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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(2): 710-714, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the utility of Galactomannan (GM) antigen as a screening marker for diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The serum samples from patients with severe COVID-19 diseases admitted to the Critical Care Unit were collected on the 5th day of admission for GM screening. The samples were analysed by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) and GM index of more than 1 was considered as positive. All GM positive patients were serially followed until discharge or death. RESULTS: The GM was raised in serum of 12 out of 38 patients, indicating an incidence of possible COVID-19 associated IPA (CAPA) in 31.57% of patients. The median age of these CAPA patients was 56.5 years, males were significantly more affected than females. The inflammatory marker serum ferritin was raised in all 12 patients (median value of 713.74 ng/ml), while IL-6 was raised in 9 patients (median value of 54.13 ng/ml). None of these patients received antifungals. Their median length of hospital stay was 20 days (IQR: 12, 34 days). All these patients succumbed to the illness. CONCLUSIONS: The serum GM appears to be sensitive diagnostic tool to identify early IPA in COVID-19 patients and pre-emptive antifungal therapy could play a role in salvaging these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Galactose/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0113821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476402

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic means, host factors, delay of occurrence, and outcome of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and fungal coinfections in the intensive care unit (ICU). From 1 February to 31 May 2020, we anonymously recorded COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), fungemia (CA-fungemia), and pneumocystosis (CA-PCP) from 36 centers, including results on fungal biomarkers in respiratory specimens and serum. We collected data from 154 episodes of CAPA, 81 of CA-fungemia, 17 of CA-PCP, and 5 of other mold infections from 244 patients (male/female [M/F] ratio = 3.5; mean age, 64.7 ± 10.8 years). CA-PCP occurred first after ICU admission (median, 1 day; interquartile range [IQR], 0 to 3 days), followed by CAPA (9 days; IQR, 5 to 13 days), and then CA-fungemia (16 days; IQR, 12 to 23 days) (P < 10-4). For CAPA, the presence of several mycological criteria was associated with death (P < 10-4). Serum galactomannan was rarely positive (<20%). The mortality rates were 76.7% (23/30) in patients with host factors for invasive fungal disease, 45.2% (14/31) in those with a preexisting pulmonary condition, and 36.6% (34/93) in the remaining patients (P = 0.001). Antimold treatment did not alter prognosis (P = 0.370). Candida albicans was responsible for 59.3% of CA-fungemias, with a global mortality of 45.7%. For CA-PCP, 58.8% of the episodes occurred in patients with known host factors of PCP, and the mortality rate was 29.5%. CAPA may be in part hospital acquired and could benefit from antifungal prescription at the first positive biomarker result. CA-fungemia appeared linked to ICU stay without COVID-19 specificity, while CA-PCP may not really be a concern in the ICU. Improved diagnostic strategy for fungal markers in ICU patients with COVID-19 should support these hypotheses. IMPORTANCE To diagnose fungal coinfections in patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit, it is necessary to implement the correct treatment and to prevent them if possible. For COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), respiratory specimens remain the best approach since serum biomarkers are rarely positive. Timing of occurrence suggests that CAPA could be hospital acquired. The associated mortality varies from 36.6% to 76.7% when no host factors or host factors of invasive fungal diseases are present, respectively. Fungemias occurred after 2 weeks in ICUs and are associated with a mortality rate of 45.7%. Candida albicans is the first yeast species recovered, with no specificity linked to COVID-19. Pneumocystosis was mainly found in patients with known immunodepression. The diagnosis occurred at the entry in ICUs and not afterwards, suggesting that if Pneumocystis jirovecii plays a role, it is upstream of the hospitalization in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Fungemia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Critical Care , Female , France/epidemiology , Fungemia/drug therapy , Fungemia/mortality , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Galactose/blood , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mannans/blood , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/mortality , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
Mycoses ; 64(10): 1197-1202, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Detection of galactomannan (GM) from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or serum is broadly used for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), although the sensitivity of GM from serum is lower in non-neutropenic patients. We evaluated the Aspergillus galactomannan Lateral Flow assay (LFA) with digital readout from serum in a mixed cohort of patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective two-centre study evaluating the LFA from serum of patients with clinical suspicion of IA obtained between 2015 and 2021 at the University of California San Diego and the Medical University of Graz. The sensitivity and specificity was calculated for proven/probable aspergillosis versus no aspergillosis. Correlation with same-sample GM was calculated using Spearman correlation analysis and kappa statistics. RESULTS: In total, 122 serum samples from 122 patients were analysed, including proven IA (n = 1), probable IA or coronavirus-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) (n = 27), and no IA/CAPA/non-classifiable (n = 94). At a 0.5 ODI cut-off, the sensitivity and specificity of the LFA was 78.6% and 80.5%. Spearman correlation analysis showed a strong correlation between serum LFA ODI and serum GM ODI (ρ 0.459, p < .0001). Kappa was 0.611 when both LFA and GM were used with a 0.5 ODI cut-off, showing substantial agreement (p < .001). DISCUSSION: The LFA with digital read out from serum showed good performance for the diagnosis of probable/proven aspergillosis, with substantial agreement to GM from serum. Like the LFA from BALF, the LFA from serum may serve as a more rapid test compared to conventional GM, particularly in settings where GM is not readily available.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Fungal/blood , Immunoassay/methods , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Automation, Laboratory , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Female , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
4.
Mycoses ; 64(9): 1002-1014, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148083

ABSTRACT

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an increasingly recognised phenomenon in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit, including in patients with severe influenza and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. To date, there are no consensus criteria on how to define IA in the ICU population, although several criteria are used, including the AspICU criteria and new consensus criteria to categorise COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). In this review, we describe the epidemiology of IA in critically ill patients, most common definitions used to define IA in this population, and most common clinical specimens obtained for establishing a mycological diagnosis of IA in the critically ill. We also review the most common diagnostic tests used to diagnose IA in this population, and lastly discuss the most common clinical presentation and imaging findings of IA in the critically ill and discuss areas of further needed investigation.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Intensive Care Units/standards , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/classification , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/microbiology , Critical Illness/classification , Female , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/physiopathology , Male , Mannans/blood , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Mycol Med ; 31(2): 101124, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096172

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus infection is a well-known complication of severe influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and these infections have been related with significant morbidity and mortality even when appropriately diagnosed and treated. Recent studies have indicated that SARS-CoV-2 might increase the risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Here, we report the first case of Aspergillus ochraceus in a SARS-CoV-2 positive immunocompetent patient, which is complicated by pulmonary and brain infections. Proven IPA is supported by the positive Galactomannan test, culture-positive, and histopathological evidence. The patient did not respond to voriconazole, and liposomal amphotericin B was added to his anti-fungal regimen. Further studies are needed to evaluate the prevalence of IPA in immunocompetent patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Consequently, testing for the incidence of Aspergillus species in lower respiratory secretions and Galactomannan test of COVID-19 patients with appropriate therapy and targeted anti-fungal therapy based on the primary clinical suspicion of IPA are highly recommended.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis/complications , Aspergillus ochraceus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , Invasive Fungal Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/diagnostic imaging , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Biomarkers , Brain Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Brain Abscess/etiology , Brain Abscess/microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Fatal Outcome , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Immunocompetence , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnostic imaging , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Male , Mannans/blood , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
6.
J Mycol Med ; 31(2): 101122, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085499

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19 is a new infectious disease responsible for potentially severe respiratory impairment associated with initial immunosuppression. Similarly to influenza, several authors have described a higher risk of fungal infection after COVID-19, in particular for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The main objective here is to define the prevalence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in a cohort of COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a large monocentric retrospective study investigating all the ventilated COVID-19 patients with ARDS hospitalized at Valenciennes' general hospital, France, between March 15, 2020 and April 30, 2020. In the center a systematic IPA screening strategy was carried out for all ARDS patients, with weekly tests of serum galactomannan and beta-D-glucan. Bronchoalveolar lavage with culture and chest CT scan were performed when the serum assays were positives. RESULTS: A total of 54 patients were studied. Their median age was 65 years, and 37 of the patients (71%) were male. Two patients had chronic immunosuppression and among all the patients, only 2 non-immunocompromised presented a putative IPA during their stay. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of IPA in this cohort of COVID-19 patients (3.7%) is not higher than what is described in the other ARDS populations in the literature. These results are however different from the previous publications on COVID-19 patients and must therefore be confirmed by larger and multicentric studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Comorbidity , Female , France/epidemiology , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Hospitals, General/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Male , Mannans/blood , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , beta-Glucans/blood
7.
Mycopathologia ; 185(6): 1077-1084, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064562

ABSTRACT

Although patients with severe immunodeficiency and hematological malignancies has been considered at highest risk for invasive fungal infection, patients with severe pneumonia due to influenza, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) are also at a higher risk of developing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Recently, reports of IPA have also emerged among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Here, we report a fatal case of probable IPA in an acute myeloid leukemia patient co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Probable IPA is supported by multiple pulmonary nodules with ground glass opacities which indicate halo sign and positive serum galactomannan results. Screening studies are needed to evaluate the prevalence of IPA in immunocompromised patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Consequently, testing for the presence of Aspergillus in lower respiratory secretions and galactomannan in consecutive serum samples of COVID-19 patients with timely and targeted antifungal therapy based on early clinical suspicion of IPA are highly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Fatal Outcome , Female , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Iran , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/blood , Mannans/blood
8.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 38(1): 16-18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe viral pneumonia are likely to receive high-dose immunomodulatory drugs to prevent clinical worsening. Aspergillus species have been described as frequent secondary pneumonia agents in severely ill influenza patients receiving steroids. COVID-19 patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) are receiving steroids as part of their treatment and they share clinical characteristics with other patients with severe viral pneumonias. COVID-19 patients receiving steroids should be considered a putative risk group of invasive aspergillosis. CASE REPORT: We are reporting a SARS-CoV-2/Aspergillus section Fumigati coinfection in an elderly intubated patient with a history of pulmonary embolism treated with corticosteroids. The diagnosis was made following the ad hoc definitions described for patients admitted to ICU with severe influenza, including clinical criteria (fever for 3 days refractory to the appropriate antibiotic therapy, dyspnea, pleural friction rub, worsening of respiratory status despite antibiotic therapy and need of ventilator support), a radiological criterion (pulmonary infiltrate) and a mycological criterion (several positive galactomannan tests on serum with ratio ≥0.5). In addition, Aspergillus section Fumigati DNA was found in serum and blood samples. These tests were positive 4 weeks after the patient was admitted to the ICU. The patient received voriconazole and after two month in ICU his respiratory status improved; he was discharged after 6 weeks of antifungal treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Severely ill COVID-19 patients would be considered a new aspergillosis risk group. Galactomannan and Aspergillus DNA detection would be useful methods for Aspergillus infection diagnosis as they allow avoiding the biosafety issues related to these patients.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection/diagnosis , Immunocompetence , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/therapy , Coinfection/virology , Combined Modality Therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Therapy, Combination , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/therapy , Male , Mannans/blood , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiration, Artificial , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Trachea/microbiology
9.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(1)2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889848

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) was recently reported as a potential infective complication affecting critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, with incidence rates varying from 8 to 33% depending on the study. However, definitive diagnosis of CAPA is challenging. Standardized diagnostic algorithms and definitions are lacking, clinicians are reticent to perform aerosol-generating bronchoalveolar lavages for galactomannan testing and microscopic and cultural examination, and questions surround the diagnostic sensitivity of different serum biomarkers. Between 11 March and 14 July 2020, the UK National Mycology Reference Laboratory received 1,267 serum and respiratory samples from 719 critically ill UK patients with COVID-19 and suspected pulmonary aspergillosis. The laboratory also received 46 isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus from COVID-19 patients (including three that exhibited environmental triazole resistance). Diagnostic tests performed included 1,000 (1-3)-ß-d-glucan and 516 galactomannan tests on serum samples. The results of this extensive testing are presented here. For a subset of 61 patients, respiratory specimens (bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, tracheal aspirates, and sputum samples) in addition to serum samples were submitted and subjected to galactomannan testing, Aspergillus-specific PCR, and microscopy and culture. The incidence of probable/proven and possible CAPA in this subset of patients was approximately 5% and 15%, respectively. Overall, our results highlight the challenges in biomarker-driven diagnosis of CAPA, especially when only limited clinical samples are available for testing, and the importance of a multimodal diagnostic approach involving regular and repeat testing of both serum and respiratory samples.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Fungal/blood , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspergillus fumigatus/drug effects , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/etiology , Critical Illness , Female , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Male , Mannans/blood , Middle Aged , Proteoglycans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom , beta-Glucans/blood
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