 assigned to monthly follow-up and 5 assigned to weekly follow-up) in Sokoto, Nigeria. In total, 96% of children (n = 1,976 in the monthly follow-up group and 1,802 in the weekly follow-up group) were followed until program discharge, and 91% (n = 1,873 in the monthly follow-up group and 1,721 in the weekly follow-up group) were followed to 3 months postdischarge. The mean age at admission was 15.8 months (standard deviation [SD] 7.1), 2,097/3,945 (53.2%) were girls, and the mean midupper arm circumference (MUAC) at admission was 105.8 mm (SD 6.0). In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, the primary outcome of nutritional recovery, defined as having MUAC ≥125 mm on 2 consecutive visits, was analyzed using generalized linear models, with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering. Nutritional recovery was lower in the monthly follow-up group compared to the weekly group (1,036/1,976, 52.4% versus 1,059/1,802, 58.8%; risk difference: -6.8%), and noninferiority was not demonstrated (lower bound of the confidence interval [CI] was -11.5%, lower than the noninferiority margin of 10%). The proportion of children defaulting was lower in the monthly group than in the weekly group (109/1,976, 5.5% versus 151/1,802, 8.4%, p = 0.03). Three months postdischarge, children in the monthly group were less likely to relapse compared to those in the weekly group (58/976, 5.9% versus 78/1,005, 7.8%, p = 0.03), but cumulative mortality at 3 months postdischarge was higher in the monthly group (159/1,873, 8.5% versus 106/1,721, 6.2%, p < 0.001). Study results may depend on context-specific factors including baseline level of care and the clinical status of children presenting to health centers, and, thus, generalizability of these results may be limited. CONCLUSIONS: Where feasible, a weekly schedule of clinic visits should be preferred to maintain effectiveness of SAM treatment. Where geographic coverage of programs is low or frequent travel to outpatient clinics is difficult or impossible, a monthly schedule of visits may provide an alternative model to deliver treatment to those in need. Modifications to the outpatient follow-up schedule, for example, weekly clinic visits until initial weight gain has been achieved followed by monthly visits, could increase the effectiveness of the model and add flexibility for program delivery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03140904.


Subject(s)
Malnutrition , Severe Acute Malnutrition , Aftercare , Child , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nigeria/epidemiology , Patient Discharge
2.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834856

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Poor physical performance has been shown to be a good predictor of complications in some pathologies. The objective of our study was to evaluate, in patients with colorectal neoplasia prior to surgery, physical performance and its relationship with postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality, at 1 month and at 6 months. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study on patients with preoperative colorectal neoplasia, between October 2018 and July 2021. Physical performance was evaluated using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) test and hand grip strength (HGS). For a decrease in physical performance, SPPB < 10 points or HGS below the EWGSOP2 cut-off points was considered. Nutritional status was evaluated using subjective global assessment (SGA). The prevalence of postoperative complications and mortality during admission, at 1 month, and at 6 months was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 296 patients, mean age 60.4 ± 12.8 years, 59.3% male, were evaluated. The mean BMI was 27.6 ± 5.1 kg/m2. The mean total SPPB score was 10.57 ± 2.07 points. A total of 69 patients presented a low SPPB score (23.3%). Hand grip strength showed a mean value of 33.1 ± 8.5 kg/m2 for men and 20.7 ± 4.3 kg/m2 for women. A total of 58 patients presented low HGS (19.6%). SGA found 40.2% (119) of patients with normal nourishment, 32.4% (96) with moderate malnutrition, and 27.4% (81) with severe malnutrition. Postoperative complications were more frequent in patients with a low SPPB score (60.3% vs. 38.6%; p = 0.002) and low HGS (64.9% vs. 39.3%, p = 0.001). A low SPPB test score (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.37-4.79, p = 0.003) and low HGS (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.37-5.29, p = 0.004) were associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications after adjusting for tumor stage and age. Patients with a low SPPB score presented an increase in in-hospital mortality (8.7% vs. 0.9%; p = 0.021), at 1 month (8.7% vs. 1.3%; p = 0.002) and at 6 months (13.1% vs. 2.2%, p < 0.001). Patients with low HGS presented an increase in mortality at 6 months (10.5% vs. 3.3%; p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in physical performance, evaluated by the SPPB test or hand grip strength, was elevated in patients with colorectal cancer prior to surgery and was related to an increase in postoperative complications and mortality.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Malnutrition , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Physical Functional Performance , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prospective Studies
3.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 37(3): 605-614, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have been performed to determine predictors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, studies that address the geriatric age group are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and the Geriatric 8 (G8) screening tools in predicting clinical outcomes in older adults hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients aged ≥60 years who were hospitalized with COVID-19 in the second wave of the pandemic were included in the study. COVID-19 infection was demonstrated by a positive real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab or positive radiological findings. Disease severity was determined as defined by the National Institutes of Health. Patient demographics, laboratory values on admission, comorbidities, and medications were recorded. The NRS-2002 and the G8 screening tools were performed for all patients by the same geriatrician. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 121 patients were included. Mean age was 75 ± 9 years, and 51% were female. Mean body mass index was 27 ± 4.5 kg/m2 . Sixty-nine percent of the patients had nutrition risk according to the NRS-2002. Eighty-nine percent of the patients had a G8 score ≤14. In-hospital mortality occurred in 26 (22%) patients. Older age and having nutrition risk as determined by the NRS-2002 were independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality in older patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The NRS-2002 tool provides rapid assessment for risk stratification in hospitalized older patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status
4.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 45(S2): 79-84, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767367

ABSTRACT

Despite a mounting evidentiary base, controversies surrounding critical care nutrition support persist. Anchored by a case of a 60-year-old male with esophageal cancer who develops acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and septic shock, five panelists from the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) 2021 Pre-Conference discuss key clinical dilemmas in critical care nutrition, including hierarchy of evidence, bedside evaluation of malnutrition, optimal protein dose, use of fiber, and therapies targeting gut function and gut microbiota .


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Malnutrition , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Enteral Nutrition , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/therapy , Middle Aged , Nutritional Support , Parenteral Nutrition
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 300, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe inflammation and one or more extrapulmonary organ dysfunctions have been reported and this clinical picture is defined as "multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults" (MIS-A) in severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to determine the effect of LDH/lymphocyte ratio (LLR) on the development of MIS-A. METHODS: The data of 2333 patients were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: MIS-A rate was found to be 9.9% and MIS-A related mortality was 35.3%. LRR level above 0.24 was found to predict MIS-A development with 70% sensitivity and 65.2% specificity. The risk of MIS-A development was found to be 3.64 times higher in those with LRR levels above 0.24 compared to those with 0.24 and below. In patients with MIS-A, LRR level above 0.32 predicts mortality with 78% sensitivity and 70% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection of MIS-A with high sensitivity and specificity in a practical ratio is very important in terms new studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition has been linked to adverse health economic outcomes. There is a paucity of data on malnutrition in patients admitted with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study consisting of 4311 COVID-19 adult (18 years and older) inpatients at 5 Johns Hopkins-affiliated hospitals between 1 March and 3 December 2020. Malnourishment was identified using the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), then confirmed by registered dietitians. Statistics were conducted with SAS v9.4 (Cary, NC, USA) software to examine the effect of malnutrition on mortality and hospital length of stay among COVID-19 inpatient encounters, while accounting for possible covariates in regression analysis predicting mortality or the log-transformed length of stay. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients who were older, male, or had lower BMIs had a higher likelihood of mortality. Patients with malnutrition were 76% more likely to have mortality (p < 0.001) and to have a 105% longer hospital length of stay (p < 0.001). Overall, 12.9% (555/4311) of adult COVID-19 patients were diagnosed with malnutrition and were associated with an 87.9% increase in hospital length of stay (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of COVID-19 adult inpatients, malnutrition was associated with a higher likelihood of mortality and increased hospital length of stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , Hospitals , Humans , Inpatients , Length of Stay , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
7.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 80(1): 15-27, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714845

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 infection is a potentially serious disease. Overweight, obesity, and diabetes are comorbidities frequently found in the severe form of the disease. Appropriate nutritional management of the patient is an integral part of care. We will discuss the renutrition of a 76-year-old, obese (BMI = 35kg/m2), malnourished patient, according to the 2021 Haute Autorité de santé criteria, with Covid-19 infection, admitted to the intensive care unit at the Bordeaux University Hospital for an acute respiratory distress syndrome. Adaptation of nutritional intakes was achieved by clinical and biological monitoring. A refeeding syndrome was treated on the first day of hospitalization in the intensive care unit. After thiamine supplementation and when kalemia and phosphatemia have been normalized, renutrition was started. Parenteral nutrition as a complement to oral nutrition was used. Parenteral nutrition was well tolerated; recommended caloric and protein intakes were achieved by the fourth day of hospitalization. The clinical evolution was favorable. In conclusion, patients with Covid-19 infection should be considered malnourished when admitted to the intensive care unit. Macro and micronutrient intakes adapted to metabolically stressed patients are essential. Biological monitoring including monitoring of ionogram, phosphate, uremia, creatinine, liver function tests and blood glucose is essential in the nutritional management of patients with serious Covid-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/etiology , Malnutrition/therapy , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 37(2): 393-401, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the association of nutritional risk and inflammatory marker level with length of stay (LOS) in children and adolescents hospitalized for COVID-19 infection in two pediatric teaching hospitals in a developing country. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytical retrospective study performed in two pediatric hospitals. We included the data from all children and adolescents who were hospitalized with a SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and December 2020. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory data were extracted from electronic medical records. Nutritional risk was assessed according to the STRONGkids tool within 24 hours of admission and was categorized into two levels: ≥4 (high risk) and <4 (moderate or low risk). Means or medians were compared between nutritional risk groups using the t test and Mann-Whitney U test, respectively. The association of nutritional risk and inflammatory markers with LOS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Cox proportional-hazard and linear regression models were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: From a total of 73 patients, 20 (27.4%) had a STRONGkids score ≥4 at admission, which was associated with a longer LOS even after adjusting (ß = 12.30; 1.74-22.9 95% CI; P = 0.023). The same association was observed between LOS and all laboratory markers except for D-dimer. CONCLUSION: Among children and adolescents with COVID-19, a STRONGkids score ≥4 at admission, lower values of albumin, lymphocytes, and hemoglobin, and higher CRP values were associated with longer LOS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Nutrients ; 14(4)2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704383

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The post-COVID-19 condition, defined as COVID-19-related signs and symptoms lasting at least 2 months and persisting more than 3 months after infection, appears now as a public health issue in terms of frequency and quality of life alterations. Nevertheless, few data are available concerning long term evolution of malnutrition and sarcopenia, which deserve further attention. METHOD: Sarcopenia was investigated prospectively, together with weight evolution, at admission and at 3 and 6 months after hospital discharge in 139 COVID-19 patients, using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2) criteria, associating both decreased muscle strength and muscle mass, assessed, respectively, with hand dynamometer and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Of the 139 patients, 22 presented with sarcopenia at 3 months; intensive care units (ICU) length of stay was the sole factor associated with sarcopenia after multivariate analysis. Although the entire group did not demonstrate significant weight change, weight decreased significantly in the sarcopenia group (Five and eight patients, showing, respectively, >5 or >10% weight decrease). Interestingly, at 6 months, 16 of the 22 patients recovered from sarcopenia and their weight returned toward baseline values. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia and malnutrition are frequently observed in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, even 3 months after infection occurrence, but can largely be reversed at 6 months after discharge. Enhanced patient care is needed in sarcopenic patients, particularly during long stays in an ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Sarcopenia , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Hand Strength , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/etiology
10.
Maturitas ; 161: 40-43, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701484

ABSTRACT

We assessed the impact of malnutrition on 14-day, 28-day, and 3-month mortality risk in oldest-old inpatients aged ≥80 years with COVID-19 in the hospital-based GERIA-COVID cohort. Malnutrition was assessed on hospital admission using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI). Potential confounders were age, sex, functional abilities, number of acute health issues, CRP level, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, malignancies, use of antibiotics, and respiratory treatments. Seventy-eight participants (88.9 ± 4.3 years old, 55% women) were included. Of these, 82.1% had survived at day 14, 78.2% at day 28, and 70.5% after 3 months. No association between malnutrition according to the GNRI and 14-day (P = 0.324), 28-day (P = 0.166), or 3-month mortality (P = 0.109) was found. Thus, malnutrition according to the GNRI was not associated with mortality within the first 3 months of diagnosis of COVID-19 among oldest-old inpatients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Risk Factors
12.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has proved to have an indirect impact on essential health services in several parts of the world which could lead to increased morbidity and mortality and loss of the gains made in the past decades. There were no synthesized scientific evidences which could show the impact of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic on essential health services in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impacts of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic on essential health services provision in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A pre-post study design was used to assess the impacts of COVID-19 on essential health services delivery in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia in the second quarter of 2020 (Post COVID-19) compared to similar quarter in 2019 (Pre COVID-19). The study focuses on five categories; namely; maternal, neonatal and child health care; communicable diseases with a focus on HIV and TB-HIV co-infection; prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV; basic emergency, outpatient, inpatient and blood bank services, non-communicable diseases and road traffic accidents (RTAs). Analysis was done using Stata version 14.0 software package. The effects of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic were calculated taking the differences between post COVID -19 and pre COVID-19 periods and the levels of service disruptions presented using proportions. Wilcoxon sign rank test was done and a significance level of ≤0.05 was considered as having significant difference among the two quarters. RESULTS: There were significant increase in institutional delivery, delivery by Caesarian Section (CS), still birth, postnatal care within 7 days of delivery, the number of children who received all vaccine doses before 1st birthday, the number of under 5 children screened and had moderate acute malnutrition, the number of under 5 children screened and had severe acute malnutrition and children with SAM admitted for management. However, there were significant decrease in HIV testing and detection along with enrolment to antiretroviral therapy (ART) care, number of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk ≥ 30% received treatment, RTAs, total units of blood received from national blood transfusion service (NBTS) and regional blood banks, total number of units of blood transfused and emergency referral. There were no significant changes in outpatient visits and admissions. CONCLUSION: Despite commendable achievements in maintaining several of the essential health services, COVID-19 has led to an increase in under nutrition in under five children, decline in HIV detection and care, CVD, cervical cancer screening and blood bank services. Therefore, governments, local and international agencies need to introduce innovative ways to rapidly expand and deliver services in the context of COVID-19. Moreover, lower income countries have to customize comprehensive and coordinated community-based health care approaches, including outreach and campaigns. In addition, countries should ensure that NCDs are incorporated in their national COVID-19 response plans to provide essential health care services to people living with NCDs and HIV or HIV-TB co-infection during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postnatal Care , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
13.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 25(3): 154-158, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672374

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are at high nutrition risk and a significant number are likely to require ongoing nutrition rehabilitation. Here, we summarise guideline recommendations for nutritional rehabilitation in postacute COVID-19 infection, outline the rationale for nutrition rehabilitation for survivors of postacute COVID-19 in patients admitted to both the hospital ward and intensive care unit and discuss current evidence for interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Several guidelines exist outlining recommendations for nutrition care in hospital, critical care and the community setting. All have common themes pertaining to the importance of nutrition screening, nutrition assessment, appropriate choice of intervention and continuity of care across settings. While a plethora of data exists highlighting the high nutrition risk and prevalence of malnutrition in this population, minimal interventional studies have been published. SUMMARY: Patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are at high nutrition risk. Future studies should focus on nutrition interventions for the rehabilitation period and determine whether nutrition needs differ between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Survivors
14.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 48: 275-281, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: COVID-19 is highly inflammatory and when it affects the elderly who have multiple comorbidities, the risk of malnutrition is high. The aim of this review is to highlight the evidence for COVID-19 and risk for malnutrition (macro- and micro-nutrient deficiency) sharing two case reports. METHODS: We report two cases of patients with COVID-19. The first case includes a 75-year-old male with increasing confusion, delirium and malnutrition once he had clinically resolved from his COVID-19 diagnosis. The patient had a number of comorbidities and was treated with diuretics before and after his hospital admission. He was treated with intravenous thiamine and enteral nutrition. The second case includes a 77-year-old male with diabetes who presented with suspected vitamin C deficiency likely due to chronic aspirin use nearly two weeks prior to being diagnosed with pneumonia and COVID-19. The patient recovered from his COVID-19 diagnosis but continued to decline nutritionally and was readmitted sixty days later with failure to thrive. RESULTS: The first case had significant improvements in his appetite and neurological conditions following thiamine infusion and enteral nutrition and was discharged to home after a 19-day hospital stay. The second case presented with a vitamin C deficiency before testing positive for COVID-19. Although he did recover from COVID-19 he struggled to meet nutritional needs post-COVID and passed away 60 days after his COVID-19 diagnosis with pneumonia and failure to thrive. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with chronic diseases who use nutrient depleting medications are particularly high risk for micronutrient deficiency when they also experience the inflammatory insult of COVID-19. Patients who continue to have poor nutrition intake even after they appear to be clinically resolved from the virus should be closely monitored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Enteral Nutrition , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/drug therapy , Micronutrients/therapeutic use
15.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(3): 538-542, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the authorities made a change in the classification of malnutrition and concomitant service delivery protocol among the Rohingya children, residing in world's largest refugee camp, located in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. In this paper, we discussed the potential implications of this updated protocol on the malnutrition status among children residing in the Rohingya camps. DESIGN: This paper reviewed relevant literature and authors' own experience to provide a perspective of the updated protocol for the classification of malnutrition among the children in the Rohingya camps and its implication from a broader perspective. SETTING: Rohingya refugee camps, Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged less than five years residing in the Rohingya camps. RESULTS: Major adaptation during this COVID-19 was the discontinuation of using weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) and the use of only mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and presence of oedema for admission, follow-up and discharge of malnourished children in the camps. However, evidence suggests that use of MUAC only can underestimate the prevalence of malnutrition among the children in Rohingya camps. These apparently non-malnourished children are devoid of the rations that they would otherwise receive if classified as malnourished, making them susceptible to more severe malnutrition. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that policymakers should consider using the original protocol of using both MUAC and WHZ to classify malnutrition and retain the guided ration size. We also believe that it would not take an extra effort to adopt the original guideline as even with MUAC only guideline, certain health measures needed to adopt during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pandemics , Refugee Camps
17.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known on the clinical relevance of the nutritional status and body composition of patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), and to evaluate the relationship of their nutritional status with the severity and outcome of disease. METHODS: Among 150 consecutive patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, 37 (24.3%) were classified as malnourished by BIVA, and were followed-up for 60 days from admission. Outcome measures were differences in the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, in-hospital mortality, and the duration of hospital stay in survivors. RESULTS: During 60 days of follow-up, 10 (27%) malnourished patients and 13 (12%) non-malnourished patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (p = 0.023), and 13 (35%) malnourished patients and 9 (8%) non-malnourished patients died (p < 0.001). The average duration of the hospital stay in survivors was longer in patients with malnutrition (18.2 ± 15.7 vs. 13.2 ± 14.8 days, p < 0.001). In survival analyses, mechanical ventilation free (log-rank 7.887, p = 0.050) and overall (log-rank 17.886, p < 0.001) survival were significantly longer in non-malnourished than malnourished patients. The Cox proportional ratio showed that malnutrition was associated with an increased risk of mechanical ventilation (HR 4.375, p = 0.004) and death (HR 4.478, p = 0.004) after adjusting for major confounders such as age, sex, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition diagnosed with BIVA was associated with worse outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Body Composition/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Electric Impedance , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
18.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502478

ABSTRACT

Post-acute consequences of COVID-19, also termed long COVID, include signs and symptoms persisting for more than 12 weeks with prolonged multisystem involvement; most often, however, malnutrition is ignored. METHOD: The objective was to analyze persistent symptoms, nutritional status, the evolution of muscle strength and performance status (PS) at 6 months post-discharge in a cohort of COVID-19 survivors. RESULTS: Of 549 consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between 1 March and 29 April 2020, 23.7% died and 288 patients were at home at D30 post-discharge. At this date, 136 of them (47.2%) presented persistent malnutrition, a significant decrease in muscle strength or a PS ≥ 2. These patients received dietary counseling, nutritional supplementation, adapted physical activity guidance or physiotherapy assistance, or were admitted to post-care facilities. At 6 months post-discharge, 91.0% of the 136 patients (n = 119) were evaluated and 36.0% had persistent malnutrition, 14.3% complained of a significant decrease in muscle strength and 14.9% had a performance status > 2. Obesity was more frequent in patients with impairment than in those without (52.8% vs. 31.0%; p = 0.0071), with these patients being admitted more frequently to ICUs (50.9% vs. 31.3%; p = 0.010). Among those with persistent symptoms, 10% had psychiatric co-morbidities (mood disorders, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress syndrome), 7.6% had prolonged pneumological symptoms and 4.2% had neurological symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Obese subjects as well as patients who have stayed in intensive care have a higher risk of functional loss or undernutrition 6 months after a severe COVID infection. Malnutrition and loss of muscle strength should be considered in the clinical assessment of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Malnutrition/etiology , Muscle Strength , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Nutritional Status , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Functional Status , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Malnutrition/therapy , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Muscle Weakness/therapy , Obesity/complications , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
19.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 77(6): 324-329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484149

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many elderly patients with COVID-19 are at risk of malnutrition. The aim of our study was to evaluate the risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia in elderly COVID-19 patients with the R-MAPP (Remote-Malnutrition APP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 337 consecutive outpatients ≥65 years who attended the Central Emergency COVID-19 Hospital of Castilla y Leon was conducted. In all patients, the protocol of R-MAPP (Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool [MUST] and Simple Questionnaire to Rapidly Diagnose Sarcopenia [SARC-F]) was realized. RESULTS: The mean age was 86.1 ± 8.7 years, with a sex distribution of 167 males (49.5%) and 170 females (51.5%). According to the MUST test, patients with 0 points have a low nutritional risk (n = 50, 14.8%), 1 point a medium nutritional risk (n = 19, 5.6%), and 2 or more points a high nutritional risk (n = 268, 79.6%). The SARC-F questionnaire generates patients with 4 or more points as predictive of sarcopenia (n = 304, 80.2%) and <4 points without prediction of sarcopenia (n = 33, 9.8%). Global mortality was 24.03% (n = 81). The mortality rate was related to the pathological SARC-F score ≥4 (27.1% vs. 3.1%; p = 0.01) and MUST score ≥2 (26.7% vs. 16.4%; p = 0.04). In the logistic regression analysis, only the SARC-F score ≥4 remained as an independent variable related to mortality; odds ratio was 8.34 (95% CI: 1.1-63.8; p = 0.04), adjusted for age, sex, albumin levels, and MUST test. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 infection, hospitalized patients at risk of sarcopenia have a high risk of mortality and have a poor nutritional status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Mortality , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While consent exists, that nutritional status has prognostic impact in the critically ill, the optimal feeding strategy has been a matter of debate. METHODS: Narrative review of the recent evidence and international guideline recommendations focusing on basic principles of nutrition in the ICU and the treatment of specific patient groups. Covered topics are: the importance and diagnosis of malnutrition in the ICU, the optimal timing and route of nutrition, energy and protein requirements, the supplementation of specific nutrients, as well as monitoring and complications of a Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT). Furthermore, this review summarizes the available evidence to optimize the MNT of patients grouped by primarily affected organ system. RESULTS: Due to the considerable heterogeneity of the critically ill, MNT should be carefully adapted to the individual patient with special focus on phase of critical illness, metabolic tolerance, leading symptoms, and comorbidities. CONCLUSION: MNT in the ICU is complex and requiring an interdisciplinary approach and frequent reevaluation. The impact of personalized and disease-specific MNT on patient-centered clinical outcomes remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Food, Formulated , Malnutrition/therapy , Nutritional Status , Nutritional Support , Energy Intake , Enteral Nutrition , Food, Formulated/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Nutritional Support/adverse effects , Nutritive Value , Parenteral Nutrition , Treatment Outcome
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