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2.
Mol Cell ; 81(24): 5099-5111.e8, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1578079

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is a critical component of vaccines and a target for neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs). Spike is also undergoing immunogenic selection with variants that increase infectivity and partially escape convalescent plasma. Here, we describe Spike Display, a high-throughput platform to rapidly characterize glycosylated spike ectodomains across multiple coronavirus-family proteins. We assayed ∼200 variant SARS-CoV-2 spikes for their expression, ACE2 binding, and recognition by 13 nAbs. An alanine scan of all five N-terminal domain (NTD) loops highlights a public epitope in the N1, N3, and N5 loops recognized by most NTD-binding nAbs. NTD mutations in variants of concern B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), B.1.1.28 (gamma), B.1.427/B.1.429 (epsilon), and B.1.617.2 (delta) impact spike expression and escape most NTD-targeting nAbs. Finally, B.1.351 and B.1.1.28 completely escape a potent ACE2 mimic. We anticipate that Spike Display will accelerate antigen design, deep scanning mutagenesis, and antibody epitope mapping for SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging viral threats.


Subject(s)
Mammals/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mammals/immunology , Protein Binding/genetics , Protein Binding/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(11): e1009560, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523396

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is of zoonotic origin. Evolutionary analyses assessing whether coronaviruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 infected ancestral species of modern-day animal hosts could be useful in identifying additional reservoirs of potentially dangerous coronaviruses. We reasoned that if a clade of species has been repeatedly exposed to a virus, then their proteins relevant for viral entry may exhibit adaptations that affect host susceptibility or response. We perform comparative analyses across the mammalian phylogeny of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, in order to uncover evidence for selection acting at its binding interface with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We uncover that in rodents there is evidence for adaptive amino acid substitutions at positions comprising the ACE2-spike interaction interface, whereas the variation within ACE2 proteins in primates and some other mammalian clades is not consistent with evolutionary adaptations. We also analyze aminopeptidase N (APN), the receptor for the human coronavirus 229E, a virus that causes the common cold, and find evidence for adaptation in primates. Altogether, our results suggest that the rodent and primate lineages may have had ancient exposures to viruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , CD13 Antigens/genetics , CD13 Antigens/physiology , Common Cold/genetics , Common Cold/virology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genomics , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Host Specificity/genetics , Host Specificity/physiology , Humans , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/virology , Phylogeny , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Selection, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization
4.
J Proteome Res ; 19(12): 4844-4856, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387125

ABSTRACT

Despite considerable research progress on SARS-CoV-2, the direct zoonotic origin (intermediate host) of the virus remains ambiguous. The most definitive approach to identify the intermediate host would be the detection of SARS-CoV-2-like coronaviruses in wild animals. However, due to the high number of animal species, it is not feasible to screen all the species in the laboratory. Given that binding to ACE2 proteins is the first step for the coronaviruses to invade host cells, we propose a computational pipeline to identify potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 by modeling the binding affinity between the Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) and host ACE2. Using this pipeline, we systematically examined 285 ACE2 variants from mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians, and found that the binding energies calculated for the modeled Spike-RBD/ACE2 complex structures correlated closely with the effectiveness of animal infection as determined by multiple experimental data sets. Built on the optimized binding affinity cutoff, we suggest a set of 96 mammals, including 48 experimentally investigated ones, which are permissive to SARS-CoV-2, with candidates from primates, rodents, and carnivores at the highest risk of infection. Overall, this work not only suggests a limited range of potential intermediate SARS-CoV-2 hosts for further experimental investigation, but also, more importantly, it proposes a new structure-based approach to general zoonotic origin and susceptibility analyses that are critical for human infectious disease control and wildlife protection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/virology , Pandemics , Protein Binding/genetics , Protein Domains/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Zoonoses/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/virology
5.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 106: 103180, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313048

ABSTRACT

Since the early stages of the pandemic, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a widely used drug with good safety profile in clinic, has come to the forefront of research on drug repurposing for COVID-19 treatment/prevention. Despite the decades-long use of HCQ in the treatment of diseases, such as malaria and autoimmune disorders, the exact mechanisms of action of this drug are only beginning to be understood. To date, no data are available on the genotoxic potential of HCQ in vitro or in vivo. The present study is the first investigation of the DNA damaging- and mutagenic effects of HCQ in mammalian cells in vitro, at concentrations that are comparable to clinically achievable doses in patient populations. We demonstrate significant induction of a representative oxidative DNA damage (8-oxodG) in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) treated with HCQ at 5 and 25 µM concentrations (P = 0.020 and P = 0.029, respectively), as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, we show significant mutagenicity of HCQ, manifest as 2.2- and 1.8-fold increases in relative cII mutant frequency in primary and spontaneously immortalized Big Blue® MEFs, respectively, treated with 25 µM dose of this drug (P = 0.005 and P = 0.012, respectively). The observed genotoxic effects of HCQ in vitro, achievable at clinically relevant doses, are novel and important, and may have significant implications for safety monitoring in patient populations. Given the substantial number of the world's population receiving HCQ for the treatment of various chronic diseases or in the context of clinical trials for COVID-19, our findings warrant further investigations into the biological consequences of therapeutic/preventive use of this drug.


Subject(s)
Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Mutation/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/virology , Mammals/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
Curr Biol ; 31(16): 3671-3677.e3, 2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300741

ABSTRACT

Most new infectious diseases emerge when pathogens transfer from animals to humans.1,2 The suspected origin of the COVID pandemic in a wildlife wet market has resurfaced debates on the role of wildlife trade as a potential source of emerging zoonotic diseases.3-5 Yet there are no studies quantitatively assessing zoonotic disease risk associated with wildlife trade. Combining data on mammal species hosting zoonotic viruses and mammals known to be in current and future wildlife trade,6 we found that one-quarter (26.5%) of the mammals in wildlife trade harbor 75% of known zoonotic viruses, a level much higher than domesticated and non-traded mammals. The traded mammals also harbor distinct compositions of zoonotic viruses and different host reservoirs from non-traded and domesticated mammals. Furthermore, we highlight that primates, ungulates, carnivores, and bats represent significant zoonotic disease risks as they host 132 (58%) of 226 known zoonotic viruses in present wildlife trade, whereas species of bats, rodents, and marsupials represent significant zoonotic disease risks in future wildlife trade. Thus, the risk of carrying zoonotic diseases is not equal for all mammal species in wildlife trade. Overall, our findings strengthen the evidence that wildlife trade and zoonotic disease risks are strongly associated, and that mitigation measures should prioritize species with the highest risk of carrying zoonotic viruses. Curbing the sales of wildlife products and developing principles that support the sustainable and healthy trade of wildlife could be cost-effective investments given the potential risk and consequences of zoonotic outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Commerce , Mammals/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Sustainable Development , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009596, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249581

ABSTRACT

The rapid evolution of RNA viruses has been long considered to result from a combination of high copying error frequencies during RNA replication, short generation times and the consequent extensive fixation of neutral or adaptive changes over short periods. While both the identities and sites of mutations are typically modelled as being random, recent investigations of sequence diversity of SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have identified a preponderance of C->U transitions, proposed to be driven by an APOBEC-like RNA editing process. The current study investigated whether this phenomenon could be observed in datasets of other RNA viruses. Using a 5% divergence filter to infer directionality, 18 from 36 datasets of aligned coding region sequences from a diverse range of mammalian RNA viruses (including Picornaviridae, Flaviviridae, Matonaviridae, Caliciviridae and Coronaviridae) showed a >2-fold base composition normalised excess of C->U transitions compared to U->C (range 2.1x-7.5x), with a consistently observed favoured 5' U upstream context. The presence of genome scale RNA secondary structure (GORS) was the only other genomic or structural parameter significantly associated with C->U/U->C transition asymmetries by multivariable analysis (ANOVA), potentially reflecting RNA structure dependence of sites targeted for C->U mutations. Using the association index metric, C->U changes were specifically over-represented at phylogenetically uninformative sites, potentially paralleling extensive homoplasy of this transition reported in SARS-CoV-2. Although mechanisms remain to be functionally characterised, excess C->U substitutions accounted for 11-14% of standing sequence variability of structured viruses and may therefore represent a potent driver of their sequence diversification and longer-term evolution.


Subject(s)
Mammals/virology , Mutation , RNA Viruses/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , APOBEC Deaminases/metabolism , Animals , Base Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Cytidine/genetics , DNA Damage/physiology , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Genome, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Phylogeny , RNA Editing/physiology , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Transcription, Genetic/genetics , Uridine/genetics
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(3): 988-990, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100026

ABSTRACT

In August 2020, outbreaks of coronavirus disease were confirmed on mink farms in Utah, USA. We surveyed mammals captured on and around farms for evidence of infection or exposure. Free-ranging mink, presumed domestic escapees, exhibited high antibody titers, suggesting a potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission pathway to native wildlife.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Mink/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/veterinary , Farms , Mammals/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Utah/epidemiology , Zoonoses/diagnosis , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 780, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087442

ABSTRACT

Novel pathogenic coronaviruses - such as SARS-CoV and probably SARS-CoV-2 - arise by homologous recombination between co-infecting viruses in a single cell. Identifying possible sources of novel coronaviruses therefore requires identifying hosts of multiple coronaviruses; however, most coronavirus-host interactions remain unknown. Here, by deploying a meta-ensemble of similarity learners from three complementary perspectives (viral, mammalian and network), we predict which mammals are hosts of multiple coronaviruses. We predict that there are 11.5-fold more coronavirus-host associations, over 30-fold more potential SARS-CoV-2 recombination hosts, and over 40-fold more host species with four or more different subgenera of coronaviruses than have been observed to date at >0.5 mean probability cut-off (2.4-, 4.25- and 9-fold, respectively, at >0.9821). Our results demonstrate the large underappreciation of the potential scale of novel coronavirus generation in wild and domesticated animals. We identify high-risk species for coronavirus surveillance.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Mammals/virology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Models, Biological , Phylogeny , Recombination, Genetic/genetics , Reproducibility of Results
10.
Vet Res Commun ; 45(1): 1-19, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037288

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute Respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has become unstoppable, spreading rapidly worldwide and, consequently, reaching a pandemic level. This review aims to provide the information available so far on the likely animal origin of SARS-CoV-2 and its possible hosts/reservoirs as well as all natural animal infections and experimental evidence using animal models. Horseshoe bats from the species Rhinolophus affinis seem to be a natural reservoir and pangolins (Manis javanica) appear to be an intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2. Humans remain the most likely spreading source of SARS-CoV-2 to other humans and also to domestic, zoo and farm animals. Indeed, human-to-animal transmission has been reported in cats, dogs, tigers, lions, a puma and minks. Animal-to-human transmission is not a sustained pathway, although mink-to-human transmission remains to be elucidated. Through experimental infections, other animals seem also to be susceptible hosts for SARS-CoV-2, namely ferrets, some non-human primate species, hamsters and transgenic mice, while dogs, pigs and poultry are resistant. A One Health perspective must be implemented in order to develop epidemiological surveillance and establish disease control mechanisms to limit zoonotic transmission. Moreover, research in this field is important to better understand SARS-CoV-2 and to obtain the long-awaited vaccine and specific treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Mammals/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Host Specificity , Humans , Zoonoses
11.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(11): 9207-9217, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-891912

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) infect a wide range of domestic and wild mammals. These viruses have a potential and tendency to cross-species barriers and infect humans. Novel human coronavirus 2019-nCoV (hCoV-19) emerged from Wuhan, China, and has caused a global pandemic. Genomic features of SARS-CoV-2 may attribute inter-species transmission and adaptation to a novel host, and therefore is imperative to explicate the evolutionary dynamics of the viral genome and its propensity for differential host selection. We conducted an in silico analysis of all the coding gene sequences of SARS-CoV-2 strains (n = 39) originating from a range of non-human mammalian species, including pangolin, bat, dog, cat, tiger, mink, mouse, and the environmental samples such as wastewater, air and surface samples from the door handle and seafood market. Compared to the reference SARS-CoV-2 strain (MN908947; Wuhan-Hu-1), phylogenetic and comparative residue analysis revealed the circulation of three variants, including hCoV-19 virus from humans and two hCoV-19-related precursors from bats and pangolins. A lack of obvious differences as well as a maximum genetic homology among dog-, cat-, tiger-, mink-, mouse-, bat- and pangolin-derived SARS-CoV-2 sequences suggested a likely evolution of these strains from a common ancestor. Several residue substitutions were observed in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein, concluding a promiscuous nature of the virus for host species where genomic alternations may be required for the adaptation to novel host/s. However, such speculation needs in vitro investigations to unleash the influence of substitutions towards species-jump and disease pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Environmental Microbiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mammals/virology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 33-45, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823862

ABSTRACT

Multiple species of viruses circulate in wild mammals, some of them potentially causing zoonosis. Most of the suspected viral zoonotic diseases affecting human patients remain unidentified with regard to their aetiological agent. The aim of this study is to summarize the state of knowledge of the viral richness associated with wild mammals in Mexico throughout 1900-2018 and their relationship with human cases. We compiled two databases, one of them containing all available published studies on potentially zoonotic viruses in wild mammals and another with human cases related to zoonotic viruses. The database on wild mammals covers the period of 1900-2018; the human case database spans 2000-2013. We calculated the richness of viral potential zoonotic agents and evaluated their geographical distribution. We found 262 records of 42 potential zoonotic viral species associated with 92 wild mammal species in 28 states across Mexico. Records of human viral cases were only found in 29 states, which did not overlap with the reports in wild mammals. We detected 25.6% (42/164) of viral zoonotic agents reported worldwide. This analysis opens a relevant topic of discussion for public health attention.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Databases, Factual , Mammals/virology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Animals, Wild , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Medical Records , Mexico/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission
13.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(8-9): 783-796, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706965

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a new human coronavirus (CoV), which emerged in People's Republic of China at the end of 2019 and is responsible for the global Covid-19 pandemic that caused more than 540 000 deaths in six months. Understanding the origin of this virus is an important issue and it is necessary to determine the mechanisms of its dissemination in order to be able to contain new epidemics. Based on phylogenetic inferences, sequence analysis and structure-function relationships of coronavirus proteins, informed by the knowledge currently available, we discuss the different scenarios evoked to account for the origin - natural or synthetic - of the virus. On the basis of currently available data, it is impossible to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 is the result of a natural zoonotic emergence or an accidental escape from experimental strains. Regardless of its origin, the study of the evolution of the molecular mechanisms involved in the emergence of this pandemic virus is essential to develop therapeutic and vaccine strategies.


TITLE: Retrouver les origines du SARS-CoV-2 dans les phylogénies de coronavirus. ABSTRACT: Le SARS-CoV-2 est un nouveau coronavirus (CoV) humain. Il a émergé en Chine fin 2019 et est responsable de la pandémie mondiale de Covid-19 qui a causé plus de 540 000 décès en six mois. La compréhension de l'origine de ce virus est une question importante et il est nécessaire de déterminer les mécanismes de sa dissémination afin de pouvoir se prémunir de nouvelles épidémies. En nous fondant sur des inférences phylogénétiques, l'analyse des séquences et les relations structure-fonction des protéines de coronavirus, éclairées par les connaissances actuellement disponibles, nous discutons les différents scénarios évoqués pour rendre compte de l'origine - naturelle ou synthétique - du virus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Evolution, Molecular , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biohazard Release , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronaviridae Infections/transmission , Coronaviridae Infections/veterinary , Coronaviridae Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Reservoirs , Gain of Function Mutation , Genome, Viral , HIV/genetics , Host Specificity , Humans , Mammals/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Zoonoses
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110121, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662814

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 incidence and mortality in Europe have shown wide variation. Northern Italy in particular the Lombardy region, north-eastern French regions, Switzerland and Belgium were amongst the hardest hit, while the central and southern Italian regions, all the Balkan countries from Slovenia to Greece and the Islands of Malta and Cyprus had much fewer cases and deaths per capita, and deaths per number of cases. Differences in public health measures, and health care delivery, in the author's opinion, can only partly explain the difference. The geographical distribution of Phlebotomus sand-flies and the relative distribution of arthropod borne diseases Leishmaniasis and Phlebovirus infections especially the Sicilian Sandfly fever group corresponds to most areas of low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2. A hypothesis is proposed whereby repeated arthropod or sandfly vector infection of humans by novel viruses of zoonotic origins carrying bat or mammalian RNA/DNA, such as phleboviruses may have resulted in the development of an effective evolutionary immune response to most novel zoonotic viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 by means of survival of the fittest possibly over many generations. This process probably ran in parallel and concurrent with the progressive evolution of novel coronaviruses which spread from one mammalian species to another. Other possible, but less likely mechanisms for the role of sandfly meals within a much shorter time frame may have led to, (i) previous exposure and infection of humans with the SARS-Cov-2 virus itself, or a closely related corona virus in the previous decades, or (ii) exposure of human populations to parts coronavirus protein namely either S or more likely N protein carried mechanically by arthropods, but without clinical disease causing direct immunity or (iii) by causing infection with other arthropod borne viruses which could carry bat DNA/RNA and have similar functional proteins resulting in an immediate cross-reactive immune response rather than by natural selection. The Evidence possibly supporting or disputing this hypothesis is reviewed, however the major problem with the hypothesis is that to date no coronavirus has ever been isolated from arthropods. Such a hypothesis can only be supported by research investigating the possible biological relationship of arthropods and coronaviruses where paradoxically they may be promoting immunity rather than disease.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Herd , Insect Vectors/virology , Pandemics , Phlebotomus/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Armed Conflicts , Arthropods/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Host Specificity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Italy , Mammals/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sandfly fever Naples virus/immunology , Selection, Genetic , Species Specificity , Viral Proteins/immunology , Zoonoses
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591861

ABSTRACT

The severe respiratory disease COVID-19 was initially reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and spread into many provinces from Wuhan. The corresponding pathogen was soon identified as a novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 (formerly, 2019-nCoV). As of 2 May, 2020, over 3 million COVID-19 cases had been confirmed, and 235,290 deaths had been reported globally, and the numbers are still increasing. It is important to understand the phylogenetic relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and known coronaviruses, and to identify its hosts for preventing the next round of emergency outbreak. In this study, we employ an effective alignment-free approach, the Natural Vector method, to analyze the phylogeny and classify the coronaviruses based on genomic and protein data. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to, but distinct from the SARS-CoV branch. By analyzing the genetic distances from the SARS-CoV-2 strain to the coronaviruses residing in animal hosts, we establish that the most possible transmission path originates from bats to pangolins to humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus/genetics , Models, Biological , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Reservoirs , Humans , Mammals/classification , Mammals/virology , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
16.
Infect Genet Evol ; 82: 104285, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-6174

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. However, so far, there are still controversies about the source of the virus and its intermediate host. Here, we found the novel coronavirus was closely related to coronaviruses derived from five wild animals, including Paguma larvata, Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Civet, Aselliscus stoliczkanus and Rhinolophus sinicus, and was in the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. However, genome and ORF1a homology show that the virus is not the same coronavirus as the coronavirus derived from these five animals, whereas the virus has the highest homology with Bat coronavirus isolate RaTG13.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Mammals/classification , Mammals/virology , Mutation , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
17.
Infez Med ; 28(1): 3-5, 2020 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-277

ABSTRACT

Pathogen transmission from a vertebrate animal to a human, also known as zoonotic spillover, represents a global public health burden, which while associated with multiple outbreaks, still remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Coronaviruses, like influenza viruses, circulate in nature in various animal species. Alpha-coronaviruses and beta-coronaviruses can infect mammals and gamma-coronaviruses and delta-coronaviruses tend to infect birds, but some of them can also be transmitted to mammals. Although still preliminary, current data suggest that bats are the most probable initial source of the current 2019 novel CoV (2019nCoV) outbreak, that begun on December 2019 in Wuhan, China, apparently spreading from a "wet market" to multiple cities and provinces in China. This epidemic of 2019nCoV, already reaching more than 6,000 cases to-day (end of January 2020) (>90% in China), will not be the last one linked to zoonotic spillover events.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Zoonoses , Animals , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemics , Humans , Mammals/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission
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