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1.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 44(9): 871-877, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic profile of breast cancer cases during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic compared with the previous year. METHODS: It is a retrospective study of cases diagnosed by a reference service in the public health system of Campinas, SP, Brazil. Two periods were analyzed: March to October 2019 (preCOVID period) and March to October 2020 (COVID-period). All women diagnosed during the periods were included. The Chi-Squared or Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney tests were used. RESULTS: In the preCOVID and COVID periods, breast cancers were diagnosed, respectively, in 115 vs 59 women, and the mean ages at diagnosis were 55 and 57 years (p = 0.339). In the COVID period, the family history of breast cancer was more observed (9.6% vs 29.8%, p < 0.001), cases were more frequently symptomatic (50.4% vs 79.7%, p < 0.001) and had more frequently palpable masses (56.5% vs 79.7%, p = 0.003). In symptomatic women, the mean number of days from symptom to mammography were 233.6 (458.3) in 2019 and 152.1 (151.5) in 2020 (p = 0.871). Among invasive tumors, the proportion of breast cancers in stages I and II was slightly higher in the COVID period, although not significantly (76.7% vs 82.4%, p = 0.428). Also in the COVID period, the frequency of luminal A-like tumors was lower (29.2% vs 11.8%, p = 0.018), of triple-negative tumors was twice as high (10.1% vs 21.6%, p = 0.062), and of estrogen receptor-positive tumors was lower (82.2% vs 66.0%, p = 0.030). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, breast cancer diagnoses were reduced. Cases detected were suggestive of a worse prognosis: symptomatic women with palpable masses and more aggressive subtypes. Indolent tumors were those more sensitive to the interruption in screening.


OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil diagnóstico dos casos de câncer de mama na pandemia de coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) em comparação com o ano anterior. MéTODOS: Este é um estudo retrospectivo de casos diagnosticados em um serviço de referência da rede pública de saúde de Campinas, SP, Brasil. Foram analisados dois períodos: de março a outubro de 2019 (período pré-COVID) e de março a outubro de 2020 (período COVID). Todas as mulheres diagnosticadas durante os períodos foram incluídas. Foram utilizados os testes do qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Nos períodos pré-COVID e COVID, o câncer de mama foi diagnosticado, respectivamente, em 115 e 59 mulheres, e a média de idade no diagnóstico foi de 55 e 57 anos (p = 0,339). No período COVID, foram mais frequentes a história familiar de câncer de mama (9,6% vs 29,8%, p < 0,001), casos sintomáticos (50,4% vs 79,7%, p < 0,001) e com massas palpáveis (56,5% vs 79,7%, p = 0,003). Nas mulheres sintomáticas, a média de dias desde os sintomas até a mamografia foi de 233,6 (458,3) no pré-COVID e 152,1 (151,5) no COVID (p = 0,871). Entre os tumores invasivos no período COVID, a proporção de cânceres nos estágios I e II foi ligeiramente maior, porém não significativa (76,7% vs 82,4%, p = 0,428). Ainda no período COVID, a frequência de tumores tipo luminal A-like foi menor (29,2% vs 11,8%, p = 0,018), de tumores triplo-negativos foi duas vezes maior (10,1% vs 21,6%, p = 0,062), e de tumores positivos para receptor de estrogênio foi inferior (82,2% vs 66,0%, p = 0,030). CONCLUSãO: Durante a pandemia de COVID-19, houve uma redução no diagnóstico de câncer de mama. Os casos detectados eram sugestivos de pior prognóstico: mulheres sintomáticas com massas palpáveis e subtipos mais agressivos. Os tumores indolentes foram os mais sensíveis à interrupção do rastreamento.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mammography , Pandemics , Receptors, Estrogen , Retrospective Studies
2.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 218(6): 988-996, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. Screening mammography facilities closed during the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020. Recovery of screening volumes has varied across patient subgroups and facilities. OBJECTIVE. We compared screening mammography volumes and patient and facility characteristics between periods before COVID-19 and early and later postclosure recovery periods. METHODS. This retrospective study included screening mammograms performed in the same 2-month period (May 26-July 26) in 2019 (pre-COVID-19), 2020 (early recovery), and 2021 (late recovery after targeted interventions to expand access) and across multiple facility types (urban, suburban, community health center). Suburban sites had highest proportion of White patients and the greatest scheduling flexibility and expanded appointments during initial reopening. Findings were compared across years. RESULTS. For White patients, volumes decreased 36.6% from 6550 in 2019 (4384 in 2020) and then increased 61.0% to 6579 in 2021; for patients with races other than White, volumes decreased 53.9% from 1321 in 2019 (609 in 2020) and then increased 136.8% to 1442 in 2021. The percentage of mammograms in patients with races other than White was 16.8% in 2019, 12.2% in 2020, and 18.0% in 2021. The proportion performed at the urban center was 55.3% in 2019, 42.2% in 2020, and 45.9% in 2021; the proportion at suburban sites was 34.0% in 2019, 49.2% in 2020, and 43.5% in 2021. Pre-COVID-19 volumes were reached by the sixth week after reopening for suburban sites but were not reached during early recovery for the other sites. The proportion that were performed on Saturday for suburban sites was similar across periods, whereas the proportion performed on Saturday for the urban site was 7.6% in 2019, 5.3% in 2020, and 8.8% in 2021; the community health center did not offer Saturday appointments during recovery. CONCLUSION. After reopening, screening shifted from urban to suburban settings, with a disproportionate screening decrease in patients with races other than White. Initial delayed access at facilities serving underserved populations exacerbated disparities. Interventions to expand access resulted in late recovery volumes exceeding prepandemic volumes in patients with races other than White. CLINICAL IMPACT. Interventions to support equitable access across facilities serving diverse patient populations may mitigate potential widening disparities in breast cancer diagnosis during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Architectural Accessibility , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mammography/methods , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
3.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(12): 1465-1472, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048351

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Our research sought to describe barriers to mammography screening among a sample of predominantly Black women in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. METHODS: The Pink Panel project convened community leaders from faith-based institutions to administer an offline survey to women via convenience sampling at fourteen churches in Atlanta in late 2019 and early 2020. With the COVID-19 pandemic, the research team switched to an online survey. The survey included seven questions about breast cancer awareness, barriers to breast cancer screening, and screening status. We used residence information to attain the 9-digit zip code to link to the Area Deprivation Index at the Census Block Group neighborhood level. We report results as descriptive statistics of the barriers to mammography screening. RESULTS: The 643 women represented 21 counties in Georgia, predominantly from metropolitan Atlanta, and 86% identified as Black. Among women aged 40 and older, 90% have ever had a mammogram. Among all women, 79% have ever had a mammogram, and 86% indicated that they would get a mammogram if offered in their neighborhood. The top barriers to mammography screening were lack of health insurance and high cost. Barriers to mammography screening did not differ substantially by Area Deprivation Index. CONCLUSION: Among metropolitan Atlanta women aged 40+ , nearly all reported ever having a mammogram. However, addressing the barriers, including lack of health insurance and high cost, that women reported may further improve mammography screening rates.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Early Detection of Cancer , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Pandemics , Mammography , Mass Screening
4.
Curr Oncol ; 29(8): 5644-5654, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032870

ABSTRACT

Quality medical practice is based on science and evidence. For over a half-century, the efficacy of breast cancer screening has been challenged, particularly for women aged 40-49. As each false claim has been raised, it has been addressed and refuted based on science and evidence. Nevertheless, misinformation continues to be promoted, resulting in confusion for women and their physicians. Early detection has been proven to save lives for women aged 40-74 in randomized controlled trials of mammography screening. Observational studies, failure analyses, and incidence of death studies have provided evidence that there is a major benefit when screening is introduced to the general population. In large part due to screening, there has been an over 40% decline in deaths from breast cancer since 1990. Nevertheless, misinformation about screening continues to be promoted, adding to the confusion. Despite claims to the contrary, a careful reading of the guidelines issued by major groups such as the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American College of Physicians shows that they all agree that most lives are saved by screening starting at the age of 40. There is no scientific support for using the age of 50 as a threshold for screening. All women should be provided with the facts and not false information about breast cancer screening so that they can make "informed decisions" for themselves about whether to participate.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Communication , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Mammography/methods , Mass Screening/methods
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023677

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of offering risk-based breast cancer screening and its integration into regular clinical practice. A single-arm proof-of-concept trial was conducted with a sample of 387 women aged 40-50 years residing in the city of Lleida (Spain). The study intervention consisted of breast cancer risk estimation, risk communication and screening recommendations, and a follow-up. A polygenic risk score with 83 single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to update the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium risk model and estimate the 5-year absolute risk of breast cancer. The women expressed a positive attitude towards varying the frequency of breast screening according to individual risk and, especially, more frequently inviting women at higher-than-average risk. A lower intensity screening for women at lower risk was not as welcome, although half of the participants would accept it. Knowledge of the benefits and harms of breast screening was low, especially with regard to false positives and overdiagnosis. The women expressed a high understanding of individual risk and screening recommendations. The participants' intention to participate in risk-based screening and satisfaction at 1-year were very high.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Mammography , Mass Screening , Proof of Concept Study
7.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(10): 1313-1323, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982204

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We calculated rates of breast and prostate cancer screening and diagnostic procedures performed during the COVID-19 pandemic through December 2021 compared to the same months in 2019 in a large healthcare provider group in central Massachusetts. METHODS: We included active patients of the provider group between January 2019 and December 2021 aged 30-85 years. Monthly rates of screening mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis, breast MRI, total prostate specific antigen (PSA), and breast or prostate biopsy per 1,000 people were compared by year overall, by age, and race/ethnicity. Completed procedures were identified by relevant codes in electronic health record data. RESULTS: Rates of screening mammography, tomosynthesis, and PSA testing reached the lowest levels in April-May 2020. Breast cancer screening rates decreased 43% in March and 99% in April and May 2020, compared to 2019. Breast cancer screening rates increased gradually beginning in June 2020 through 2021, although more slowly in Black and Hispanic women and in women aged 75-85. PSA testing rates decreased 34% in March, 78% in April, and 53% in May 2020, but rebounded to pre-pandemic levels by June 2020; trends were similar across groups defined by age and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSION: The observed decline in two common screening procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic reflects the impact of the pandemic on cancer early detection and signals potential downstream effects on the prognosis of delayed cancer diagnoses. The slower rate of return for breast cancer screening procedures in certain subgroups should be investigated to ensure all women return for routine screenings.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Humans , Male , Mammography/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Pandemics , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology
8.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 219(4): 559-568, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. The variable clinical course of subclinical lymphadenopathy detected on breast imaging after COVID-19 vaccination creates management challenges and has led to evolving practice recommendations. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to assess the duration of axillary lymphadenopathy ipsilateral to COVID-19 vaccination detected by breast imaging and to assess factors associated with the time until resolution. METHODS. This retrospective single-center study included 111 patients (mean age, 52 ± 12 years) with unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy ipsilateral to mRNA COVID-19 vaccine administration performed within the prior 8 weeks that was detected on breast ultrasound performed between January 1, 2021, and October 1, 2021, and who underwent follow-up ultrasound examinations at 4- to 12-week intervals until resolution of the lymphadenopathy. Patient information was extracted from medical records. Cortical thickness of the largest axillary lymph node on ultrasound was retrospectively measured and was considered enlarged when greater than 3 mm. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of time until resolution. RESULTS. The mean cortical thickness at the initial ultrasound examination was 4.7 ± 1.2 mm. The lymphadenopathy resolved a mean of 97 ± 44 days after the initial ultrasound examination, 127 ± 43 days after the first vaccine dose, and 2.4 ± 0.6 follow-up ultrasound examinations. A significant independent predictor of shorter time to resolution was Pfizer-BioNTech (rather than Moderna) vaccination (ß = -18.0 [95% CI, -34.3 to -1.7]; p = .03]. Significant independent predictors of longer time to resolution were receipt of the second dose after the initial ultrasound examination (ß = 19.2 [95% CI, 3.1-35.2]; p = .02) and greater cortical thickness at the initial ultrasound examination (ß = 8.0 [95% CI, 1.5-14.5]; p = .02). Patient age, history of breast cancer, and axillary symptoms were not significantly associated with time to resolution (all p > .05). CONCLUSION. Axillary lymphadenopathy detected with breast ultrasound after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination lasts longer than reported in initial vaccine clinical trials. CLINICAL IMPACT. The prolonged time to resolution supports not delaying screening mammography because of recent COVID-19 vaccination. It also supports the professional society recommendation of a follow-up interval of at least 12 weeks when vaccine-related lymphadenopathy is suspected.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Adult , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mammography , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
9.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 19(8): 919-934, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945364

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to quantify the initial decline and subsequent rebound in breast cancer screening metrics throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Screening and diagnostic mammographic examinations, biopsies performed, and cancer diagnoses were extracted from the ACR National Mammography Database from March 1, 2019, through May 31, 2021. Patient (race and age) and facility (regional location, community type, and facility type) demographics were collected. Three time periods were used for analysis: pre-COVID-19 (March 1, 2019, to May 31, 2019), peak COVID-19 (March 1, 2020, to May 31, 2020), and COVID-19 recovery (March 1, 2021, to May 31, 2021). Analysis was performed at the facility level and overall between time periods. RESULTS: In total, 5,633,783 screening mammographic studies, 1,282,374 diagnostic mammographic studies, 231,390 biopsies, and 69,657 cancer diagnoses were analyzed. All peak COVID-19 metrics were less than pre-COVID-19 volumes: 36.3% of pre-COVID-19 for screening mammography, 57.9% for diagnostic mammography, 47.3% for biopsies, and 48.7% for cancer diagnoses. There was some rebound during COVID-19 recovery as a percentage of pre-COVID-19 volumes: 85.3% of pre-COVID-19 for screening mammography, 97.8% for diagnostic mammography, 91.5% for biopsies, and 92.0% for cancer diagnoses. Across various metrics, there was a disproportionate negative impact on older women, Asian women, facilities in the Northeast, and facilities affiliated with academic medical centers. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 had the greatest impact on screening mammography volumes, which have not returned to pre-COVID-19 levels. Cancer diagnoses declined significantly in the acute phase and have not fully rebounded, emphasizing the need to increase outreach efforts directed at specific patient population and facility types.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mammography , Mass Screening , Pandemics
11.
Elife ; 112022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893303

ABSTRACT

Background: To assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on performance indicators in the population-based breast cancer screening program of Parc de Salut Mar (PSMAR), Barcelona, Spain. Methods: We conducted a before-and-after, study to evaluate participation, recall, false positives, the cancer detection rate, and cancer characteristics in our screening population from March 2020 to March 2021 compared with the four previous rounds (2012-2019). Using multilevel logistic regression models, we estimated the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of each of the performance indicators for the COVID-19 period, controlling by type of screening (prevalent or incident), socioeconomic index, family history of breast cancer, and menopausal status. We analyzed 144,779 invitations from 47,571women. Results: During the COVID-19 period, the odds of participation were lower in first-time invitees (aOR = 0.90 [95% CI = 0.84-0.96]) and in those who had previously participated regularly and irregularly (aOR = 0.63 [95% CI = 0.59-0.67] and aOR = 0.95 [95% CI = 0.86-1.05], respectively). Participation showed a modest increase in women not attending any of the previous rounds (aOR = 1.10 [95% CI = 1.01-1.20]). The recall rate decreased in both prevalent and incident screening (aOR = 0.74 [95% CI = 0.56-0.99] and aOR = 0.80 [95% CI = 0.68-0.95], respectively). False positives also decreased in both groups (prevalent aOR = 0.92 [95% CI = 0.66-1.28] and incident aOR = 0.72 [95% CI = 0.59-0.88]). No significant differences were observed in compliance with recall (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.76-2.23), cancer detection rate (aOR = 0.91 [95% CI = 0.69-1.18]), or cancer stages. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected screening attendance, especially in previous participants and newcomers. We found a reduction in recall and false positives and no marked differences in cancer detection, indicating the robustness of the program. There is a need for further evaluations of interval cancers and potential diagnostic delays. Funding: This study has received funding by grants PI19/00007 and PI21/00058, funded by Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and cofunded by the European Union and Grant RD21/0016/0020 funded by Instituto de Salud Carlos III and by the European Union NextGenerationEU, Mecanismo para la Recuperación y la Resiliencia (MRR).


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mammography , Pandemics
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887190

ABSTRACT

Screening mammograms have resulted in a reduction in breast cancer mortality, yet the uptake in Malaysia was low. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with screening mammogram uptake among women attending a Malaysian primary care clinic. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 women aged 40 to 74 attending the clinic. The data was collected using questionnaires assessing sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, knowledge and health beliefs. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mammogram uptake. The prevalence of screening mammograms was 46.0%. About 45.5% of women with high breast cancer risk had never undergone a mammogram. Older participants, aged 50 to 74 (OR = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.05, 6.29, p-value = 0.039) and those who received a physician's recommendation (OR = 7.61, 95% CI: 3.81, 15.20, p-value < 0.001) were more likely to undergo screening mammography. Significant health beliefs associated with mammogram uptake were perceived barriers (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.97, p-value = 0.019) and cues to action (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.59, p-value = 0.012). Approximately half of the participants and those in the high-risk group had never undergone a mammogram. Older age, physician recommendation, perceived barriers and cues to action were significantly associated with mammogram uptake. Physicians need to play an active role in promoting breast cancer screening and addressing the barriers.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Mammography , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Universities
13.
Health Policy ; 126(8): 763-769, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867176

ABSTRACT

We examined the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the screening, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in Hungary based on administrative data until June 2021, covering three pandemic waves. After correcting for trend and seasonality, the number of mammography examinations decreased by 68% in 2020q2, was around its usual level in 2020q3 and was reduced by 20-35% throughout 2020q4-2021q2. The reduction was caused by a combination of supply-side (temporary suspensions of screening) and demand-side (lower screening participation during the pandemic waves) factors. The number of new breast cancer diagnoses and mastectomy surgeries responded with a lag, and were below their usual level by 15-30% in all quarters between 2020q2 and 2021q2, apart from 2020q4, when there was no significant difference. Using a regression discontinuity framework, we found that the partial mastectomy rate (indicative of early diagnosis) dropped more substantially in 2020q2 in the 61-65 years old age group that was just below the age cut-off of organized screening than in the 66-70 years old age group, and this difference was partially offset in 2021q1. We suggest that policymakers need to motivate the target population (by providing both information and incentives) to catch up on missed screenings.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mammography , Mass Screening , Mastectomy , Middle Aged , Pandemics
14.
Am J Surg ; 224(4): 1039-1045, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of the COVID-19 mammography screening hiatus as well as of post-hiatus efforts promoting restoration of elective healthcare on breast cancer detection patterns and stage distribution is unknown. METHODS: Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (2019-2021) at the New York Presbyterian (NYP) Hospital Network were analyzed. Chi-square and student's t-test compared characteristics of patients presenting before and after the screening hiatus. RESULTS: A total of 2137 patients were analyzed. Frequency of screen-detected and early-stage breast cancer declined post-hiatus (59.7%), but returned to baseline (69.3%). Frequency of screen-detected breast cancer was lowest for African American (AA) (57.5%) and Medicaid patients pre-hiatus (57.2%), and this disparity was reduced post-hiatus (65.3% for AA and 63.2% for Medicaid). CONCLUSIONS: The return to baseline levels of screen-detected cancer, particularly among AA and Medicaid patients suggest that large-scale breast health education campaigns may be effective in resuming screening practices and in mitigating disparities.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Mammography , Mass Screening , New York City/epidemiology , United States
17.
J Med Screen ; 29(4): 209-218, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has caused an indefinite delay to cancer screening programs worldwide. This study aims to explore the impact on breast cancer screening outcomes such as mammography and diagnosis rates. METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, medRxiv and bioRxiv between January 2020 to October 2021 to identify studies that reported on the rates of screening mammography and breast cancer diagnosis before and during the pandemic. The effects of 'lockdown' measures, age and ethnicity on outcomes were also examined. All studies were assessed for risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Rate ratios were calculated for all outcomes and pooled using standard inverse-variance random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: We identified 994 articles, of which 7 registry-based and 24 non-registry-based retrospective cohort studies, including data on 4,860,786 and 629,823 patients respectively across 18 different countries, were identified. Overall, breast cancer screening and diagnosis rates dropped by an estimated 41-53% and 18-29% respectively between 2019 and 2020. No differences in mammogram screening rates depending on patient age or ethnicity were observed. However, countries that implemented lockdown measures were associated with a significantly greater reduction in mammogram and diagnosis rates between 2019 and 2020 in comparison to those that did not. CONCLUSION: The pandemic has caused a substantial reduction in the screening and diagnosis of breast cancer, with reductions more pronounced in countries under lockdown restrictions. It is early yet to know if delayed screening during the pandemic translates into higher breast cancer mortality.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mammography , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(6): 842-846, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has disrupted cancer screening worldwide. This study aims to analyze the changes in the rates of screening mammograms and BIRADS 4 or 5 mammograms during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in the opportunistic scenario. METHODS: We integrated three different public databases from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, to obtain the rate of screening mammograms per 1,000, and the rate of BIRADS 4 or 5 mammograms per 100,000 women aged from 50 to 69 years in the years from January 2017 to December 2020. RESULTS: The mean monthly screening mammograms decreased from 14.8/1,000 in 2019 to 9.25/1,000 in 2020, with the lowest rates being recorded in May 2020 (3.1/1,000). The mean monthly high-risk mammograms decreased from 12.8/100,000 in 2019 to 9.1/100,000 in 2020, with the lowest rates being recorded in April 2020 (4.3/100,000). CONCLUSIONS: Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic significantly decreased mammography screening in an opportunistic scenario, a warning sign for decreasing diagnosis of breast cancer in early stages, and increasing advanced stage diagnosis and mortality in the future.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mammography , Mass Screening , Pandemics
19.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 8, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1818704

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To report the decrease in breast imaging after covid-19 pandemic, obtaining the number of mammograms performed in 2019 and 2020. Additionally, to investigate if there was an increase in the proportion of women undergoing mammography for diagnostic purposes, with palpable lesions. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study, based on the number of mammograms performed by the Brazilian public health services, provided by DATASUS, an open access database. Mammograms from private institutions were not included. This study compares the number of mammograms performed in 2019 and 2020, in women aged 50-69 years, stratified by month, in each federal state, and the presence of palpable lumps (physician-reported). RESULTS: In total, 1,948,471 mammograms were performed in 2019 and 1,126,688 in 2020, for the population studied. These values represent a 42% decline. Monthly, a significant decreased is observed after April 2020. The results varied slightly according to federal state; yet the entire country was affected. Rondônia was the most affected state, with 67% decline. The proportion of women presenting palpable lumps increased from 7.06% on average in 2019 to 7.94% in 2020 (OR = 1.135, 95%CI 1.125-1.145, p = 0,001). DISCUSSION: The number of mammograms performed in 2020 declined considerably. Out of the women who presented for mammogram, the proportion of palpable lumps was significantly higher in 2020. Considering the detection rate of digital mammography, the loss of 800,000 exams means 4,000 undiagnosed breast cancer cases, by the end of 2020.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Mammography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Middle Aged
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