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1.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 26(1): 6-11, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592667

ABSTRACT

The bidirectional relationship between TB and nutrition is well recognized - primary undernutrition is a risk factor for developing TB disease, while TB results in wasting. Although nutrition support is acknowledged as an important intervention in TB programmes, it is seldom afforded commensurate priority for action. TB incidence and deaths worldwide are falling too slowly to meet WHO End TB Strategy milestones, and the number of undernourished people is increasing, likely to be further exacerbated by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Undernutrition needs to be more urgently and intensively addressed. This is especially true for the WHO South-East Asia Region, where the high rates of undernutrition are a key driver of the TB epidemic. The evidence base has been sufficiently robust for clear and workable programmatic guidance to be formulated on assessment, counselling and interventions for TB patients. Many high-burden countries have developed policies addressing TB and nutrition. Gaps in research to date have frustrated the development of more refined programmatic approaches related to addressing TB and malnutrition. Future research can be shaped to inform targeted, actionable policies and programmes delivering dual benefits in terms of undernutrition and TB. There are clear opportunities for policy-makers to amplify efforts to end TB by addressing undernutrition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Humans , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed) ; 68(9): 621-627, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575090

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is characterized by various clinical manifestations, mainly respiratory involvement. Disease-related malnutrition is associated with impaired respiratory function and increased all-cause morbidity and mortality. Patients with COVID-19 infection carry a high nutritional risk. After designing a specific nutritional support protocol for this disease, we carried out a retrospective study on malnutrition and on the use of nutritional support in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study to determine whether nutritional support positively affected hospital stay, clinical complications, and mortality in patients with COVID-19. We compared the results with those of standard nutritional management. Our secondary objectives were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with COVID-19 and the value of nutritional support in the hospital where the study was performed. RESULTS: At least 60% of patients with COVID-19 experience malnutrition (up to 78.66% presented at least 1 of the parameters studied). The specialized nutritional support protocol was indicated in only 21 patients (28%) and was started early in only 12 patients (16%). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in patients managed with the early protocol (5.09 days, 95% CI, 1.338-8.853, p<0.01). Similarly, in this group, respiratory distress was less severe and less frequent (41% vs 82.5%, p<0.007), and statistically significantly fewer complications were recorded (9/12 vs 91/63; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with high rates of disease-related malnutrition. Early implementation of a specialized nutritional support plan can improve the prognosis of these patients by reducing hospital stay, the possibility of more severe respiratory distress, and complications in general.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Nutritional Support , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Humans , Length of Stay , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Global Health ; 17(1): 119, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463256

ABSTRACT

The major threat to human societies posed by undernutrition has been recognised for millennia. Despite substantial economic development and scientific innovation, however, progress in addressing this global challenge has been inadequate. Paradoxically, the last half-century also saw the rapid emergence of obesity, first in high-income countries but now also in low- and middle-income countries. Traditionally, these problems were approached separately, but there is increasing recognition that they have common drivers and need integrated responses. The new nutrition reality comprises a global 'double burden' of malnutrition, where the challenges of food insecurity, nutritional deficiencies and undernutrition coexist and interact with obesity, sedentary behaviour, unhealthy diets and environments that foster unhealthy behaviour. Beyond immediate efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition, what must change in order to reduce the future burden? Here, we present a conceptual framework that focuses on the deeper structural drivers of malnutrition embedded in society, and their interaction with biological mechanisms of appetite regulation and physiological homeostasis. Building on a review of malnutrition in past societies, our framework brings to the fore the power dynamics that characterise contemporary human food systems at many levels. We focus on the concept of agency, the ability of individuals or organisations to pursue their goals. In globalized food systems, the agency of individuals is directly confronted by the agency of several other types of actor, including corporations, governments and supranational institutions. The intakes of energy and nutrients by individuals are powerfully shaped by this 'competition of agency', and we therefore argue that the greatest opportunities to reduce malnutrition lie in rebalancing agency across the competing actors. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on food systems and individuals illustrates our conceptual framework. Efforts to improve agency must both drive and respond to complementary efforts to promote and maintain equitable societies and planetary health.


Subject(s)
Forecasting , Global Health/trends , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Humans
5.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438681

ABSTRACT

Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are essential trace elements needed for appropriate immune system responses, cell signalling and anti-viral defence. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at two hospitals in Ghent, Belgium, to investigate whether Se and/or Zn deficiency upon hospital admission correlates to disease severity and mortality risk in COVID-19 patients with or without co-morbidities. Trace element concentrations along with additional biomarkers were determined in serum or plasma and associated to disease severity and outcome. An insufficient Se and/or Zn status upon hospital admission was associated with a higher mortality rate and a more severe disease course in the entire study group, especially in the senior population. In comparison to healthy European adults, the patients displayed strongly depressed total Se (mean ± SD: 59.2 ± 20.6 vs. 84.4 ± 23.4 µg L-1) and SELENOP (mean ± SD: 2.2 ± 1.9 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0 mg L-1) concentrations at hospital admission. Particularly strong associations were observed for death risk of cancer, diabetes and chronic cardiac disease patients with low Se status, and of diabetes and obese patients with Zn deficiency. A composite biomarker based on serum or plasma Se, SELENOP and Zn at hospital admission proved to be a reliable tool to predict severe COVID-19 course and death, or mild disease course. We conclude that trace element assessment at hospital admission may contribute to a better stratification of patients with COVID-19 and other similar infectious diseases, support clinical care, therapeutic interventions and adjuvant supplementation needs, and may prove of particular relevance for patients with relevant comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Selenium/blood , Trace Elements/blood , Zinc/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Belgium , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/blood , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(10): e318-e325, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433934

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is the leading cause of deaths from an infectious disease worldwide. WHO's End TB Strategy is falling short of several 2020 targets. Undernutrition is the leading population-level risk factor for tuberculosis. Studies have consistently found that undernutrition is associated with increased tuberculosis incidence, increased severity, worse treatment outcomes, and increased mortality. Modelling studies support implementing nutritional interventions for people living with tuberculosis and those at risk of tuberculosis disease to ensure the success of the End TB Strategy. In this Personal View, we highlight nutrition-related immunocompromisation, implications of undernutrition for tuberculosis treatment and prevention, the role of nutritional supplementation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antimycobacterial medications in undernourished people with tuberculosis, and the role of social protection interventions in addressing undernutrition as a tuberculosis risk factor. To catalyse action on this insufficiently addressed accelerant of the global tuberculosis epidemic, research should be prioritised to understand the immunological pathways that are impaired by nutrient deficiencies, develop tools to diagnose clinical and subclinical tuberculosis in people who are undernourished, and understand how nutritional status affects the efficacy of tuberculosis vaccine and therapy. Through primary research, modelling, and implementation research, policy change should also be accelerated, particularly in countries with a high burden of tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Malnutrition/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Nutritional Status , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/physiopathology
7.
Ann Hematol ; 100(11): 2799-2803, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406160

ABSTRACT

Specificities of COVID-19 disease course in patients with haematologic malignancies are still poorly studied. So, we aimed to compare patients with haematologic malignancies to patients without malignancies, matched by sex and age and hospitalised for COVID-19 at the same time and in the same centre. Among 25 patients with haematologic malignancies, we found that mortality (40% versus 4%, p < 0.01), number of days with RT-PCR positivity (21.2 ± 15.9 days [range, 3-57] versus 7.4 ± 5.6 days [range, 1-24], p < 0.01), maximal viral load (mean minimal Ct, 17.2 ± 5.2 [range, 10-30] versus 26.5 ± 5.1 [range, 15-33], p < 0.0001) and the delay between symptom onset and clinical worsening (mean time duration between symptom onset and first day of maximum requirement in inspired oxygen fraction, 14.3 ± 10.7 days versus 9.6 ± 3.7 days, p = 0.0485) were higher than in other patients. COVID-19 course in patients with haematologic malignancies has a delayed onset and is more severe with a higher mortality, and patients may be considered as super-spreaders. Clinicians and intensivists need to be trained to understand the specificity of COVID-19 courses in patients with haematological malignancies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Leukemia/epidemiology , Lymphoma/epidemiology , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Smoking/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has proved to have an indirect impact on essential health services in several parts of the world which could lead to increased morbidity and mortality and loss of the gains made in the past decades. There were no synthesized scientific evidences which could show the impact of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic on essential health services in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impacts of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic on essential health services provision in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A pre-post study design was used to assess the impacts of COVID-19 on essential health services delivery in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia in the second quarter of 2020 (Post COVID-19) compared to similar quarter in 2019 (Pre COVID-19). The study focuses on five categories; namely; maternal, neonatal and child health care; communicable diseases with a focus on HIV and TB-HIV co-infection; prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV; basic emergency, outpatient, inpatient and blood bank services, non-communicable diseases and road traffic accidents (RTAs). Analysis was done using Stata version 14.0 software package. The effects of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic were calculated taking the differences between post COVID -19 and pre COVID-19 periods and the levels of service disruptions presented using proportions. Wilcoxon sign rank test was done and a significance level of ≤0.05 was considered as having significant difference among the two quarters. RESULTS: There were significant increase in institutional delivery, delivery by Caesarian Section (CS), still birth, postnatal care within 7 days of delivery, the number of children who received all vaccine doses before 1st birthday, the number of under 5 children screened and had moderate acute malnutrition, the number of under 5 children screened and had severe acute malnutrition and children with SAM admitted for management. However, there were significant decrease in HIV testing and detection along with enrolment to antiretroviral therapy (ART) care, number of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk ≥ 30% received treatment, RTAs, total units of blood received from national blood transfusion service (NBTS) and regional blood banks, total number of units of blood transfused and emergency referral. There were no significant changes in outpatient visits and admissions. CONCLUSION: Despite commendable achievements in maintaining several of the essential health services, COVID-19 has led to an increase in under nutrition in under five children, decline in HIV detection and care, CVD, cervical cancer screening and blood bank services. Therefore, governments, local and international agencies need to introduce innovative ways to rapidly expand and deliver services in the context of COVID-19. Moreover, lower income countries have to customize comprehensive and coordinated community-based health care approaches, including outreach and campaigns. In addition, countries should ensure that NCDs are incorporated in their national COVID-19 response plans to provide essential health care services to people living with NCDs and HIV or HIV-TB co-infection during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postnatal Care , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
11.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 80(3): 279-282, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356524

ABSTRACT

Micronutrient malnutrition, the deficiency of vitamins or minerals, impacts on physical and mental health, in clinical and general populations, across the life course. In older western populations the high prevalence and impact of micronutrient malnutrition is less well recognised. Low- and middle-income countries are experiencing the 'double burden of disease' where malnutrition coexists alongside the non-communicable diseases of aging, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Held in December 2020, the Winter Conference of the Nutrition Society was designed to cover new areas of research and concern in micronutrient malnutrition across the life course. Common themes arising from the conference were: 1) The continuing high prevalence of micronutrient malnutrition across the life-course, in diverse populations, in high, middle and low-income countries. 2) That multiple deficiencies of micronutrients frequently exist. 3) The primary cause of deficiency is poor quality diets, of low diversity, low in micronutrient dense foods. 4) Clinical conditions, medications for common non-communicable diseases, and environmental conditions, interact with and exacerbate the effects of poor diet quality. 5) Understanding of the mechanistic effects of micronutrients is still emerging. 6) Micronutrients are necessary for maintaining immune function, which has importance for the COVID-19 epidemic. 7) Better biomarkers are needed detect and understand the effects of deficiency. 7) Dietary recommendations need to be updated regularly. Further research is needed in all these areas. Comprehensive public health and government approaches to ensure access and affordability of good quality foods to populations of all ages, particularly during the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic, are crucial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Frailty , Malnutrition , Sarcopenia , Aged , Humans , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Micronutrients , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
12.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 351-355, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The effect of the COVID-19 infection on nutritional status is not well established. Worldwide epidemiological studies have begun to investigate the incidence of malnutrition during hospitalization for COVID-19. The prevalence of malnutrition during follow-up after COVID-19 infection has not been investigated yet. The primary objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of the risk of malnutrition in hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19, re-evaluating their nutritional status during follow-up after discharge. The secondary objective was to identify factors that may contribute to the onset of malnutrition during hospitalization and after discharge. METHODS: We enrolled 142 COVID-19 patients admitted to Careggi University Hospital. Nutritional parameters were measured at three different timepoints for each patient: upon admission to hospital, at discharge from hospital and 3 months after discharge during follow-up. The prevalence of both the nutritional risk and malnutrition was assessed. During the follow-up, the presence of nutritional impact symptoms (NIS) was also investigated. An analysis of the association between demographic and clinical features and nutritional status was conducted. RESULTS: The mean unintended weight loss during hospitalization was 7.6% (p < 0.001). A positive correlation between age and weight loss during hospitalization was observed (r = 0.146, p = 0.08). Moreover, for elderly patients (>61 years old), a statistically significant correlation between age and weight loss was found (r = 0.288 p = 0.05). Patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Intermediate Care Unit (IMCU) had a greater unintended weight loss than patients who stayed in a standard care ward (5.46% vs 1.19%; p < 0.001). At discharge 12 patients were malnourished (8.4%) according to the ESPEN definition. On average, patients gained 4.36 kg (p < 0.001) three months after discharge. Overall, we observed a weight reduction of 2.2% (p < 0.001) from the habitual weight measured upon admission. Patients admitted to an ICU/IMCU showed a higher MUST score three months after discharge (Cramer's V 0.218, p = 0.035). With regard to the NIS score, only 7 patients (4.9%) reported one or more nutritional problems during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of groups of patients at a higher nutritional risk could be useful with a view to adopting measures to prevent worsening of nutritional status during hospitalization. Admission to an ICU/IMCU, age and length of the hospital stay seem to have a major impact on nutritional status. Nutritional follow-up should be guaranteed for patients who lose more than 10% of their habitual weight during their stay in hospital, especially after admission to an ICU/IMCU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 369-373, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336340

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: SARS CoV-2 infection is a disease, whose prevalence has drastically risen in the past year. The aim of this study is to examine a possible association between the risk of malnutrition, clinical outcomes following hospitalisation and morbidity at discharge. METHODS: This study has analysed the medical records of 652 patients hospitalised at Humanitas Research Hospital (Milan, Italy) between 01/03 and 30/04/2020. The risk of malnutrition was identified with the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). RESULTS: The cohort was composed of 515 patients. The MUST scale is significantly associated to malnutrition evaluating the morbidity at discharge (discharged 0.27 ± 0.68, discharged with problems 0.40 ± 0.93, deceased 0.64 ± 0.93, p < 0.001), and the clinical outcome following hospitalisation (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.04-1.51, p = 0.019) is maintained even after correction for age, treated hypertension, admission to an intensive care unit and oxygen therapy). A subgroup analysis addressing patients with a BMI ≥30 shows a significant association between comorbidities such as: arterial hypertension (HR 4.95, 95% CI 1.10-22.22, p = 0.037), diabetes (HR 3.37, 95% CI 1.04-10.89, p = 0.043) and renal failure (HR 3.94, 95% CI 1.36-11.36, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the risk of malnutrition is a noteworthy indicator that impacts both the clinical outcomes and morbidity at discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Hospitalization , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 593-597, 2021 Jun.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335562

ABSTRACT

The article provides an overview of scientific information on the modern features of the micronutrient status of the population of different countries of the world. It is emphasized that in conditions of epidemiological risk, it is necessary to take into account the provision of micronutrients for various social groups of the population: children, elderly people with a low socio-economic status, as well as those with chronic diseases. As a result of the analysis, it is determined that the deficient micronutrient status contributes not only to a high risk of the body's susceptibility to infectious agents, but also negatively affects the course and outcome of an infectious disease. The authors' studies confirm that in infectious diseases and in the early stages of COVID-19, a protective immune response is responsible for the elimination of the virus, therefore, the use of trace elements and vitamins in the treatment of COVID-19 is an immunoprotection strategy, the effectiveness and safety of which there is sufficient clinical data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Micronutrients/deficiency , Nutritional Status , Trace Elements/deficiency , Aged , Child , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Risk Factors , Social Class
15.
Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev ; 37(1): 30-63, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324496

ABSTRACT

Moving forward from 2020, Africa faces an eminent challenge of food safety and security in the coming years. The World Food Programme (WFP) of the United Nations (UN) estimates that 20% of Africa's population of 1.2 billion people face the highest level of undernourishment in the world, likely to worsen due to COVID-19 pandemic that has brought the entire world to its knees. Factors such as insecurity and conflict, poverty, climate change and population growth have been identified as critical contributors to the food security challenges on the continent. Biotechnological research on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) provides a range of opportunities (such as increased crop yields, resistance to pests and diseases, enhanced nutrient composition and food quality) in addressing the hunger, malnutrition and food security issues on the continent. However, the acceptance and adoption of GMOs on the continent has been remarkably slow, perhaps due to contrasting views about the benefits and safety concerns associated with them. With the reality of food insecurity and the booming population in Africa, there is an eminent need for a more pragmatic position to this debate. The present review presents an overview of the current situation of food safety and security and attempts to reconcile major viewpoints on GMOs research considering the current food safety and security crisis in the African continent.


Subject(s)
Food Security , Food Supply , Organisms, Genetically Modified , Africa , Agriculture , Animals , Biotechnology , COVID-19 , Crops, Agricultural , Droughts , Health Policy , Humans , Hunger , Insecticides , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pesticides , Plants, Genetically Modified
16.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 9917302, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311190

ABSTRACT

Background: The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been reported to significantly correlate with poor survival and postoperative complications in patients with various diseases, but its relationship with mortality in COVID-19 patients has not been addressed. Method: A multicenter retrospective study involving patients with severe COVID-19 was conducted to investigate whether malnutrition and other clinical characteristics could be used to stratify the patients based on risk. Results: A total of 395 patients were included in our study, with 236 patients in the training cohort, 59 patients in the internal validation cohort, and 100 patients in the external validation cohort. During hospitalization, 63/236 (26.69%) and 14/59 (23.73%) patients died in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. PNI had the strongest relationships with the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level but was less strongly correlated with the CURB65, APACHE II, and SOFA scores. The baseline PNI score, platelet (PLT) count, LDH level, and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio were independent predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients. A nomogram incorporating these four predictors showed good calibration and discrimination in the derivation and validation cohorts. A PNI score less than 33.405 was associated with a higher risk of mortality in severe COVID-19 patients in the Cox regression analysis. Conclusion: These findings have implications for predicting the risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients at the time of admission and provide the first direct evidence that a lower PNI is related to a worse prognosis in severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hydro-Lyases/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Quinine , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e048948, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311167

ABSTRACT

The nutritional sequelae of COVID-19 have not been explored in a large cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with the change in nutritional status between discharge and 30 days post-discharge (D30). Secondary objectives were to determine the prevalence of subjective functional loss and severe disability at D30 and their associated factors. METHODS: Collected data included symptoms, nutritional status, self-evaluation of food intake, Performance Status (PS) Scale, Asthenia Scale, self-evaluation of strength (SES) for arms and legs at discharge and at D30. An SES <7 was used to determine subjective functional loss. A composite criteria for severe disability was elaborated combining malnutrition, subjective functional loss and PS >2. Patients were classified into three groups according to change in nutritional status between discharge and D30 (persistent malnutrition, correction of malnutrition and the absence of malnutrition). RESULTS: Of 549 consecutive patients hospitalised for COVID-19 between 1 March and 29 April 2020, 130 died including 17 after discharge (23.7%). At D30, 312 patients were at home, 288 (92.3%) of whom were interviewed. Of the latter, 33.3% were malnourished at discharge and still malnourished at D30, while 23.2% were malnourished at discharge but no longer malnourished at D30. The highest predictive factors of persistent malnutrition were intensive care unit (ICU) stay (OR=3.42, 95% CI: 2.04 to 5.75), subjective functional loss at discharge (OR=3.26, 95% CI: 1.75 to 6.08) and male sex (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.44 to 3.97). Subjective functional loss at discharge (76.8%) was the main predictive factor of subjective functional loss at D30 (26.3%) (OR=32.6, 95% CI: 4.36 to 244.0). Lastly, 8.3% had a severe disability, with a higher risk in patients requiring an ICU stay (OR=3.39, 95% CI: 1.43 to 8.06). CONCLUSION: Patients who survived a severe form of COVID-19 had a high risk of persistent malnutrition, functional loss and severe disability at D30. We believe that nutritional support and rehabilitation should be strengthened, particularly for male patients who were admitted in ICU and had subjective functional loss at discharge. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04451694.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Aftercare , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311132

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Child malnutrition (undernutrition) and adult non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are major global public health problems. While convincing evidence links prenatal malnutrition with increased risk of NCDs, less is known about the long-term sequelae of malnutrition in childhood. We therefore examined evidence of associations between postnatal malnutrition, encompassing documented severe childhood malnutrition in low/middle-income countries (LMICs) or famine exposure, and later-life cardiometabolic NCDs. METHODS: Our peer-reviewed search strategy focused on 'severe childhood malnutrition', 'LMICs', 'famine', and 'cardiometabolic NCDs' to identify studies in Medline, Embase, Global Health, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. We synthesised results narratively and assessed study quality with the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence checklist. RESULTS: We identified 57 studies of cardiometabolic NCD outcomes in survivors of documented severe childhood malnutrition in LMICs (n=14) and historical famines (n=43). Exposure to severe malnutrition or famine in childhood was consistently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (7/8 studies), hypertension (8/11), impaired glucose metabolism (15/24) and metabolic syndrome (6/6) in later life. Evidence for effects on lipid metabolism (6/11 null, 5/11 mixed findings), obesity (3/13 null, 5/13 increased risk, 5/13 decreased risk) and other outcomes was less consistent. Sex-specific differences were observed in some cohorts, with women consistently at higher risk of glucose metabolism disorders and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Severe malnutrition or famine during childhood is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic NCDs, suggesting that developmental plasticity extends beyond prenatal life. Severe malnutrition in childhood thus has serious implications not only for acute morbidity and mortality but also for survivors' long-term health. Heterogeneity across studies, confounding by prenatal malnutrition, and age effects in famine studies preclude firm conclusions on causality. Research to improve understanding of mechanisms linking postnatal malnutrition and NCDs is needed to inform policy and programming to improve the lifelong health of severe malnutrition survivors.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Malnutrition , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Famine , Female , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Poverty , Pregnancy
19.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288968

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims: SARS-CoV2 infection is associated with an increased risk of malnutrition. Although there are numerous screening and nutritional management protocols for malnutrition, only few studies have reported nutritional evolution after COVID-19. The objectives of this study were to describe the evolution of nutritional parameters between admission and 30 days after hospital discharge, and to determine predictive factors of poor nutritional outcome after recovery in adult COVID-19 patients. Methods: In this observational longitudinal study, we report findings after discharge in 91 out of 114 patients initially admitted for COVID-19 who received early nutritional management. Nutritional status was defined using GLIM criteria and compared between admission and day 30 after discharge. Baseline predictors of nutritional status at day 30 were assessed using logistic regression. Results: Thirty days after discharge, 28.6% of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were malnourished, compared to 42.3% at admission. Half of malnourished patients (53%) at admission recovered a normal nutritional status after discharge. Weight trajectories were heterogeneous and differed if patients had been transferred to an intensive care unit (ICU) during hospitalization (p = 0.025). High oxygen requirement during hospitalization (invasive ventilation p = 0.016 (OR 8.3 [1.6-61.2]) and/or oxygen therapy over 5 L/min p = 0.021 (OR 3.2 [1.2-8.9]) were strong predictors of malnutrition one month after discharge. Conclusions: With early nutritional management, most patients hospitalized for COVID-19 improved nutritional parameters after discharge. These findings emphasize the importance of nutritional care in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in medicine departments, especially in those transferred from ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , Hospitalization , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Nutrition Therapy/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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