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1.
Keio J Med ; 71(1): 31, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756445

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA was discovered in 1961 and it took 60 years until the first mRNA became FDA-approved product in the form of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. During those years a lot of progress has been made by hundreds of scientists. It was 1978 when the first-time isolated mRNA delivered into mammalian cells produced the encoded protein. In vitro transcription introduced in 1984 made it possible to generate any desired mRNA from the encoding plasmid using phage RNA polymerases. In the early 90s mRNA was used for therapy as well as vaccine against infectious diseases and cancer. Inflammatory nature of the mRNAs limited their in vivo use. Replacing uridine with pseudouridine made the mRNA non-immunogenic, more stable and highly translatable. Delivery of the lipid nanoparticle-formulated nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding viral antigens became a platform for effective vaccine. Labile nature of the mRNA is ideal for transient production of the viral antigen, to generate effective antibody and cellular immune response. The mRNA platform is revolutionizing the delivery of effective and safe vaccines, therapeutics and gene therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Liposomes , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/metabolism , Nanoparticles , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0151621, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744134

ABSTRACT

ADP-ribosylation is a highly dynamic posttranslational modification frequently studied in stress response pathways with recent attention given to its role in response to viral infection. Notably, the alphaviruses encode catalytically active macrodomains capable of ADP-ribosylhydrolase (ARH) activities, implying a role in remodeling the cellular ADP-ribosylome. This report decouples mono- and poly-ARH contributions to macrodomain function using a newly engineered Sindbis virus (SINV) mutant with attenuated poly-ARH activity. Our findings indicate that viral poly-ARH activity is uniquely required for high titer replication in mammalian systems. Despite translating incoming genomic RNA as efficiently as WT virus, mutant viruses have a reduced capacity to establish productive infection, offering a more complete understanding of the kinetics and role of the alphavirus macrodomain with important implications for broader ADP-ribosyltransferase biology. IMPORTANCE Viral macrodomains have drawn attention in recent years due to their high degree of conservation in several virus families (e.g., coronaviruses and alphaviruses) and their potential druggability. These domains erase mono- or poly-ADP-ribose, posttranslational modifications written by host poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) proteins, from undetermined host or viral proteins to enhance replication. Prior work determined that efficient alphavirus replication requires catalytically active macrodomains; however, which form of the modification requires removal and from which protein(s) had not been determined. Here, we present evidence for the specific requirement of poly-ARH activity to ensure efficient productive infection and virus replication.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose , Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose/metabolism , Animals , Coronavirus/genetics , Mammals/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/genetics
4.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(11): e1009560, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523396

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is of zoonotic origin. Evolutionary analyses assessing whether coronaviruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 infected ancestral species of modern-day animal hosts could be useful in identifying additional reservoirs of potentially dangerous coronaviruses. We reasoned that if a clade of species has been repeatedly exposed to a virus, then their proteins relevant for viral entry may exhibit adaptations that affect host susceptibility or response. We perform comparative analyses across the mammalian phylogeny of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, in order to uncover evidence for selection acting at its binding interface with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We uncover that in rodents there is evidence for adaptive amino acid substitutions at positions comprising the ACE2-spike interaction interface, whereas the variation within ACE2 proteins in primates and some other mammalian clades is not consistent with evolutionary adaptations. We also analyze aminopeptidase N (APN), the receptor for the human coronavirus 229E, a virus that causes the common cold, and find evidence for adaptation in primates. Altogether, our results suggest that the rodent and primate lineages may have had ancient exposures to viruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , CD13 Antigens/genetics , CD13 Antigens/physiology , Common Cold/genetics , Common Cold/virology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genomics , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Host Specificity/genetics , Host Specificity/physiology , Humans , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/virology , Phylogeny , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Selection, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization
5.
J Proteome Res ; 19(12): 4844-4856, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387125

ABSTRACT

Despite considerable research progress on SARS-CoV-2, the direct zoonotic origin (intermediate host) of the virus remains ambiguous. The most definitive approach to identify the intermediate host would be the detection of SARS-CoV-2-like coronaviruses in wild animals. However, due to the high number of animal species, it is not feasible to screen all the species in the laboratory. Given that binding to ACE2 proteins is the first step for the coronaviruses to invade host cells, we propose a computational pipeline to identify potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 by modeling the binding affinity between the Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) and host ACE2. Using this pipeline, we systematically examined 285 ACE2 variants from mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians, and found that the binding energies calculated for the modeled Spike-RBD/ACE2 complex structures correlated closely with the effectiveness of animal infection as determined by multiple experimental data sets. Built on the optimized binding affinity cutoff, we suggest a set of 96 mammals, including 48 experimentally investigated ones, which are permissive to SARS-CoV-2, with candidates from primates, rodents, and carnivores at the highest risk of infection. Overall, this work not only suggests a limited range of potential intermediate SARS-CoV-2 hosts for further experimental investigation, but also, more importantly, it proposes a new structure-based approach to general zoonotic origin and susceptibility analyses that are critical for human infectious disease control and wildlife protection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/virology , Pandemics , Protein Binding/genetics , Protein Domains/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Zoonoses/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/virology
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2305: 129-140, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355903

ABSTRACT

The expression of mammalian recombinant proteins in insect cell lines using transient-plasmid-based gene expression enables the production of high-quality protein samples. Here, the procedure for virus-free transient gene expression (TGE) in High Five insect cells is described in detail. The parameters that determine the efficiency and reproducibility of the method are presented in a robust protocol for easy implementation and set-up of the method. The applicability of the TGE method in High Five cells for proteomic, structural, and functional analysis of the expressed proteins is shown.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Cloning, Molecular , Insecta/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/biosynthesis , Transfection/methods , Animals , Bioreactors , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Cell Line , Gene Expression , Glycosylation , Humans , Insecta/cytology , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/metabolism , Plasmids , Proteomics , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 641, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894423

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has caused over a million human deaths and massive global disruption. The viral infection may also represent a threat to our closest living relatives, nonhuman primates. The contact surface of the host cell receptor, ACE2, displays amino acid residues that are critical for virus recognition, and variations at these critical residues modulate infection susceptibility. Infection studies have shown that some primate species develop COVID-19-like symptoms; however, the susceptibility of most primates is unknown. Here, we show that all apes and African and Asian monkeys (catarrhines), exhibit the same set of twelve key amino acid residues as human ACE2. Monkeys in the Americas, and some tarsiers, lemurs and lorisoids, differ at critical contact residues, and protein modeling predicts that these differences should greatly reduce SARS-CoV-2 binding affinity. Other lemurs are predicted to be closer to catarrhines in their susceptibility. Our study suggests that apes and African and Asian monkeys, and some lemurs, are likely to be highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Urgent actions have been undertaken to limit the exposure of great apes to humans, and similar efforts may be necessary for many other primate species.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Host Specificity/genetics , Pandemics/veterinary , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Primate Diseases/enzymology , Primates/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Biological Evolution , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/genetics , Conserved Sequence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Mammals/genetics , Models, Molecular , Mutation, Missense , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Point Mutation , Primate Diseases/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 1026-1032, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694025

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2. In our current study, we found that two types of deficient ACE2 isoforms from different mammals compete with full-length ACE2 for association with S protein. One type of ACE2 is a natural soluble isoform, the other type of ACE2 only associates with one loop of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Mammals with either type of ACE2 will be deficient in support of SARS-CoV-2 entry. By combining S recognition and isoform analysis of ACE2, we predict that felids, mustelids, hamsters, and sheep are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, while canids, swines, cattle, and goats are not permissive for SARS-CoV-2. Thus, the differential susceptibilities of mammals with SARS-CoV-2 infection could be partially explained by the ACE2 isoform diversity. Our findings will shed important light on predicting the host range of other zoonotic viruses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Mammals/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Humans , Isoenzymes , Protein Binding , Species Specificity
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