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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715408

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is a major pandemic that the world is fighting. SARS-CoV-2 primarily causes lung infection by attaching to the ACE2 receptor on the alveolar epithelial cells. However, the ACE2 receptor is also present in intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting a link between nutrition, virulence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Respiratory viral infections perturb the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota is shaped by our diet; therefore, a healthy gut is important for optimal metabolism, immunology and protection of the host. Malnutrition causes diverse changes in the immune system by repressing immune responses and enhancing viral vulnerability. Thus, improving gut health with a high-quality, nutrient-filled diet will improve immunity against infections and diseases. This review emphasizes the significance of dietary choices and its subsequent effects on the immune system, which may potentially impact SARS-CoV-2 vulnerability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Feeding Behavior , Immune System/immunology , Malnutrition/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Health Status , Humans , Models, Immunological , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence/immunology
2.
Nutr Diabetes ; 11(1): 19, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281689

ABSTRACT

The role of the immune system is to protect the individual against pathogenic organisms. Nutrition is one of multiple factors that determines the immune response and good nutrition is important in supporting the immune response. Immunity can be impaired in older people, particularly those who are frail, in those living with obesity, in those who are malnourished and in those with low intakes of micronutrients. The immune impairments associated with nutritional inadequacy increase susceptibility to infection and permit infections to become more severe, even fatal. The adverse impact of poor nutrition on the immune system, including its inflammatory component, may be one of the explanations for the higher risk of more severe outcomes from infection with SARS-CoV-2 seen in older people and in those living with obesity. Studies of individual micronutrients including vitamin D and zinc suggest roles in reducing severity of infection with SARS-CoV-2. Good nutrition is also important in promoting a diverse gut microbiota, which in turn supports the immune system. The importance of nutrition in supporting the immune response also applies to assuring robust responses to vaccination. There are many lessons from the study of nutrition and immunity that are relevant for the battle with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune System/physiopathology , Malnutrition/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Micronutrients/immunology , Nutritional Status
3.
mSphere ; 6(3)2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226713

ABSTRACT

In much of the developing world, severe malnutrition is the most prevalent cause of immunodeficiency and affects up to 50% of the population in some impoverished communities. As yet, we do not know how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) will behave in populations with immunodeficiency caused by malnourishment. Interestingly, researchers are now speculating that, in some instances, a defective cellular immune system could paradoxically be a protective factor against severe disease in certain patients contracting SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. This could be linked to the absence of T-cell activation. Based on available information presented here, it is plausible that the hyperimmune response, and subsequent cytokine storm often associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), could be "counteracted" by the defective immune response seen in individuals with malnutrition-induced leptin deficiency. In this paper, we proposed a theory that although those with malnutrition-linked leptin deficiency are at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, they are at lower risk of developing severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Leptin/deficiency , Malnutrition/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibody Formation , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Developing Countries , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/etiology , Leptin/physiology , Lymphocyte Activation , Malnutrition/immunology , Models, Biological , Obesity/complications , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/complications , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/immunology , Risk , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
4.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 42(1): 77-85, 2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067449

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has resulted in an ongoing global pandemic, which spread largely among people who have had close contact with the infected person. The immunopathology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus includes the production of an excess amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines "a cytokine-storm". The respiratory system (main), cardiovascular system and the gastrointestinal tract are the most affected body systems during viral infection. It has been found that most of the patients who require admission to hospital are elderly or have chronic underlying diseases. Higher cases of malnutrition and co-morbidities like diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases are reported in elderly patients due to which, the immune system weakens and hence, the response to the virus is diminished in magnitude. A deficiency of micronutrients results in impaired immune responses leading to improper secretion of cytokines, alterations in secretory antibody response and antibody affinity which increases susceptibility to viral infection. The deficiency of various micronutrients in COVID-19 patient can be treated by appropriate nutritional supplements, prescribed after evaluating the patients' nutritional status. Here we aim to highlight the role of a few particular nutrients namely Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Omega-3 fatty acids, Zinc and Magnesium along with the synergistic roles they play in enhancing immunity and thus, maintaining homeostasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Ascorbic Acid/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/physiology , Humans , Immune System/physiology , Magnesium/physiology , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/immunology , Malnutrition/therapy , Micronutrients/physiology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vitamin D/physiology , Zinc/physiology
5.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 22(6): e13367, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596059

ABSTRACT

The clinical course and outcomes of immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients, with COVID-19 remain unclear. It has been postulated that a substantial portion of the disease burden seems to be mediated by the host immune activation to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Herein, we present a simultaneous heart-kidney transplant (SHKT) recipient who was hospitalized for the management of respiratory failure from volume overload complicated by failure to thrive, multiple opportunistic infections, and open non-healing wounds in the setting of worsening renal dysfunction weeks prior to the first case of SARS-CoV-2 being detected in the state of Connecticut. After his third endotracheal intubation, routine nucleic acid testing (NAT) for SARS-CoV-2, in anticipation of a planned tracheostomy, was positive. His hemodynamics, respiratory status, and ventilator requirements remained stable without any worsening for 4 weeks until he had a negative NAT test. It is possible that the immunocompromised status of our patient may have prevented significant immune activation leading up to clinically significant cytokine storm that could have resulted in acute respiratory distress syndrome and multisystem organ failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/surgery , Heart Transplantation , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Malnutrition/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/adverse effects , BK Virus , Bacteremia/complications , Bacteremia/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/chemically induced , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/complications , Cardiotoxicity , Doxorubicin/adverse effects , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/complications , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/immunology , Humans , Incidental Findings , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Middle Aged , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Polyomavirus Infections/complications , Polyomavirus Infections/immunology , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/immunology , Surgical Wound Infection/complications , Surgical Wound Infection/immunology , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Tracheostomy , Tumor Virus Infections/complications , Tumor Virus Infections/immunology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci , Viremia/complications , Viremia/immunology , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/complications , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/therapy
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