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1.
Lancet ; 401(10387): 1486-1487, 2023 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319874
2.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed) ; 70(4): 245-254, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307842

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In 2020 the pandemic caused by SARS-COV-2 demanded an enormous number of healthcare resources in order to guarantee adequate treatment and support for those patients. This study aims to assess caloric and protein intake and evaluate its associations with relevant clinical outcomes in critically ill with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: A nationwide, multicentre prospective observational study including twelve Argentinian intensive care units (ICUs,) was conducted between March and October 2020. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Adult ICU patients>18 years admitted to the ICU with COVID-19 diagnosis and mechanical ventilation for at least 48h. Statistical analysis was carried out using IBM-SPSS© 24 programme. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-five patients were included in the study. Those who died had lower protein intake (0.73g/kg/day (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.75 vs 0.97g/kg/day (CI 0.95-0.99), P<0.001), and lower caloric intake than those who survived (12.94kcal/kg/day (CI 12.48-13.39) vs 16.47kcal/kg/day (CI 16.09-16.8), P<0.001). A model was built, and logistic regression showed that factors associated with the probability of achieving caloric and protein intake, were the early start of nutritional support, modified NUTRIC score higher than five points, and undernutrition (Subjective Global Assessment B or C). The patients that underwent mechanical ventilation in a prone position present less caloric and protein intake, similar to those with APACHE II>18. CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 associated respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation who died in ICU had less caloric and protein intake than those who survived. Early start on nutritional support and undernutrition increased the opportunity to achieve protein and caloric goals, whereas the severity of disease and mechanical ventilation in the prone position decreased the chance to reach caloric and protein targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Argentina , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/etiology , Malnutrition/therapy
3.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300895

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is associated with COVID-19 and can result in reduced food intake, increased muscle catabolism, and electrolyte imbalance. Therefore COVID-19 patients are at high risk of being malnourished and of refeeding syndrome. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of malnutrition and refeeding syndrome (RS) among COVID-19 patients in Hanoi, Vietnam. This prospective cohort study analyzed data from 1207 patients who were treated at the COVID-19 hospital of Hanoi Medical University (HMUH COVID-19) between September 2021 and March 2022. Nutritional status was evaluated by the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) and laboratory markers. GLIM-defined malnutrition was found in 614 (50.9%) patients. Among those with malnutrition, 380 (31.5%) and 234 (19.4%) had moderate and severe malnutrition, respectively. The prevalence of risk of RS was 346 (28.7%). Those with severe and critical COVID symptoms are more likely to be at risk of RS compared to those with mild or moderate COVID, and having severe and critical COVID-19 infection increased the incidence of RS by 2.47 times, compared to mild and moderate disease. There was an association between levels of COVID-19, older ages, comorbidities, the inability of eating independently, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia with malnutrition. The proportion of COVID-19 patients who suffered from malnutrition was high. These results underscore the importance of early nutritional screening and assessment in COVID-19 patients, especially those with severe and critical infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Refeeding Syndrome , Humans , Nutritional Status , Refeeding Syndrome/epidemiology , Vietnam/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Hospitals
4.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0283596, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate the prevalence and co-existence of frailty and malnutrition and 2) to identify factors related to frailty (including malnutrition) according to the level of frailty. METHODS: Data collection was conducted from July 11, 2021, to January 23, 2022, in 558 older adults residing in 16 long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Korea. The FRAIL-NH and Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form were used to measure frailty and nutrition, respectively. The data analysis included descriptive statistics and a multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 83.68 (± 7.39) years. Among 558 participants, 37 (6.6%), 274 (49.1%), and 247 (44.3%) were robust, prefrail, and frail, respectively. At the same time, 75.8% were categorized as having malnutrition status (malnourished: 18.1%; risk of malnutrition: 57.7%), and 40.9% had co-existing malnutrition and frailty. In the multivariate analysis, malnutrition was identified as the major frailty-related factor. Compared with a normal nutritional status, the incidence of frailty in the malnutrition group was 10.35 times (95% CI: 3.78-28.36) higher than the incidence of robustness and 4.80 times (95% CI: 2.69-8.59) higher than the incidence of prefrail. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of frailty and malnutrition, and their co-existence, among older adults residing in LTCFs was high. Malnutrition is a major factor that increases the incidence of frailty. Therefore, active interventions are needed to improve the nutritional status of this population.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Malnutrition , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Frailty/complications , Frailty/epidemiology , Long-Term Care , Geriatric Assessment , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Nutrition Assessment , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Frail Elderly
5.
Trends Pharmacol Sci ; 43(12): 994-997, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263250

ABSTRACT

Together with climate change, both the geopolitical events in Ukraine and social disruptions in supply chains from the COVID-19 pandemic could produce global food shortages or even mass starvation events. Promising new interventions include vaccines to prevent infectious causes of malnutrition or infections disproportionately causing death among the malnourished.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/etiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273281

ABSTRACT

The Central African Region is an agricultural and fishing-based economy, with 40% of the population living in rural communities. The negative impacts of climate change have caused economic/health-related adverse impacts and food insecurity. This original article aims to research four key themes: (i) acute food insecurity (AFI); (ii) childhood malnutrition and mortality; (iii) infectious disease burden; and (iv) drought and mean temperature projections throughout the twenty-first century. Food insecurity was mapped in Central Africa based on the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) for AFI. The global hunger index (GHI) was presented along with the proportion of children with undernourishment, stunting, wasting, and mortality. Data for infectious disease burden was computed by assessing the adjusted rate of change (AROC) of mortality due to diarrhea among children and the burden of death rates due to pneumonia across all age groups. Finally, the mean drought index was computed through the year 2100. This population-based study identifies high levels of hunger across a majority of the countries, with the mean drought index suggesting extreme ends of wet and dry days and an overall rise of 1-3 °C. This study is a source of evidence for stakeholders, policymakers, and the population residing in Central Africa.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Malnutrition , Humans , Child , Droughts , Temperature , Food Supply , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Africa, Central/epidemiology
7.
Lancet ; 401(10380): 951-966, 2023 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256918

ABSTRACT

Malnutrition is a highly prevalent condition in older adults, and poses a substantial burden on health, social, and aged-care systems. Older adults are vulnerable to malnutrition due to age-related physiological decline, reduced access to nutritious food, and comorbidity. Clinical guidelines recommend routine screening for malnutrition in all older adults, together with nutritional assessment and individually tailored nutritional support for older adults with a positive screening test. Nutritional support includes offering individualised nutritional advice and counselling; oral nutritional supplements; fortified foods; and enteral or parenteral nutrition as required. However, in clinical practice, the incorporation of nutritional guidelines is inadequate and low-value care is commonplace. This Review discusses the current evidence on identification and treatment of malnutrition in older adults, identifies gaps between evidence and practice in clinical care, and offers practical strategies to translate evidence-based knowledge into improved nutritional care. We also provide an overview of the prevalence, causes, and risk factors of malnutrition in older adults across health-care settings.


Subject(s)
Malnutrition , Humans , Aged , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/therapy , Nutritional Support , Nutrition Assessment , Parenteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Nutritional Status
8.
Inflammopharmacology ; 31(2): 573-583, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280141

ABSTRACT

Multiple nutritional deficiencies (MND) confound studies designed to assess the role of a single nutrient in contributing to the initiation and progression of disease states. Despite the perception of many healthcare practitioners, up to 25% of Americans are deficient in five-or-more essential nutrients. Stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic further increases the prevalence of deficiency states. Viral infections compete for crucial nutrients with immune cells. Viral replication and proliferation of immunocompetent cells critical to the host response require these essential nutrients, including zinc. Clinical studies have linked levels of more than 22 different dietary components to the likelihood of COVID-19 infection and the severity of the disease. People at higher risk of infection due to MND are also more likely to have long-term sequelae, known as Long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Humans , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Zinc
9.
Nutrients ; 15(5)2023 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-COV 2 pandemic has hit on our lives since early 2020. During different contagion waves, both malnutrition and overweight significantly correlated with patient mortality. Immune-nutrition (IN) has shown promising results in the clinical course of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in both the rate of extubation and mortality of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Thus, we wanted to assess the effects of IN on a clinical course of patients admitted to a semi-intensive COVID-19 Unit during the fourth wave of contagion that occurred at the end of 2021. METHODS: we prospectively enrolled patients admitted to the semi-intensive COVID-19 Unit of San Benedetto General hospital. All patients had a biochemical, anthropometric, high-resolution tomography chest scan (HRCT) and complete nutritional assessments at the time of admission, after oral administration of immune-nutrition (IN) formula, and at 15 days interval follow-up. RESULTS: we enrolled 34 consecutive patients (age 70.3 ± 5.4 years, 6 F, BMI 27.0 ± 0.5 kg/m2). Main comorbidities were diabetes (20%, type 2 90 %), hyperuricemia (15%), hypertension (38%), chronic ischemic heart disease (8 %), COPD (8%), anxiety syndrome (5%), and depression (5%). 58% of patients were affected as moderately-to-severely overweight; mini nutritional assessment (MNA) score (4.8 ± 0.7) and phase angle (PA) values (3.8 ± 0.5) suggestive of malnutrition were present in 15% of patients, mainly with a history of cancer. After 15 days upon admission, we recorded 3 deaths (mean age 75.7 ± 5.1 years, BMI 26.3 ± 0.7 kg/m2) and 4 patients were admitted to the ICU. Following IN formula administration, inflammatory markers significantly decreased (p < 0.05) while BMI and PA did not worsen. These latter findings were not observed in a historical control group that did not receive IN. Only one patient needed protein-rich formula administration. CONCLUSIONS: in this overweight COVID-19 population immune-nutrition prevented malnutrition development with a significant decrease of inflammatory markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Humans , Child , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Middle Aged , Critical Illness , Overweight , Immunonutrition Diet , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Disease Progression
11.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166776

ABSTRACT

The aim was to evaluate body composition and prevalence of osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) in nursing home residents (NHR) and to assess their nutritional status. This research builds on our pilot study (conducted prior COVID-19 pandemic) that revealed high OSA prevalence and poor nutritional status in NHR. The current study included newly recruited n = 365 NHR; 296 women, 69 men, aged 84.3 ± 5.6 and 83.1 ± 7.3 years, respectively. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance BIA-ACC®, yielding total bone mass along with all components of lean and adipose tissues. The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess nutritional status. Participants reported about their present/past diseases, including COVID-19. Mean duration of stay in nursing homes was 46.3 ± 47.0 months. Approximately 30% of participants had COVID-19 prior (median 6.7 months) to entering the study. OSA was diagnosed in 70.8% women and 47.8% men (p < 0.001). Malnourishment was detected in 5.8% women and 6.2% men while the risk of malnourishment was found in 30.8% women and 30.0% men. No significant differences in age, body composition parameters, prevalence of OSA, malnutrition/risk for malnutrition were found in participants who had COVID-19 compared to those who did not. Regression analysis showed that intramuscular adipose tissue (%) was significantly positively, while bone mass was significantly negatively associated with OSA. In this population, the high prevalence of OSA coincided with the high prevalence of malnutrition/risk of malnutrition. Such unfavorable body composition status is more likely a consequence of potentially poor diet quality in nursing homes, rather than of health hazards caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Aged , Male , Humans , Female , Nutritional Status , Homes for the Aged , Adiposity , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Risk Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nursing Homes , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Obesity/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment
12.
Clin Nutr ; 41(12): 2934-2939, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: COVID-19 patients present a high hospitalization rate with a high mortality risk for those requiring intensive care. When these patients have other comorbid conditions and older age, the risk for severe disease and poor outcomes after ICU admission are increased. The present work aims to describe the preliminary results of the ongoing NUTRICOVID study about the nutritional and functional status and the quality of life of adult COVID-19 survivors after ICU discharge, emphasizing the in-hospital and discharge situation of this population. METHODS: A multicenter, ambispective, observational cohort study was conducted in 16 public hospitals of the Community of Madrid with COVID-19 survivors who were admitted to the ICU during the first outbreak. Preliminary results of this study include data retrospectively collected. Malnutrition and sarcopenia were screened at discharge using MUST and SARC-F; the use of healthcare resources was measured as the length of hospital stay and requirement of respiratory support and tracheostomy during hospitalization; other study variables were the need for medical nutrition therapy (MNT); and patients' functional status (Barthel index) and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L). RESULTS: A total of 176 patients were included in this preliminary analysis. Most patients were male and older than 60 years, who suffered an average (SD) weight loss of 16.6% (8.3%) during the hospital stay, with a median length of stay of 53 (27-89.5) days and a median ICU stay of 24.5 (11-43.5) days. At discharge, 83.5% and 86.9% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia, respectively, but only 38% were prescribed MNT. In addition, more than 70% of patients had significant impairment of their mobility and to conduct their usual activities at hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary analysis evidences the high nutritional and functional impairment of COVID-19 survivors at hospital discharge and highlights the need for guidelines and systematic protocols, together with appropriate rehabilitation programs, to optimize the nutritional management of these patients after discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Sarcopenia , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Functional Status , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units , Hospitalization , Survivors , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Nutritional Status
13.
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155226

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Studies have reported that COVID-19 may increase the risk of malnutrition among patients. However, the prevalence of such risk in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is uncertain due to the inconsistent use of assessment methods. (2) Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE were searched to identify studies on the nutritional status of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. A pooled prevalence of malnutrition risk evaluated by Nutrition Risk Score (NRS-2002) was obtained using a random effects model. Differences by study-level characteristics were examined by hospitalization setting, time of assessment, age, and country. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle−Ottawa Scale. (3) Results: 53 studies from 17 countries were identified and summarized. A total of 17 studies using NRS-2002, including 3614 COVID-19 patients were included in the primary meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among ICU patients (92.2%, 95% CI: 85.9% to 96.8%) than among general ward patients (70.7%, 95% CI: 56.4% to 83.2%) (p = 0.002). No significant differences were found between age groups (≥65 vs. <65 years, p = 0.306) and countries (p = 0.893). (4) Conclusions: High risk of malnutrition is common and concerning in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, suggesting that malnutrition screening and nutritional support during hospitalization are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Humans , Nutrition Assessment , COVID-19/epidemiology , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/etiology , Nutritional Status , Nutritional Support/methods , Hospitalization , Prevalence
14.
Salud Colect ; 18: e4054, 2022 11 14.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164397

ABSTRACT

This article explores the question of why the nine pandemics prior to COVID-19 - which have affected millions of people since the second half of the 20th century - were not recorded in collective memory despite their magnitude and extent. Thus, it proposes a reading of the pandemic as one component of a wider syndemic made up of contagious diseases, climate change, and malnutrition. This piece offers a narrative of the origins, development, and prospects of the pandemic within the dynamics of the global food system and national economic and political systems, highlighting components and connections. It includes a warning that - along with climate change and malnutrition (undernourishment-obesity) - pandemics are known and expected outcomes of the workings of a socio-political system that, as in the case of other components of the syndemic, by naturalizing causes and individualizing consequences, conspire against the creation of narratives that go beyond cosmetic changes.


Este trabajo se pregunta por qué las nueve pandemias que afectaron a millones de personas desde la última mitad del siglo XX no se inscribieron en la memoria colectiva pese a su gravedad y difusión. Propone leer la pandemia de COVID-19 como componente de la sindemia enfermedades infecciosas-cambio climático-malnutrición, y genera un relato de los orígenes, desarrollo y perspectivas del COVID-19 dentro de la dinámica del sistema alimentario global y los sistemas económico-políticos nacionales, señalando componentes y relaciones. Advierte que, como en el caso del cambio climático o la malnutrición (desnutrición-obesidad), las pandemias son subproductos conocidos y esperables del funcionamiento del sistema sociopolítico que, al igual que en los otros componentes de la sindemia, la naturalización de las causas y la individualización de las consecuencias conspiran contra la creación de una narrativa que vaya más allá de admitir cambios cosméticos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Humans , Syndemic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Obesity/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/etiology
15.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164089

ABSTRACT

Background: The spread of COVID-19 poses an unprecedented challenge to care delivery in post-disaster and conflict situations. In Mozambique, the 2019 cyclone Idai and the violence by Non-State-Armed-Groups devastated the province of Sofala and Cabo Delgado respectively and led to the displacement of thousands of people living in poor and overcrowded conditions. The pandemic has further aggravated the situation. Doctors with Africa CUAMM (University college for aspiring missionary doctors) implemented surveillance activities in these regions between October 2020 and September 2021. The aim of this study is to give an overview of the prevalence of malaria, malnutrition, COVID-19 related symptoms and access to HIV testing. Methods: Data were collected in targeted internally displaced people (IDP) sites in Sofala and Cabo Delgado province between 31st January and 25th September 2021. The tool used enabled to assess COVID-19 symptoms, risk of HIV infection, malaria cases and malnutrition in children under five. Results: The project reached 93 503 people. During the study period, 13.6% people reported at least one symptom suggestive of COVID-19 infection. Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) were administered to 86% of the recruited people (n = ?), with a positive diagnosis in the 4.5% of them (n = ?). Among the recruited Internally Displaced Persons (IDP), 23.1% were considered eligible for HIV screening, but only 1.4% were referred for testing. Acute malnutrition was found in 6.3% of children screened and, among these, a higher prevalence of concurrent COVID-19 symptoms was reported. Discussion: Our study highlights the importance of mass clinical screening for COVID-19 infection in this target population to enact prevention behavior, although this may not be enough, due to the pivotal role played by asymptomatic transmissions. Considering the overlap of the symptoms of COVID-19 and malaria, a combined diagnostic algorithm is urgently needed to avoid underdiagnosing malaria. Moreover, the high prevalence of respiratory symptoms in malnourished children confirmed the known correlation between malnutrition and respiratory infection. Finally, access to HIV screening needs to be implemented, given the high prevalence of people with HIV risk factors to avoid diagnostic delay. Conclusions: Population-specific needs make necessary to develop new screening methods that respond to the specific characteristics of the target population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Malaria , Malnutrition , Child , Humans , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mozambique/epidemiology , Delayed Diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2092, 2022 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Child hunger has long-term and short-term consequences, as starving children are at risk of many forms of malnutrition, including wasting, stunting, obesity and micronutrient deficiencies. The purpose of this paper is to show that the child hunger and socio-economic inequality in South Africa increased during her COVID-19 pandemic due to various lockdown regulations that have affected the economic status of the population. METHODS: This paper uses the National Income Dynamics Study-Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM WAVES 1-5) collected in South Africa during the intense COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 to assess the socioeconomic impacts of child hunger rated inequalities. First, child hunger was determined by a composite index calculated by the authors. Descriptive statistics were then shown for the investigated variables in a multiple logistic regression model to identify significant risk factors of child hunger. Additionally, the decomposable Erreygers' concentration index was used to measure socioeconomic inequalities on child hunger in South Africa during the Covid-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The overall burden of child hunger rates varied among the five waves (1-5). With proportions of adult respondents indicated that a child had gone hungry in the past 7 days: wave 1 (19.00%), wave 2 (13.76%), wave 3 (18.60%), wave 4 (15, 68%), wave 5 (15.30%). Child hunger burden was highest in the first wave and lowest in the second wave. The hunger burden was highest among children living in urban areas than among children living in rural areas. Access to electricity, access to water, respondent education, respondent gender, household size, and respondent age were significant determinants of adult reported child hunger. All the concentrated indices of the adult reported child hunger across households were negative in waves 1-5, suggesting that children from poor households were hungry. The intensity of the pro-poor inequalities also increased during the study period. To better understand what drove socioeconomic inequalites, in this study we analyzed the decomposed Erreygers Normalized Concentration Indices (ENCI). Across all five waves, results showed that race, socioeconomic status and type of housing were important factors in determining the burden of hunger among children in South Africa. CONCLUSION: This study described the burden of adult reported child hunger and associated socioeconomic inequalities during the Covid-19 pandemic. The increasing prevalence of adult reported child hunger, especially among urban children, and the observed poverty inequality necessitate multisectoral pandemic shock interventions now and in the future, especially for urban households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Hunger , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , South Africa/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Socioeconomic Factors , Malnutrition/epidemiology
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2035, 2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic drew hygiene to the center of disease prevention. The provision of adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services is crucial to protect public health during a pandemic. Yet, access to levels of water supply that support adequate hygiene measures are deficient in many areas in Nepal. We examined WASH practices and their impact on child health and nutritional status in two districts before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A longitudinal and mixed method study was conducted in March-May 2018 and November-December 2021. In total, 715 children aged 0-10 years were surveyed at baseline. Of these, 490 children were assessed at endline. Data collection methods included observations, a questionnaire, stool analysis, anthropometric measurements, water quality analysis, and an assessment of clinical signs of nutritional deficiencies. We conducted 10 in-depth interviews to understand major problems related to COVID-19. RESULTS: Most respondents (94.2%) had heard about COVID-19; however, they did not wear face masks or comply with any social distancing protocols. Almost 94.2% of the households self-reported handwashing with soap 5-10 times per day at endline, especially after defecation, compared to 19.6% at baseline. Water quality was better at endline than at baseline with median 12 to 29 CFU Escherichia coli/100 mL (interquartile range at baseline [IQR] = 4-101) at the point of collection and 34 to 51.5 CFU Escherichia coli/100 mL (IQR = 8-194) at the point of consumption. Fever (41.1-16.8%; p = 0.01), respiratory illness (14.3-4.3%; p = 0.002), diarrhea (19.6-9.5%; p = 0.01), and Giardia lamblia infections (34.2-6.5%, p = 0.01) decreased at endline. In contrast, nutritional deficiencies such as bitot's spots (26.7-40.2%; p = 0.01), pale conjunctiva (47.0-63.3%; p = 0.01), and dermatitis (64.8-81.4%; p = 0.01) increased at endline. The inadequacy of the harvest and the lack of household income to meet households' nutritional needs increased drastically (35.0-94.2%; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: We found that improved water quality and handwashing practices were associated with a decrease in infectious diseases. However, food security also decreased resulting in a high prevalence of nutritional deficiencies. Our findings underline that disaster preparedness should consider access to adequate WASH, nutrition, and health supplies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Child , Humans , Sanitation , Nutritional Status , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Nepal/epidemiology , Hygiene , Water Supply , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Escherichia coli
18.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 31(3): 496-503, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Home enteral nutrition was reported to be a treatment reducing malnutrition rates and improving the rational allocation of medical resources. We aim to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and improved the management of home enteral nutrition. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: 3953 patients with home enteral nutrition were enrolled in West China Hospital, located in Sichuan province, between January 1, 2021, and December 31, 2021. RESULTS: 7238 visit records (3429 females and 3809 males) were included. The median age was 59.0, with the age from 1 to 115. The top two diseases were oncologic disorders (40.3%) and digestive disorders (15.9%). Oral nutritional supplements (86.2%) was the major treatment of home enteral nutrition. The median daily energy intake and daily protein intake were 575.1 kcal and 31.2 g. 25.8%, 39.3%, 34.9% patients choose online clinic (1867), offline clinic (2843) and hospital to home (2528) respectively. Interestingly, 63.6% patients were revisited, and the rate of online clinic, offline clinic and hospital to home was increasingly lower (91.9%, 71.5%, 33.8%) among them, revealing online clinic improving the revisit rate. Most patients lived in Chengdu (60.5%), and 67.4% patients from Chengdu were revisited. The median monthly cost of hospital to home patients (¥ 1863.8) was higher than the total median monthly cost (¥ 1714.5), illustrating the cost may reduce the revisit rate. CONCLUSIONS: Distance, cost and convenience may be the key factors to determine the method of visit and revisit in patients of home enteral nutrition. Online clinic may enhance the patients' follow-up.


Subject(s)
Enteral Nutrition , Malnutrition , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Proteins , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275345, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065132

ABSTRACT

Issues related to malnutrition, broadly defined, have received a growing attention in recent years, not only in connection with the Sustainable Development Goals but also recently with the unprecedented Covid-19 pandemic. At the same time, there exists a complex interaction between institutions, capital flows, and food and nutrition security that has received less attention in the relevant literature. In this paper we estimate a series of dynamic panel data models to examine the impact of institutional quality and capital flows on food security, nutrition security and undernourishment by using panel data for 25 SSA countries over the period 1996 to 2018. One of the key contributions of the paper is the use of both aggregate and disaggregated capital flows to examine the impact on both food and nutrition security, a dimension that has been surprisingly neglected in most of the relevant literature. We combine this with the interaction of various types of capital flows with an institutional quality index we constructed from various governance indicators to examine the impact of institutions on the overall nexus. Finally, we examine the impact not only on food and nutrition security but also on undernourishment. Our findings clearly demonstrate the importance of a heterogeneity approach and reflect on earlier work regarding the role of institutional quality in the overall nexus between external capital flows and various measures of food and nutrition security which leads, and as expected, to an interesting variation in the results obtained, depending on the type of capital flows and the interaction with the governance indicators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Supply/methods , Humans , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Pandemics
20.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066302

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) is associated with malnutrition risk in hospitalised individuals. COVID-19 and malnutrition studies in large European cohorts are limited, and post-discharge dietary characteristics are understudied. This study aimed to assess the rates of and risk factors for ≥10% weight loss in inpatients with COVID-19, and the need for post-discharge dietetic support and the General Practitioner (GP) prescription of oral nutritional supplements, during the first COVID-19 wave in a large teaching hospital in the UK. Hospitalised adult patients admitted between March and June 2020 with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were included in this retrospective cohort study. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, and nutritional parameters associated with ≥10% weight loss and post-discharge characteristics were described. Logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for ≥10% weight loss and post-discharge requirements for ongoing dietetic input and oral nutritional supplement prescription. From the total 288 patients analysed (40% females, 72 years median age), 19% lost ≥ 10% of their admission weight. The length of hospital stay was a significant risk factor for ≥10% weight loss in multivariable analysis (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.08-1.38; p = 0.001). In addition, ≥10% weight loss was positively associated with higher admission weight and malnutrition screening scores, dysphagia, ICU admission, and artificial nutrition needs. The need for more than one dietetic input after discharge was associated with older age and ≥10% weight loss during admission. A large proportion of patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 experienced significant weight loss during admission. Longer hospital stay is a risk factor for ≥10% weight loss, independent of disease severity, reinforcing the importance of repeated malnutrition screening and timely referral to dietetics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , Aftercare , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/etiology , Nutritional Status , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
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