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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779749

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has advocated mandatory face mask usage to combat the spread of COVID-19, with multilayer masks recommended for enhanced protection. However, this recommendation has not been widely adopted, with noncompliant persons citing discomfort during prolonged usage of face masks. And yet, a scientific understanding on how face mask fabrics/garment systems affect thermophysiological comfort remains lacking. We aimed to investigate how fabric/garment properties alter the thermal and evaporative resistances responsible for thermophysiological strain. We constructed 12 different layered facemasks (D1-D5, T1-T6, Q1) with various filters using commercially available fabrics. Three approaches were employed: (1) the evaporative and thermal resistances were measured in all the test face masks using the medium size to determine the effect of fabric properties; (2) the effect of face mask size by testing close-fitted (small), fitted (medium) and loose fitted (large) face mask T-6; (3) the effect of face mask fit by donning a large size face mask T-6, both loose and tightened using thermal manikin, Newton. ANOVA test revealed that the additional N95 middle layer filter has no significant effect on the thermal resistances of all the face masks, and evaporative resistances except for face masks T-2 and T-3 (P-values<0.05) whereas size significantly affected thermal and evaporative resistances (P-values<0.05). The correlation coefficient between the air gap size and the thermal and evaporative resistance of face masks T-6 were R2 = 0.96 and 0.98, respectively. The tight fit large face mask had superior performance in the dissipation of heat and moisture from the skin (P-values <0.05). Three-layer masks incorporating filters and water-resistant and antimicrobial/antiviral finishes did not increase discomfort. Interestingly, using face masks with fitters improved user comfort, decreasing thermal and evaporative resistances in direct opposition to the preconceived notion that safer masks decrease comfort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Manikins , Textiles
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(9): e28890, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730757

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine which of 4 laryngoscopes, including A-LRYNGO, a newly developed channel-type video-laryngoscope with an embedded artificial intelligence-based glottis guidance system, is appropriate for tracheal intubation training in novice medical students wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).Thirty healthy senior medical school student volunteers were recruited. The participants underwent 2 tests with 4 laryngoscopes: Macintosh, McGrath, Pentax Airway-Scope and A-LRYNGO. The first test was conducted just after a lecture without any hands-on workshop. The second test was conducted after a one-on-one hands-on workshop. In each test, we measured the time required for tracheal intubation, intubation success rate, etc, and asked all participants to complete a short questionnaire.The time to completely insert the endotracheal tube with the Macintosh laryngoscope did not change significantly (P = .177), but the remaining outcomes significantly improved after the hands-on workshop (all P < .05). Despite being novice practitioners with no intubation experience and wearing PPE, the, 2 channel-type video-laryngoscopes were associated with good intubation-related performance before the hands-on workshop (all P < .001). A-LRYNGO's artificial intelligence-based glottis guidance system showed 93.1% accuracy, but 20.7% of trials were guided by the vocal folds.To prepare to manage the airway of critically ill patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, a channel-type video-laryngoscope is appropriate for tracheal intubation training for novice practitioners wearing PPE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngoscopes , Laryngoscopy/instrumentation , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Adult , Artificial Intelligence , Equipment Design , Female , Glottis , Humans , Male , Manikins , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Medical
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27529, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570142

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: It is recommended to use visual laryngoscope for tracheal intubation in a Corona Virus Disease 2019 patient to keep the operator farther from the patient. How the position of the operator affects the distance in this setting is not ascertained. This manikin study compares the distances between the operator and the model and the intubation conditions when the operator is in sitting position and standing position, respectively.Thirty one anesthesiologists with minimum 3-years' work experiences participated in the study. The participant's posture was photographed when he performed tracheal intubation using UE visual laryngoscope in standing and sitting position, respectively. The shortest distance between the model's upper central incisor and operator's face screen (UF), the horizontal distance between the model's upper central incisor and the operator's face screen, the angle between the UF line and the vertical line of the model's upper central incisor were measured. The success rate of intubation, the duration of intubation procedure, the first-attempt success rate, the Cormack-Lehane grade, and operator comfort score were also recorded.When the operator performed the procedure in sitting position, the horizontal distance between the model's upper central incisor and the operator's face screen distance was significantly longer (9.5 [0.0-17.2] vs 24.3 [10.3-33.0], P ≤ .001) and the angle between the UF line and the vertical line of the model's upper central incisor angle was significantly larger (45.2 [16.3-75.5] vs 17.7 [0.0-38.9], P ≤ .001). There was no significant difference in UF distance when the operator changed the position. Cormack-Lehane grade was significantly improved when it was assessed using visual laryngoscope. Cormack-Lehane grade was not significantly different when the operator assessed it in sitting and standing position, respectively. No significant differences were found in the success rate, duration for intubation, first-attempt success rate, and operator comfort score.The operator is kept farther from the patient when he performs intubation procedure in sitting position. Meanwhile, it does not make the procedure more difficult or uncomfortable for the operator, though all the participants prefer to standing position.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopes , Sitting Position , Standing Position , Humans , Laryngoscopy , Male , Manikins , Patient Positioning
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 52: 128-131, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561972

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study we aimed to investigate whether changing rescuers wearing N95 masks every 1 min instead of the standard CPR change over time of 2 min would make a difference in effective chest compressions. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled mannequin study. Participants were selected from healthcare staff. They were divided into two groups of two people in each group. The scenario was implemented on CPR mannequin representing patient with asystolic arrest, that measured compression depth, compression rate, recoil, and correct hand position. Two different scenarios were prepared. In Scenario 1, the rescuers were asked to change chest compression after 1 min. In Scenario 2, standard CPR was applied. The participants' vital parameters, mean compression rate, correct compression rate/ratio, total number of compressions, compression depth, correct recoil/ratio, correct hand position/ratio, mean no-flow time, and total CPR time were recorded. RESULTS: The study hence included 14 teams each for scenarios, with a total of 56 participants. In each scenario, 14 participants were physicians and 14 participants were women. Although there was no difference in the first minute of the cycles starting from the fourth cycle, a statistically significant difference was observed in the second minute in all cycles except the fifth cycle. CONCLUSION: Changing the rescuer every 1 min instead of every 2 min while performing CPR with full PPE may prevent the decrease in compression quality that may occur as the resuscitation time gets longer.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/standards , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Fatigue/prevention & control , Heart Arrest/therapy , Medical Staff, Hospital , N95 Respirators , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Manikins , Turkey
6.
Am J Emerg Med ; 51: 22-25, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of personal protective equipment for respiratory infection control during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a physical burden to healthcare providers. The duration for which CPR quality according to recommended guidelines can be maintained under these circumstances is important. We investigated whether a 2-min shift was appropriate for chest compression and determined the duration for which chest compression was maintained in accordance with the recommended guidelines while wearing personal protective equipment. METHODS: This prospective crossover simulation study was performed at a single center from September 2020 to October 2020. Five indicators of CPR quality were measured during the first and second sessions of the study period. All participants wore a Level D powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR), and the experiment was conducted using a Resusci Anne manikin, which can measure the quality of chest compressions. Each participant conducted two sessions. In Session 1, the sequence of 2 min of chest compressions, followed by a 2-min rest, was repeated twice; in Session 2, the sequence of 1-min chest compressions followed by a 1-min rest was repeated four times. RESULTS: All 34 participants completed the study. The sufficiently deep compression rate was 65.9 ± 31.1% in the 1-min shift group and 61.5 ± 30.5% in the 2-min shift group. The mean compression depth was 52.8 ± 4.3 mm in the 1-min shift group and 51.0 ± 6.1 mm in the 2-min shift group. These two parameters were significantly different between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the other values related to CPR quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that 1 min of chest compressions with a 1-min rest maintained a better quality of CPR while wearing a PAPR.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/education , Health Personnel/education , Heart Massage/methods , Respiratory Protective Devices , Adult , Clinical Competence , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Male , Manikins , Prospective Studies , Quality Control , Republic of Korea , Rest
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(29): 39322-39332, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549509

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to understand the effect of indoor air stability on personal exposure to infectious contaminant in the breathing zone. Numerical simulations are carried out in a test chamber with a source of infectious contaminant and a manikin (Manikin A). To give a good visual illustration of the breathing zone, the contaminant source is visualized by the mouth of another manikin. Manikin A is regarded as a vulnerable individual to infectious contaminant. Exposure index and exposure intensity are used as indicators of the exposure level in the breathing zone. The results show that in the stable condition, the infectious contaminant proceeds straightly towards the breathing zone of the vulnerable individual, leading to a relatively high exposure level. In the unstable condition, the indoor air experiences a strong mixing due to the heat exchange between the hot bottom air and the cool top air, so the infectious contaminant disperses effectively from the breathing zone. The unstable air can greatly reduce personal exposure to the infectious contaminant in the breathing zone. This study demonstrates the importance of indoor air stability on personal exposure in the indoor environment and provides a new direction for future study of personal exposure reduction in the indoor environment.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Ventilation , Air Movements , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Manikins
8.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 288, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: VieScope is a new type of laryngoscope, with a straight, transparent and illuminated blade, allowing for direct line of sight towards the larynx. In addition, VieScope is disposed of after single patient use, which can avoid cross-contaminations of contagious material. This has gained importance especially when treating patients with highly contagious infectious diseases, such as during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. In this context, VieScope has not been evaluated yet in a clinical study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study compared intubation with VieScope to video-laryngoscopy (GlideScope) in normal and difficult airway in a standardized airway manikin in a randomized controlled simulation trial. Thirty-five medical specialists were asked to perform endotracheal intubation in full personal protective equipment (PPE). Primary endpoint was correct tube position. First-pass rate (i.e., success rate at the first attempt), time until intubation and time until first correct ventilation were registered as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: For correct tracheal tube placement, there was no significant difference between VieScope and GlideScope in normal and difficult airway conditions. VieScope had over 91% fist-pass success rate in normal airway setting. VieScope had a comparable success rate to GlideScope in difficult airway, but had a significantly longer time until intubation and time until ventilation. CONCLUSION: VieScope and GlideScope had high success rates in normal as well as in difficult airway. There was no unrecognized esophageal intubation in either group. Overall time for intubation was longer in the VieScope group, though in an acceptable range given in literature. Results from this simulation study suggest that VieScope may be an acceptable alternative for tracheal intubation in full PPE. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register www.drks.de (Registration date: 09/11/2020; TrialID: DRKS00023406 ).


Subject(s)
Airway Management/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Adult , Airway Management/instrumentation , Disposable Equipment , Equipment Design , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngoscopy/instrumentation , Male , Manikins , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Video Recording
9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 50: 575-581, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate leg-heel chest compression without previous training as an alternative for medical professionals and its effects on distance to potential aerosol spread during chest compression. METHODS: 20 medical professionals performed standard manual chest compression followed by leg-heel chest compression after a brief instruction on a manikin. We compared percentage of correct chest compression position, percentage of full chest recoil, percentage of correct compression depth, average compression depth, percentage of correct compression rate and average compression rate between both methods. In a second approach, potential aerosol spread during chest compression was visualized. RESULTS: Our data indicate no credible difference between manual and leg-heel compression. The distance to potential aerosol spread could have been increased by leg-heel method. CONCLUSION: Under special circumstances like COVID-19-pandemic, leg-heel chest compression may be an effective alternative without previous training compared to manual chest compression while markedly increasing the distance to the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Heart Massage/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Heel , Humans , Leg , Manikins
10.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(5): 1045-1050, 2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405508

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reinforced the importance of facial protection against droplet transmission of diseases. Healthcare workers wear personal protection equipment (PPE), including face shields and masks. Plastic face shields may have advantages over regular medical masks. Although many designs of face shields exist, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the efficacy of shield designs against droplet transmissions. There is even less published evidence comparing various face shields. Due to the urgency of the pandemic and the health and safety of healthcare workers, we aimed to study the efficacy of various face shields against droplet transmission. METHODS: We simulated droplet transmission via coughing using a heavy-duty chemical spray bottle filled with fluorescein. A standard-adult sized mannequin head was used. The mannequin head wore various face shields and was positioned to face the spray bottle at either a 0°, 45°, or 90° angle. The spray bottle was positioned at and sprayed from 30 centimeters (cm), 60 cm, or 90 cm away from the head. These steps were repeated for all face shields used. Control was a mannequin that wore no PPE. A basic mask was also tested. We collected data for particle count, total area of particle distribution, average particle size, and percentage area covered by particles. We analyzed percent covered by particles using a repeated measures mixed-model regression with Tukey-Kramer pairwise comparison. RESULTS: We used least square means to estimate the percentage area covered by particles. Wearing PPE regardless of the design reduced particle transmission to the mannequin compared to the control. The LCG mask had the lowest square means of 0.06 of all face-shield designs analyzed. Tukey-Kramer pairwise comparison showed that all PPEs had a decrease in particle contamination compared to the control. LCG shield was found to have the least contamination compared to all other masks (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Results suggest the importance of wearing a protective covering against droplet transmission. The LCG shield was found to decrease facial contamination by droplets the most of any tested protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Manikins , Masks/standards , Particle Size , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Emerg Med ; 61(6): 695-704, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aerosol box and intubation tent are improvised barrier-enclosure devices developed during the novel coronavirus pandemic to protect health care workers from aerosol transmission. OBJECTIVE: Using time to intubation as a crude proxy, we aimed to compare the efficiency and usability of the aerosol box and intubation tent in a simulated manikin. METHODS: This was a single-center, randomized, crossover manikin study involving 28 participants (9 anesthetists, 16 emergency physicians, and 3 intensivists). Each participant performed rapid sequence intubations in a random sequence of three different scenarios: 1) no device use; 2) aerosol box; 3) intubation tent. We compared the time to intubation between different scenarios. RESULTS: The median total intubation time with no device use, aerosol box, and intubation tent were 23.7 s (interquartile range [IQR] 19.4-28.4 s), 30.9 s (IQR 24.1-52.5 s), and 26.0 s (IQR 22.1-30.8 s), respectively. Post hoc analysis showed a significantly longer intubation time using the aerosol box compared with no device use (p < 0.001) and compared with the intubation tent (p < 0.001). The difference between the intubation tent and no device use was not significant. The first-pass intubation success rate did not differ between the groups. Only aerosol box use had resulted in breaches of personal protective equipment. Participants considered intubation with the intubation tent more favorable than the aerosol box. CONCLUSIONS: The intubation tent seems to have a better barrier-enclosure design than the aerosol box, with a reasonable balance between efficiency and usability. Further evaluation of its efficacy in preventing aerosol dispersal and in human studies are warranted prior to recommendation of widespread adoption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Aerosols , Cross-Over Studies , Equipment Design , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Manikins , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Comput Biol Med ; 138: 104858, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400212

ABSTRACT

This study presents a series of numerical simulations for airflow field and particle dispersion and deposition around a mannequin inside a ventilated room. A 3-D airway system of a volunteer subject with a large respiratory system was reconstructed from the nostril inlet to the end of the tracheobronchial tree 4th generation and was integrated into a standing mannequin at the center of a room. The room ventilation system supplied air through a diffuser and expelled air via a damper in three modes. The airflow field was first evaluated by solving the governing equations and the k-ω SST transitional turbulence model using the Ansys-Fluent software. Then spherical particles with various diameters were released into the room, and their trajectories were evaluated using the Lagrangian approach. Aspiration fraction and particle deposition for inhalation flow rates of 15 and 30 L/min were analyzed using a modified discrete random walk (DRW) stochastic model using a user-defined function (UDF) coupled to the Ansys-Fluent discrete phase model. For the first ventilation mode, a recirculation flow region formed behind the mannequin that led the airflow streamlines to the breathing zone. A recirculation flow formed in front of the face for the second ventilation mode that led the airflow streamlines out of the mannequin breathing zone. For the third mode, however, there was no strong recirculation flow zone around the mannequin. Simulation results showed that the aspiration fraction in the first ventilation mode was higher than the other modes. In addition, the regional deposition rates and deposition patterns of particles inside the respiratory system were presented for each region. Accordingly, most large particles were trapped in the nasal passage; however, some large particles penetrated deeper into the airway due to the large airway size. For the higher breathing rate, the percentage of large escaped particles from the lobe branches dropped by a factor of 7 compared to the lower breathing rate.


Subject(s)
Manikins , Respiration , Bronchi , Computer Simulation , Humans , Particle Size
13.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 107(2): 211-215, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Healthcare providers should use personal protective equipment (PPE) when performing aerosol-generating medical procedures during highly infectious respiratory pandemics. We aimed to compare the timing of neonatal resuscitation procedures in a manikin model with or without PPE for prevention of SARS-COVID-19 transmission. METHODS: A randomised controlled cross-over (AB/BA) trial of resuscitation with or without PPE in a neonatal resuscitation scenario. Forty-eight participants were divided in 12 consultant-nurse teams and 12 resident-nurse teams. The primary outcome measure was the time of positive pressure ventilation (PPV) initiation. The secondary outcome measures were duration of tracheal intubation procedure, time of initiation of chest compressions, correct use of PPE and discomfort/limitations using PPE. RESULTS: There were significant differences in timing of PPV initiation (consultant-nurse teams: mean difference (MD) 6.0 s, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.9 s; resident-nurse teams: MD 11.0 s, 95% CI 1.9 to 20.0 s), duration of tracheal intubation (consultant-nurse teams: MD 22.0 s, 95% CI 7.0 to 36.9 s; resident-nurse teams: MD 9.1 s, 95% CI 0.1 to 18.1 s) and chest compressions (consultant-nurse teams: MD 32.3 s, 95% CI 14.4 to 50.1 s; resident-nurse teams: MD 9.1 s, 95% CI 0.1 to 18.1 s). Twelve participants completed the dressing after entering the delivery room. PPE was associated with visual limitations (43/48 participants), discomfort in movements (42/48), limitations in communication (32/48) and thermal discomfort (29/48). CONCLUSIONS: In a manikin model, using PPE delayed neonatal resuscitation procedures with potential clinical impact. Healthcare workers reported limitations and discomfort when wearing PPE. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04666233.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Resuscitation/methods , Consultants , Cross-Over Studies , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Internship and Residency , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Manikins , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Pandemics , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 149970, 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372587

ABSTRACT

Particle concentration in a sitting person's breathing zone can be influenced by human movement around the person, and the transient and continuous effects may differ. In this study, a set of full-scale experiments was conducted to sample the nanoparticle concentration in the breathing zone of a sitting thermal breathing manikin (STBM). The transient fluctuation of the nanoparticle concentration was recorded continuously and analyzed. The results showed that when a manikin moved (at 1 m/s) past the STBM, the nanoparticle concentration in the STBM's breathing zone decreased and reached its lowest after the standing manikin had passed, decreasing 37.6 (±5.7) % compared with the peak value. The average concentration in the STBM's breathing zone during influence periods was 5.18 (±0.99) % less than that during non-influence Periods (NP). This finding reflected the fact that the transient inhalation (over several seconds) of the STBM may be reduced by manikin movement. On the other hand, the exposure of the STBM increased 2.88 (±1.24) % when there was a continuously moving manikin compared with the stable state in a 10-min observation. This finding may be explained by the fuller mix of indoor air and nanoparticles caused by manikin movement, as well as the increase of nanoparticle suspension time. The difference in the transient and continuous effects of the manikin movement on the STBM's exposure shows the importance of considering these effects separately in different scenarios.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Nanoparticles , Humans , Manikins , Movement , Respiration , Sitting Position
17.
Nurse Educ ; 46(4): 201, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334312
18.
Am J Emerg Med ; 50: 80-84, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326900

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the effect of synchronous online and face-to-face cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training on chest compressions quality in a manikin model. METHODS: A total of 118 fourth-year medical students participated in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: the online synchronous teaching group and the face-to-face group. Then, the participants were further randomly distributed to 1 of 2 feedback groups: online synchronous teaching and training with feedback devices (TF, n = 30) or without feedback devices (TN, n = 29) and face-to-face teaching and training with feedback devices (FF, n = 30) or without feedback devices (FN, n = 29). In the FN group and FF group, instructors delivered a 45-min CPR training program and gave feedback and guidance during training on site. In the TN group and TF group, the participants were trained with an online lecture via Tencent Meeting live broadcasting. Finally, participants performed a 2-min continuous chest compression (CC) during a simulated cardiopulmonary arrest scene without the audiovisual feedback (AVF) device. The outcome measures included CC depth, CC rate, proportions of appropriate depth (50-60 mm) and CC rate (100-120/min), percentage of correct hand location position, and percentage of complete chest recoil. RESULTS: There was little difference in the CC quality between the synchronous online training groups and the face-to-face training groups. There was no statistically significant difference in CC quality between the TN group and FN group. There were also no statistically significant differences between the TF and FF groups in terms of correct hand position, CC depth, appropriate CC depth, complete chest recoil or CC rate. However, the FF group had a higher appropriate CC rate than the TF group (p = 0.045). In the face-to-face training groups, the AVF device group had a significantly greater CC depth, appropriate CC depth, CC rate, and appropriate CC rate. However, there was a lack of statistically significant differences in terms of correct hand position (p = 0.191) and appropriate CC depth (p = 0.123). In the synchronous online training groups, the AVF device had little effect on the CC rate (p = 0.851) and increased the appropriate CC rate, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.178). CONCLUSIONS: Synchronous online training with an AVF device would be a potential alternative approach to face-to-face chest compression training. Synchronous online training with AVF devices seems to be a suitable replacement for face-to-face training to offer adequate bystander CPR chest compression training.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/education , Education, Distance , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Heart Arrest/therapy , Manikins , Simulation Training , China , Clinical Competence , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Young Adult
19.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(4): 270-272, 2021 08.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325945

ABSTRACT

In patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, endotracheal intubation is a procedure with a high risk for transmission. A videolaryngoscopy is a supplementary level of health care provider protection, but commercial videolaryngoscopes are expensive and not always available in pediatric intensive care units in Argentina. Our objective was to describe intubation practice using an infant head mannequin with a low-cost, handcrafted videolaryngoscope. Fifteen pediatricians with no prior experience using the device participated in an intubation practice in a head mannequin with a handcrafted videolaryngoscope. The average time for the first attempt was 116.4 seconds (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 84.8- 148.0) and, for the second one, 44.2 seconds (95 % CI: 27.7-60.6). Time decreased significantly for the second attempt (p: 0.0001). A successful intubation was achieved with the device in all attempts, and the procedure duration decreased with the second practice.


En pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 la intubación endotraqueal es un procedimiento con riesgo elevado de contagio. La videolaringoscopia complementa la protección del profesional, pero los videolaringoscopios comerciales son caros y no siempre están disponibles en las terapias intensivas pediátricas argentinas. El objetivo fue describir la práctica de intubación en un modelo de cabeza de simulación de lactante con un videolaringoscopio artesanal de bajo costo. Quince pediatras sin experiencia previa con el dispositivo participaron de una práctica de intubación en una cabeza de simulación con un videolaringoscopio artesanal. El tiempo promedio del primer intento fue de 116,4 segundos (intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC95 %]: 84,8-148,0) y, el del siguiente fue de 44,2 segundos (IC95 %: 27,7­60,6). El tiempo disminuyó de forma significativa en el segundo intento (p : 0,0001). El dispositivo permitió la intubación exitosa en todos los intentos acortando la duración del procedimiento en la segunda práctica.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngoscopes/economics , Laryngoscopy/education , Pediatrics/education , Simulation Training/methods , Argentina , COVID-19/transmission , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Health Care Costs , Humans , Infant , Internship and Residency/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/economics , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/economics , Laryngoscopy/instrumentation , Laryngoscopy/methods , Learning Curve , Manikins , Pediatrics/economics , Time Factors , Video Recording
20.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(9): 797-803, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320055

ABSTRACT

Importance: During respiratory disease outbreaks such as the COVID-19 pandemic, aerosol-generating procedures, including tracheostomy, are associated with the risk of viral transmission to health care workers. Objective: To quantify particle aerosolization during tracheostomy surgery and tracheostomy care and to evaluate interventions that minimize the risk of viral particle exposure. Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness study was conducted from August 2020 to January 2021 at a tertiary care academic institution. Aerosol generation was measured in real time with an optical particle counter during simulated (manikin) tracheostomy surgical and clinical conditions, including cough, airway nebulization, open suctioning, and electrocautery. Aerosol sampling was also performed during in vivo swine tracheostomy procedures (n = 4), with or without electrocautery. Fluorescent dye was used to visualize cough spread onto the surgical field during swine tracheostomy. Finally, 6 tracheostomy coverings were compared with no tracheostomy covering to quantify reduction in particle aerosolization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Respirable aerosolized particle concentration. Results: Cough, airway humidification, open suctioning, and electrocautery produced aerosol particles substantially above baseline. Compared with uncovered tracheostomy, decreased aerosolization was found with the use of tracheostomy coverings, including a cotton mask (73.8% [(95% CI, 63.0%-84.5%]; d = 3.8), polyester gaiter 79.5% [95% CI, 68.7%-90.3%]; d = 7.2), humidification mask (82.8% [95% CI, 72.0%-93.7%]; d = 8.6), heat moisture exchanger (HME) (91.0% [95% CI, 80.2%-101.7%]; d = 19.0), and surgical mask (89.9% [95% CI, 79.3%-100.6%]; d = 12.8). Simultaneous use of a surgical mask and HME decreased the particle concentration compared with either the HME (95% CI, 1.6%-12.3%; Cohen d = 1.2) or surgical mask (95% CI, 2.7%-13.2%; d = 1.9) used independently. Procedures performed with electrocautery increased total aerosolized particles by 1500 particles/m3 per 5-second interval (95% CI, 1380-1610 particles/m3 per 5-second interval; d = 1.8). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this laboratory and animal comparative effectiveness study indicate that tracheostomy surgery and tracheostomy care are associated with significant aerosol generation, putting health care workers at risk for viral transmission of airborne diseases. Combined HME and surgical mask coverage of the tracheostomy was associated with decreased aerosolization, thereby reducing the risk of viral transmission to health care workers.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Medical Staff, Hospital , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Virion , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Electrocoagulation/adverse effects , Hot Temperature , Humans , Humidity , Manikins , Masks , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Tracheostomy/instrumentation
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