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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 826, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression affects a significant proportion of women of childbearing age. The birth of a newborn baby is normally considered a joyful event, inhibiting mothers from expressing their depressive feelings. If the condition is not well understood and managed, mothers with postpartum depression are likely to experience suicidal ideation or even commit suicide. This study explored lived experiences of women who had recovered from a clinical diagnosis of postpartum depression in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: This phenomenological study adopted the explorative approach through in-depth interviews as guided by the biopsychosocial model of depression. It was conducted in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Bwizibwera Health Centre IV and Kinoni Health Centre IV located in Mbarara and Rwampara districts, southwestern Uganda. Data were collected from 30 postpartum mothers who were purposively selected, between 9th December 2019 and 25th September 2020. We analyzed this work using thematic data analysis and this was steered by the Colaizzi's six-step phenomenological approach of inquiry. RESULTS: The findings were summarized into five major themes: 1) somatic experiences including insomnia and headache, breast pain, poor breast milk production, weight loss and lack of energy; 2) difficulties in home and family life including overwhelming domestic chores, lack of social support from other family members, fighting at home and financial constraints due to COVID-19 pandemic; 3) negative emotions including anger, self-blame, despondency and feelings of loneliness and regrets of conceiving or marriage; 4) feelings of suicide, homicide and self-harm including suicidal ideation and attempt, homicidal ideations and attempt and feelings of self-harm and 5) coping with postpartum depression including spirituality, termination of or attempt to leave their marital relationships, acceptance, counselling and seeking medical treatment, perseverance. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Suicidal and homicidal thoughts are important parts of the postpartum depression experience, and these may put the lives of the mothers, their spouses and their babies at a great risk. Poor relationship quality, intimate partner violence and lack of financial resources contribute significantly to the negative emotional experiences of mothers with PPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Financial Stress , Marriage/psychology , Physical Distancing , Stress, Psychological , Suicidal Ideation , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/physiopathology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Financial Stress/etiology , Financial Stress/psychology , Humans , Models, Biopsychosocial , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Uganda/epidemiology
2.
J Adolesc Health ; 69(6S): S23-S30, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509920

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The study projects the potential impact of COVID-19 on child marriage in the five countries in which the burden of child marriage is the largest: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, and Nigeria. METHODS: The projected impact of the pandemic on child marriage is based on a Markov model. A review of empirical and theoretical literature informed construction and parameter estimates of five pathways through which we expect an elevated marriage hazard: death of a parent, interruption of education, pregnancy risk, household income shocks, and reduced access to programs and services. Models are produced for an unmitigated scenario and a mitigated scenario in which effective interventions are applied to reduce the impact. RESULTS: The total number of excess child marriages in these five countries could range from 3.5 million to 4.9 million in the unmitigated scenario and from 1.8 million to 2.7 million in the mitigated scenario. The elevated risk compared with the baseline projection would continue until 2035. CONCLUSIONS: These projections represent the impact in five countries that account for 50% of child marriages globally, implying that if similar patterns hold, we might expect the number of excess child marriages due to the pandemic to reach 7 million to 10 million globally. These estimates are necessarily subject to high levels of uncertainty because of limited evidence on the impacts in relation to child marriage and for parameter estimates. It will likely take years to understand the full impact of the pandemic. Despite these limitations, the potential for harm is unquestionably large.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Marriage , Child , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258042, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448577

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceived-stigma level of COVID-19 patients in the early stage of the epidemic and analysed related factors and correlations that affected the stigma levels. METHODS: The COVID-19 patients were selected using the convenience sampling method. Perceived-stigma level was evaluated using the Social Impact Scale (SIS). Frequency was used to describe the general information and disease investigation status of COVID-19 patients; mean and standard deviation were used for describing stigma levels, Wilcoxon signed-ranks test (nonparametric test) was applied for pairwise comparison. Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for grade data, and Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner test for multiple comparative analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, and statistically significant indicators in single-factor analysis were included to investigate the independent factors of stigma. The p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: SIS score of the 122 COVID-19 patients averaged 57.37±9.99 points. There were statistically significant differences in perceived-stigma levels among patients of different ages (p = 0.008), occupation (p <0.001), marital status (p = 0.009), and disease severity (p = 0.020). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age was the main influencing factor of stigma (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The overall perceived-stigma level of COVID-19 patients in the early stage of the epidemic was moderate. Younger, unmarried, and severely ill patients had a higher level of perceived-stigma, with age being the main factor. More attention should be given to the young COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Social Stigma , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Marriage , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256643, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398934

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has impacted people around the globe. Countries, including Indonesia, implemented large-scale social restrictions. Since marriage is found to be beneficial to people's quality of life (QoL), the study aimed to examine the QoL of married people in Indonesia during a large-scale social restriction of the COVID-19 pandemic. An online cross-sectional survey using Qualtrics was conducted in June 2020. Respondents' sociodemographic data, spouse data (as reported by the respondents), and pandemic-related data were collected, followed by QoL data, measured by WHQOOL-BREF. WHOQL-BREF consists of 26 questions grouped into four domains: physical, psychological, social relationships, and environmental. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H and Spearman correlation analyses were employed to compare QoL between groups of sociodemographic characteristics. In total, 603 respondents were recruited. The respondents' mean age is 35.3 years (SD = 7.61), most are females (82%), bachelor degree graduate (95%), Islam (78%), employed (69%), and assigned to work from home during the pandemic (76%). Married men reported better QoL in almost all domains than women; employed respondents reported higher QoL scores than unemployed; higher educated respondents reported higher QoL than those with lower education; respondents with higher income reported higher QoL than those with lower income. We found significant positive correlations between the QoL scores and age, spouse's age, and marriage length, although they were considered small. Compared to Indonesian population normative scores pre-pandemic, our sample reported no difference in physical and social domains, lower in the psychological domain, but higher in the environmental domain. Indonesian married people, especially women, those with low level of education, currently out of work, and below-average financial condition are the ones who reported worse quality of life during the lockdown. These results can help direct the Indonesian government efforts in dealing with psychosocial problems during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for married couples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Marriage/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048952, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of language proficiency and institutional awareness in explaining excess COVID-19 mortality among immigrants. DESIGN: Cohort study with follow-up between 12 March 2020 and 23 February 2021. SETTING: Swedish register-based study on all residents in Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 3 963 356 Swedish residents in co-residential unions who were 30 years of age or older and alive on 12 March 2020 and living in Sweden in December 2019. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cox regression models were conducted to assess the association between different constellations of immigrant-native couples (proxy for language proficiency and institutional awareness) and COVID-19 mortality and all other causes of deaths (2019 and 2020). Models were adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Compared with Swedish-Swedish couples (1.18 deaths per thousand person-years), both immigrants partnered with another immigrant and a native showed excess mortality for COVID-19 (HR 1.43; 95% CI 1.29 to 1.58 and HR 1.24; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.40, respectively), which translates to 1.37 and 1.28 deaths per thousand person-years. Moreover, similar results are found for natives partnered with an immigrant (HR 1.15; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.29), which translates to 1.29 deaths per thousand person-years. Further analysis shows that immigrants from both high-income and low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) experience excess mortality also when partnered with a Swede. However, having a Swedish-born partner is only partially protective against COVID-19 mortality among immigrants from LMIC origins. CONCLUSIONS: Language barriers and/or poor institutional awareness are not major drivers for the excess mortality from COVID-19 among immigrants. Rather, our study provides suggestive evidence that excess mortality among immigrants is explained by differential exposure to the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Cohort Studies , Humans , Marriage , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
6.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 444-449, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310879

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses unique threats to romantic relationships as couples were issued to stay at home by a mandatory order, limiting social interactions with others. Although technology allows for social interactions, the privacy of interactions through technology may be compromised. Electronic intrusion (EI) occurs when individuals covertly gain access of their partner's mobile device to go through content (e.g., text messages, private messages on social media sites), and previous study indicates serious consequences of EI, including increased rates of intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and heavy episodic drinking. This study examines jealousy, relationship uncertainty (RU), and EI in a sample of American adults. We hypothesized that jealousy would be related to greater acts of EI, and that this association will be mediated by RU. Data were collected from 754 Qualtrics Panels participants (50 percent male) with an average age of 41.7 years. Most participants (85.7 percent) were married. Results supported hypotheses, demonstrating that jealousy was associated with more EI, and this was due to uncertainty about the relationship's future. This study illuminates a need to study cyberdating abuse (CDA) in older and married populations. Future research should consider the effects of other relationship-specific emotions and cognitions on EI and further develop strategies aimed at reducing risks for CDA in romantic relationships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Jealousy , Marriage/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Uncertainty , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Social Interaction , Social Media
7.
Child Abuse Negl ; 118: 105168, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there has been a massive increase in child marriages following the COVID-19 crisis. In Indonesia, too, this figure has risen with Indonesia ranked amongst ten countries with the highest rates of child marriage in the world. One of the Indonesian provinces with a high incidence of child marriage cases is in Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine what is causing the rate of child marriages to increase since the outbreak of COVID-19 in NTB. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Using snowball sampling techniques, the researcher selected 23 study participants, including ten parents (seven mothers and three fathers) with children who were married underage and 13 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years old (ten females and three males) who were married between March and December 2020. They came from two different regencies of NTB: Lombok Barat and Lombok Utara. METHODS: This study employed qualitative phenomenology as the method of inquiry. Data was obtained through semi-structured in-depth interviews and analyzed in a two-stage coding model. The results of the analysis were asserted on phenomenological themes. RESULTS: The data reveals that teenagers get married because: 1) they believe that marriage is an escape-from schoolwork, house chores, and the stress and boredom of studying and staying at home during the pandemic; 2) the customary law- some local customs encourage or permit child marriage; 3) there is a lack of understanding of the impact and long term implications of underage marriage; 4) economic problems- financial problems trigger parents to marry their children at a young age; and 5) the influence of the surrounding environment and peers, which encourages early marriage. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest a number of recommendations for the prevention of child marriage: 1) socializing the prevention of child marriage; 2) offering alternative activities and support systems for adolescents to overcome frustration and pressure due to online learning and staying at home; 3) changing society's view that marrying children solves adolescent promiscuity, prevents pregnancy, and addresses the issue of non-marital pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Marriage/psychology , Marriage/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Pregnancy , Young Adult
8.
Health Care Women Int ; 41(11-12): 1273-1293, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263589

ABSTRACT

After the COVID-19 virus was officially declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, the Israeli government adopted lockdown restrictions to limit its spread. The purpose of the present article is to examine the impact of this disturbing environment on Israeli women. Specifically, we examined whether fear of the virus would impact the women's distress symptoms, self-rated health (SRH), and marital satisfaction. A total of 130 Israeli married women with children completed the survey during the lockdown restrictions period. All participants reported that their children were living with them during the lockdown, and that no one had been infected by the virus. The results indicated that fear of COVID-19 was negatively associated with SRH as well as marital satisfaction, and positively associated with psychological distress. In addition, psychological distress mediated the link between fear of COVID-19 and both SRH and marital satisfaction. To mitigate similar negative consequences in the future, it is suggested that interventions should focus on the way the crisis is presented in the public domain. In addition, further research is recommended to identify the various indirect consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychological, physical, and relational aspects among women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Marriage/psychology , Personal Satisfaction , Psychological Distress , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Israel , Mental Health , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Dev Psychopathol ; 33(2): 714-726, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217659

ABSTRACT

An estimated 12 million girls aged 15-19 years, and 777,000 girls younger than 15 give birth globally each year. Contexts of war and displacement increase the likelihood of early marriage and childbearing. Given the developmentally sensitive periods of early childhood and adolescence, adolescent motherhood in conflict-affected contexts may put a family at risk intergenerationally. We propose that the specifics of normative neuroendocrine development during adolescence, including increased sensitivity to stress, pose additional risks to adolescent girls and their young children in the face of war and displacement, with potential lifelong consequences for health and development. This paper proposes a developmental, dual-generational framework for research and policies to better understand and address the needs of adolescent mothers and their small children. We draw from the literature on developmental stress physiology, adolescent parenthood in contexts of war and displacement internationally, and developmental cultural neurobiology. We also identify culturally meaningful sources of resilience and provide a review of the existing literature on interventions supporting adolescent mothers and their offspring. We aim to honor Edward Zigler's groundbreaking life and career by integrating basic developmental science with applied intervention and policy.


Subject(s)
Mothers , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Adolescent , Age Factors , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Marriage , Pregnancy
10.
Eur Respir J ; 58(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190029
11.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 102, 2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between quality of life (QoL) with anxiety, depression, corona disease anxiety, sexual function (SF), and marital satisfaction (MS) in married women during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study involving n = 296 married women. We used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS), Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and coronary disease anxiety questionnaire, as determinants of QoL for data collection. Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and path analysis. RESULTS: There was a relationship between the components of QoL with SF, anxiety, depression, MS, general health, and contamination obsessions. The results of path analysis also showed that that SF, MS, anxiety, general health, and corona-related anxiety have a direct effect on women's QoL. General health has a more direct effect on QoL. CONCLUSION: The results of this study could help in a plan to improve the QoL of women during the coronavirus epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Marriage , Quality of Life , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , Sexual Health , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242249, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951225

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic is more than a public health crisis. Lockdown measures have substantial societal effects, including a significant impact on parents with (young) children. Given the existence of persistent gender inequality prior to the pandemic, particularly among parents, it is crucial to study the societal impact of COVID-19 from a gender perspective. The objective of this paper is to use representative survey data gathered among Dutch parents in April 2020 to explore differences between mothers and fathers in three areas: paid work, the division of childcare and household tasks, and three dimensions of quality of life (leisure, work-life balance, relationship dynamics). Additionally, we explore whether changes take place in these dimensions by comparing the situation prior to the lockdown with the situation during the lockdown. METHOD: We use descriptive methods (crosstabulations) supported by multivariate modelling (linear regression modelling for continuous outcomes; linear probability modelling (LPM) for binary outcomes (0/1 outcomes); and multinomial logits for multinomial outcomes) in a cross-sectional survey design. RESULTS: Results show that the way in which parents were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic reflects a complex gendered reality. Mothers work in essential occupations more often than fathers, report more adjustments of the times at which they work, and experience both more and less work pressure in comparison to before the lockdown. Moreover, mothers continue to do more childcare and household work than fathers, but some fathers report taking on greater shares of childcare and housework during the lockdown in comparison to before. Mothers also report a larger decline in leisure time than fathers. We find no gender differences in the propensity to work from home, in perceived work-life balance, or in relationship dynamics. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we find that gender inequality in paid work, the division of childcare and household work, and the quality of life are evident during the first lockdown period. Specifically, we find evidence of an increase in gender inequality in relation to paid work and quality of life when comparing the situation prior to and during the lockdown, as well as a decrease in gender inequality in the division of childcare and household work. We conclude that the unique situation created by restrictive lockdown measures magnifies some gender inequalities while lessening others. DISCUSSION: The insights we provide offer key comparative evidence based on a representative, probability-based sample for understanding the broader impact of lockdown measures as we move forward in the COVID-19 pandemic. One of the limitations in this study is the cross-sectional design. Further study, in the form of a longitudinal design, will be crucial in investigating the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on gender inequality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Care/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Work/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Child , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Leisure Activities , Male , Marriage , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , Work/economics
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1686-1690, 2020 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922984

ABSTRACT

Large indoor gatherings pose a high risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and have the potential to be super-spreading events (1,2). Such events are associated with explosive growth, followed by sustained transmission (3). During August 7-September 14, 2020, the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (MeCDC) investigated a COVID-19 outbreak linked to a wedding reception attended by 55 persons in a rural Maine town. In addition to the community outbreak, secondary and tertiary transmission led to outbreaks at a long-term care facility 100 miles away and at a correctional facility approximately 200 miles away. Overall, 177 COVID-19 cases were epidemiologically linked to the event, including seven hospitalizations and seven deaths (four in hospitalized persons). Investigation revealed noncompliance with CDC's recommended mitigation measures. To reduce transmission, persons should avoid large gatherings, practice physical distancing, wear masks, stay home when ill, and self-quarantine after exposure to a person with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Persons can work with local health officials to increase COVID-19 awareness and determine the best policies for organizing social events to prevent outbreaks in their communities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Residential Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Maine/epidemiology , Male , Marriage , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(1): 1820655, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922374
19.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e926602, 2020 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This study aimed to use online questionnaires to evaluate the factors associated with anxiety and depression in Chinese visiting scholars in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using a cross-sectional design, 311 Chinese scholars visiting 41 states in the United States were interviewed on 20 and 21 April 2020 through WeChat using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) questionnaire. RESULTS Of these 311 visiting scholars, 69 (22.2%) reported no symptoms of anxiety or depression, whereas 63 (20.3%) reported severe anxiety and 67 (21.5%) reported severe depression. Risk of anxiety was 93% higher in visiting scholars with than without accompanying parents in the US (odds ratio [OR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-3.68) and was 1.72-fold (95% CI, 1.04-2.84) higher in those experiencing stress about family members with COVID-19. Stresses about personal security and return to China on schedule were associated with 1.73-fold (95% CI, 1.03-2.92) and 3.00-fold (95% CI, 1.51-5.95) higher risks of anxiety, respectively. Risks of depression were 1.86-fold (95% CI, 1.14-3.05), 1.84-fold (95% CI, 1.10-3.07), and 3.45-fold (95% CI, 1.72-6.92) higher in visiting Chinese scholars who were than were not experiencing stresses about financial support, personal security and return to China on schedule, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Chinese scholars visiting the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced severe psychological distress. Surveys that include larger numbers of visiting scholars are warranted.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/etiology , International Educational Exchange , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adult , Anxiety/ethnology , COVID-19 , China/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/ethnology , Female , Humans , Male , Marriage , Parents , Psychological Tests , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/ethnology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
20.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 99, 2020 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy as a sensitive period of a woman's life can be affected by various psychological factors that can have adverse effects on the woman, her fetus and future baby. Since COVID-19 is a new phenomenon with limited information available, it may have adverse psychological effects on pregnant women. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the status of depression, stress, anxiety and their predictors in Iranian pregnant women during the outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS: This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 205 pregnant women covered by Tabriz health centers in Iran. The sampling method used was cluster sampling. The data collection tool was the socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire and the DASS-21 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21), which were completed online by pregnant women. The general linear model was used to determine the predictive factors of depression, anxiety and stress. RESULTS: The mean (SD) score of depression, stress, and anxiety were 3.91 (3.9), 6.22 (4.25), and 3.79 (3.39), respectively; the score range of 0 to 21. Depression, stress, and anxiety symptoms were observed in 32.7, 32.7, and 43.9% of the participants, respectively, with varying degrees from mild to very severe. Based on the adjusted general linear model, variables of education level, spouse's job and marital life satisfaction were the predictors of depressive symptoms. Variables of spouse's education level, spouse's support, marital life satisfaction and the number of pregnancies were the predictive factors of anxiety symptoms and the variables of spouse's education level, household income sufficiency, spouse's support and marital life satisfaction were predictors of stress symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the role of marital life satisfaction, high level of spouse's education and income in reducing symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression in pregnant women in critical situations such as the prevalence of COVID-19, it seems that using strategies to promote marital life satisfaction and socio-economic status can play an effective role in controlling anxiety and reducing stress and depression in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Marriage , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control
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