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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(21): e29405, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2, the pathogenic process of SARS-Cov-2 is related to the angiotensin-2 converting enzyme (ACE-2) on host cells. The genetic polymorphisms among different populations may influence the progression of COVID-19. However, the effects of IFNL4, ACE1, PKR, IFNG, and MBL2 in severe COVID-19 have not been systematically assessed. METHODS: We will include all relevant English and Chinese studies by searching the following electronic databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar before March 31, 2022. Two researchers will independently screen and extract the literature. The methodological quality of the included studies will be evaluated by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. RESULT: This systematic review and meta-analysis will summarize the association of IFNL4, ACE1, PKR, IFNG, MBL2 genetic polymorphisms, and severe COVID-19. The results will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal once completed. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of our study will provide evidence for the early prevention of severe COVID-19. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022301735.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mannose-Binding Lectin , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Interleukins , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
3.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 275-286, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661973

ABSTRACT

The humoral arm of innate immunity includes diverse molecules with antibody-like functions, some of which serve as disease severity biomarkers in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present study was designed to conduct a systematic investigation of the interaction of human humoral fluid-phase pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Of 12 PRMs tested, the long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) bound the viral nucleocapsid and spike proteins, respectively. MBL bound trimeric spike protein, including that of variants of concern (VoC), in a glycan-dependent manner and inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in three in vitro models. Moreover, after binding to spike protein, MBL activated the lectin pathway of complement activation. Based on retention of glycosylation sites and modeling, MBL was predicted to recognize the Omicron VoC. Genetic polymorphisms at the MBL2 locus were associated with disease severity. These results suggest that selected humoral fluid-phase PRMs can play an important role in resistance to, and pathogenesis of, COVID-19, a finding with translational implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chlorocebus aethiops , Complement Activation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Female , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Binding , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/genetics , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Amyloid P-Component/immunology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
4.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2234, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574124

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic is the most serious event of the year 2020, causing considerable global morbidity and mortality. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of reported associations between inter-individual immunogenic variants and disease susceptibility or symptoms caused by the coronavirus strains severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2, and two of the main respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus. The results suggest that the genetic background of the host could affect the levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and might modulate the progression of Covid-19 in affected patients. Notably, genetic variations in innate immune components such as toll-like receptors and mannose-binding lectin 2 play critical roles in the ability of the immune system to recognize coronavirus and initiate an early immune response to clear the virus and prevent the development of severe symptoms. This review provides promising clues related to the potential benefits of using immunotherapy and immune modulation for respiratory infectious disease treatment in a personalized manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Influenza, Human/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Variation, Individual , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology
5.
Immunobiology ; 226(6): 152136, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433398

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents one of the greatest challenges in modern medicine. The disease is characterized by a variable clinical phenotype, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to severe and/or critical disease, which bears poor prognosis and outcome because of the development of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS) requiring ICU hospitalization, multi-organ failure and death. Therefore, the determination of risk factors predisposing to disease phenotype is of outmost importance. The aim of our study was to evaluate which predisposing factors, including MBL2 genotyping, affected clinical phenotype in 264 COVID-19 patients. We demonstrated that older age along with underlying comorbidities, primarily obesity, chronic inflammatory disorders and diabetes mellitus, represent the most important risk factors related to hospitalization, the development of pneumonia and SARS. Moreover, we found that the presence of the MBL deficiency-causing B allele (rs1800450) was significantly associated with almost 2-fold increased risk for developing pneumonia and requiring hospitalization, suggesting its usage as a molecular predictor of severe disease in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Adult , Aged , Alleles , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
Infect Genet Evol ; 93: 104846, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209164

ABSTRACT

The Severe acute respiratory syndrome may be caused by coronavirus disease which has resulted in a global pandemic. Polymorphisms in the population play a role in susceptibility to severity. We aimed to perform a systematic review related to the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the development of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Twenty-eight eligible articles published were identified in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PMC Central and Portal BVS and additional records, with 20 studies performed in China. Information on study characteristics, genetic polymorphisms, and comorbidities was extracted. Study quality was assessed by the STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association (STREGA) guideline. Few studies investigated the presence of polymorphisms in HLA, ACE1, OAS-1, MxA, PKR, MBL, E-CR1, FcγRIIA, MBL2, L-SIGN (CLEC4M), IFNG, CD14, ICAM3, RANTES, IL-12 RB1, TNFA, CXCL10/IP-10, CD209 (DC-SIGN), AHSG, CYP4F3 and CCL2 with the susceptibility or protection to SARS-Cov. This review provides comprehensive evidence of the association between genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility or protection to severity SARS-CoV. The literature about coronavirus infection, susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and genetic variations is scarce. Further studies are necessary to provide more concrete evidence, mainly related to Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Chemokines/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Markers , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , HLA Antigens/genetics , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics
7.
Eur J Med Genet ; 64(6): 104227, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188514

ABSTRACT

The identification of high-risk factors for the infection by SARS-CoV-2 and the negative outcome of COVID-19 is crucial. The genetic background of the host might account for individual responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection besides age and comorbidities. A list of candidate polymorphisms is needed to drive targeted screens, given the existence of frequent polymorphisms in the general population. We carried out text mining in the scientific literature to draw up a list of genes referable to the term "SARS-CoV*". We looked for frequent mutations that are likely to affect protein function in these genes. Ten genes, mostly involved in innate immunity, and thirteen common variants were identified, for some of these the involvement in COVID-19 is supported by publicly available epidemiological data. We looked for available data on the population distribution of these variants and we demonstrated that the prevalence of five of them, Arg52Cys (rs5030737), Gly54Asp (rs1800450) and Gly57Glu (rs1800451) in MBL2, Ala59Thr (rs25680) in CD27, and Val197Met (rs12329760) in TMPRSS2, correlates with the number of cases and/or deaths of COVID-19 observed in different countries. The association of the TMPRSS2 variant provides epidemiological evidence of the usefulness of transmembrane protease serine 2 inhibitors for the cure of COVID-19. The identified genetic variants represent a basis for the design of a cost-effective assay for population screening of genetic risk factors in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Data Mining , Gene Frequency , Genetic Variation , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 7/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 7/immunology
8.
Infect Genet Evol ; 89: 104717, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 followed a mortal course in some young patients without any underlying factors, however, it followed a very benign course in some very older individuals with multiple comorbidities. These observations question if some genetic factors may be related to the vulnerability and poor prognosis of the disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether MBL2 gene B variant at codon 54 (rs1800450) were related to the variabilities in clinical course of this infection. METHODS: 284 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients and 100 healthy controls were included in the study. COVID-19 patients were subdivided according to the clinical features and clinical characteristics were analyzed. DNAs of all patients and controls were examined for the codon 54 A/B (gly54asp: rs1800450) variation in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, BB genotype of MBL2 gene was more common among COVID-19 cases compared with controls (10.9% vs 1.0%, respectively; OR = 12.1, 95%CI = 1.6-90.1, p = 0.001). Multivariate analyses, adjusted for age, sex and MBL genetic variants, revealed that when compared with the COVID-19 patients that had AA genotype (reference), the patients that had BB or AB genotypes suffered from a higher risk for severe disease (for BB genotype, odds ratio (OR) = 5.3, p < 0.001; for AB genotype, OR = 2.9, p = 0.001) and for ICU need (for BB genotype, OR = 19.6, p < 0.001; for AB genotype, OR = 6.9, p = 0.001). On the other hand, there was not any significant difference between the genotype variants in terms of mortality at 28 days or development of secondary bacterial infection. CONCLUSION: The B variants of MBL2 gene at codon 54, which were associated with lower MBL2 levels, were related to a higher risk for a more severe clinical course of COVID-19 infection in some respects. Our findings may have potential future implications, e.g. for use of MBL protein as potential therapeutics or prioritize the individuals with B variants during vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/metabolism , Middle Aged , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 585243, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976265

ABSTRACT

Lung diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Complement activation may prevent a variety of respiratory infections, but on the other hand, could exacerbate tissue damage or contribute to adverse side effects. In this review, the associations of factors specific for complement activation via the lectin pathway (LP) with infections of the respiratory system, from birth to adulthood, are discussed. The most extensive data concern mannose-binding lectin (MBL) which together with other collectins (collectin-10, collectin-11) and the ficolins (ficolin-1, ficolin-2, ficolin-3) belong to pattern-recognition molecules (PRM) specific for the LP. Those PRM form complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP-1, MASP-2, MASP-3) and related non-enzymatic factors (MAp19, MAp44). Beside diseases affecting humanity for centuries like tuberculosis or neonatal pneumonia, some recently published data concerning COVID-19 are summarized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Respiratory System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Complement Activation , Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Humans , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104498, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696004

ABSTRACT

New coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is capable to infect humans and cause a novel disease COVID-19. Aiming to understand a host genetic component of COVID-19, we focused on variants in genes encoding proteases and genes involved in innate immunity that could be important for susceptibility and resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Analysis of sequence data of coding regions of FURIN, PLG, PRSS1, TMPRSS11a, MBL2 and OAS1 genes in 143 unrelated individuals from Serbian population identified 22 variants with potential functional effect. In silico analyses (PolyPhen-2, SIFT, MutPred2 and Swiss-Pdb Viewer) predicted that 10 variants could impact the structure and/or function of proteins. These protein-altering variants (p.Gly146Ser in FURIN; p.Arg261His and p.Ala494Val in PLG; p.Asn54Lys in PRSS1; p.Arg52Cys, p.Gly54Asp and p.Gly57Glu in MBL2; p.Arg47Gln, p.Ile99Val and p.Arg130His in OAS1) may have predictive value for inter-individual differences in the response to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Next, we performed comparative population analysis for the same variants using extracted data from the 1000 Genomes project. Population genetic variability was assessed using delta MAF and Fst statistics. Our study pointed to 7 variants in PLG, TMPRSS11a, MBL2 and OAS1 genes with noticeable divergence in allelic frequencies between populations worldwide. Three of them, all in MBL2 gene, were predicted to be damaging, making them the most promising population-specific markers related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Comparing allelic frequencies between Serbian and other populations, we found that the highest level of genetic divergence related to selected loci was observed with African, followed by East Asian, Central and South American and South Asian populations. When compared with European populations, the highest divergence was observed with Italian population. In conclusion, we identified 4 variants in genes encoding proteases (FURIN, PLG and PRSS1) and 6 in genes involved in the innate immunity (MBL2 and OAS1) that might be relevant for the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Metagenomics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Alleles , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Eye Proteins/genetics , Eye Proteins/immunology , Furin/genetics , Furin/immunology , Gene Frequency , Genetic Variation , Genome, Human , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Plasminogen/genetics , Plasminogen/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Trypsin/genetics , Trypsin/immunology
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