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Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 275-286, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661973


The humoral arm of innate immunity includes diverse molecules with antibody-like functions, some of which serve as disease severity biomarkers in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present study was designed to conduct a systematic investigation of the interaction of human humoral fluid-phase pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Of 12 PRMs tested, the long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) bound the viral nucleocapsid and spike proteins, respectively. MBL bound trimeric spike protein, including that of variants of concern (VoC), in a glycan-dependent manner and inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in three in vitro models. Moreover, after binding to spike protein, MBL activated the lectin pathway of complement activation. Based on retention of glycosylation sites and modeling, MBL was predicted to recognize the Omicron VoC. Genetic polymorphisms at the MBL2 locus were associated with disease severity. These results suggest that selected humoral fluid-phase PRMs can play an important role in resistance to, and pathogenesis of, COVID-19, a finding with translational implications.

COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chlorocebus aethiops , Complement Activation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Female , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Binding , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/genetics , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Amyloid P-Component/immunology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(8): 2917-2942, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141473


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a virus called "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)." In the majority of patients, infection with COVID-19 may be asymptomatic or may cause only mild symptoms. However, in some patients, there can also be immunological problems, such as macrophage activation syndrome (CSS) that results in cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Comprehension of host-microbe communications is the critical aspect in the advancement of new therapeutics against infectious illnesses. Endogenous animal lectins, a class of proteins, may perceive non-self glycans found on microorganisms. Serum mannose-binding lectin (sMBL), as a part of the innate immune framework, recognizes a wide range of microbial microorganisms and activates complement cascade via an antibody-independent pathway. Although the molecular basis for the intensity of SARS-CoV-2 infection is not generally understood, scientific literature indicates that COVID-19 is correlated with unregulated activation of the complement in terms of disease severity. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), inflammation, and immune paralysis contribute to unregulated complement activation. Pre-existing genetic defects in MBL and their association with complement play a major role in immune response dysregulation caused by SARS-CoV-2. In order to generate anti-complement-based therapies in Covid-19, an understanding of sMBL in immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and complement is therefore essential. This review highlights the role of endogenous sMBL and complement activation during SARS-CoV-2 infection and their therapeutic management by various agents, mainly plant lectins, since antiviral mannose-binding plant lectins (pMBLs) offer potential applications in the prevention and control of viral infections.

Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Mannose-Binding Lectin/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Mannose-Binding Lectin/blood , Mannose-Binding Lectin/chemistry , Mannose-Binding Lectin/deficiency , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
Infect Genet Evol ; 89: 104717, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051857


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 followed a mortal course in some young patients without any underlying factors, however, it followed a very benign course in some very older individuals with multiple comorbidities. These observations question if some genetic factors may be related to the vulnerability and poor prognosis of the disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether MBL2 gene B variant at codon 54 (rs1800450) were related to the variabilities in clinical course of this infection. METHODS: 284 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients and 100 healthy controls were included in the study. COVID-19 patients were subdivided according to the clinical features and clinical characteristics were analyzed. DNAs of all patients and controls were examined for the codon 54 A/B (gly54asp: rs1800450) variation in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, BB genotype of MBL2 gene was more common among COVID-19 cases compared with controls (10.9% vs 1.0%, respectively; OR = 12.1, 95%CI = 1.6-90.1, p = 0.001). Multivariate analyses, adjusted for age, sex and MBL genetic variants, revealed that when compared with the COVID-19 patients that had AA genotype (reference), the patients that had BB or AB genotypes suffered from a higher risk for severe disease (for BB genotype, odds ratio (OR) = 5.3, p < 0.001; for AB genotype, OR = 2.9, p = 0.001) and for ICU need (for BB genotype, OR = 19.6, p < 0.001; for AB genotype, OR = 6.9, p = 0.001). On the other hand, there was not any significant difference between the genotype variants in terms of mortality at 28 days or development of secondary bacterial infection. CONCLUSION: The B variants of MBL2 gene at codon 54, which were associated with lower MBL2 levels, were related to a higher risk for a more severe clinical course of COVID-19 infection in some respects. Our findings may have potential future implications, e.g. for use of MBL protein as potential therapeutics or prioritize the individuals with B variants during vaccination strategies.

COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/metabolism , Middle Aged , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult