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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612992

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Concerns have been raised about the potential for risk compensation in the context of mask mandates for mitigating the spread of COVID-19. However, the debate about the presence or absence of risk compensation for universal mandatory mask-wearing rules-especially in the context of COVID-19-is not settled yet. METHODS: Mobility is used as a proxy for risky behaviour before and after the mask mandates. Two sets of regressions are estimated to decipher (any) risk-compensating effect of mask mandate in Bangladesh. These include: (1) intervention regression analysis of daily activities at six types of locations, using pre-mask-mandate and post-mandate data; and (2) multiple regression analysis of daily new COVID-19 cases on daily mobility (lagged) to establish mobility as a valid proxy. RESULTS: (1) Statistically, mobility increased at all five non-residential locations, while home stays decreased after the mask mandate was issued; (2) daily mobility had a statistically significant association on daily new cases (with around 10 days of lag). Both significances were calculated at 95% confidence level. CONCLUSION: Community mobility had increased (and stay at home decreased) after the mandatory mask-wearing rule, and given mobility is associated with increases in new COVID-19 cases, there is evidence of risk compensation effect of the mask mandate-at least partially-in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249214, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605662

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Despite strong efforts that have been taking place to control the pandemic globally, the virus is on the rise in many countries. Hence, this study assessed the maternal health care services utilization amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in West Shoa zone, Central Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 844 pregnant women or those who gave birth in the last 6 months before the study. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Logistic regressions were performed to identify the presence of significant associations, and an adjusted odds ratio with 95%CI was employed for the strength and directions of association between the independent and outcome variables. A P-value of <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. The prevalence of maternal health service utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic was 64.8%. The odds of maternal health service utilization was higher among mothers who had primary (AOR = 2.16, 95%CI: 1.29-3.60), secondary (AOR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.13-3.44), and college and above education (AOR = 2.89, 95%CI: 1.34-6.22) than those who could not read and write. Besides, mothers who did travel 30-60 minutes (AOR = 0.37, 95%CI: 0.23-0.59) and 60-90minutes (AOR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05-0.19) to reach the health facility had a lower odds of maternal health service utilization than those who did travel <30 minutes. Moreover, mothers who earn 1000-2000 (AOR = 3.10, 95%CI: 1.73-5.55) and > 2000 birrs (AOR = 2.66 95%CI: 1.52-4.64) had higher odds of maternal health service utilization than those who earn <500 birrs. Similarly, the odds of utilizing maternal health service were higher among mothers who did not fear COVID-19 infection (AOR = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.85-4.20), who had not had to request permission from husband to visit the health facility (AOR = 7.24, 95%CI: 2.65-19.75), who had practicedCOVID-19 prevention measure (AOR = 5.82, 95%CI: 3.87-8.75), and used face mask (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.28-3.31) than their counterpart. Empowering mothers and creating awareness on COVID-19 preventionis recommended to improve maternal health service utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Masks , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Class , Young Adult
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 780039, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608013

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With the increased emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, the impact on schools and preschools remains a matter of debate. To ensure that schools and preschools are kept open safely, the identification of factors influencing the extent of outbreaks is of importance. Aim: To monitor dynamics of COVID-19 infections in schools and preschools and identify factors influencing the extent of outbreaks. Methods: In this prospective observational study we analyzed routine surveillance data of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, from calendar week (CW) 32, 2020 to CW19, 2021 regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection events in schools and preschools considering changes in infection control measures over time. A multivariate linear regression model was fitted to evaluate factors influencing the number of students, teachers and staff tested positive following index cases in schools and preschools. Due to an existing multicollinearity in the common multivariate regression model between the variables "face mask obligation for children" and "face mask obligation for adults", two further separate regression models were set up (Multivariate Model Adults and Multivariate Model Children). Results: We observed a significant increase in secondary cases in preschools in the first quarter of 2021 (CW8 to CW15, 2021), and simultaneously a decrease in secondary cases in schools. In multivariate regression analysis, the strongest predictor of the extent of the outbreaks was the teacher/ caregiver mask obligation (B = -1.9; 95% CI: -2.9 to -1.0; p < 0.001). Furthermore, adult index cases (adult only or child+adult combinations) increased the likelihood of secondary cases (B = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.8; p < 0.001). The face mask obligation for children also showed a significant reduction in the number of secondary cases (B = -0.6; 95% CI: -0.9 to -0.2; p = 0.004. Conclusion: The present study indicates that outbreak events at schools and preschools are effectively contained by an obligation for adults and children to wear face masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Schools , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Germany , Humans , Masks , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Acta Orthop ; 93: 198-205, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607747

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose - Facemasks play a role in preventing the respiratory spread of SARS-CoV-2, but their impact on the physician-patient relationship in the orthopedic outpatient clinic is unclear. We investigated whether the type of surgeons' facemask impacts patients' perception of the physician-patient relationship, influences their understanding of what the surgeon said, or affects their perceived empathy. Patients and methods - All patients with an appointment in the orthopedic outpatient clinic of a tertiary university hospital during the 2-week study period were included. During consultations, all surgeons wore a non-transparent (first study week) or transparent facemask (second study week). Results of 285 of 407 eligible patients were available for analysis. The doctor-patient relationship was evaluated using the standardized Patient Reactions Assessment (PRA) and a 10-point Likert-scale questionnaire ranging from 0 (strongly disagree) to 10 (strongly agree). Results - A non-transparent facemask led to more restrictions in the physician-patient communication and a worse understanding of what the surgeon said. Patients' understanding improved with a transparent facemask with greatest improvements reported by patients aged 65 years and older (non-transparent: 6 [IQR 5-10] vs. transparent: 10 [IQR 9-10], p < 0.001) and by patients with a self-reported hearing impairment (non-transparent: 7 [IQR 3-7] vs. transparent: 9 [IQR 9-10], p < 0.001). The median PRA score was higher when surgeons wore a transparent facemask (p= 0.003). Interpretation - Surgeons' non-transparent facemasks pose a new communication barrier that can negatively affect the physician-patient relationship. While emotional factors like affectivity and empathy seem to be less affected overall, the physician-patient communication and patients' understanding of what the surgeon said seem to be negatively affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Equipment Design , Masks , Orthopedic Surgeons , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physician-Patient Relations , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604277, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607147

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disease that causes recurrent respiratory infections. People with PCD may be at high risk of severe COVID-19 and protection against SARS-CoV-2 is therefore important. We studied facemask usage and problems reported in relation with their use among people with PCD. Methods: We used data from COVID-PCD, an international observational cohort study. A questionnaire was e-mailed to participants in October 2020 that asked about facemask usage. Results: In total, 282 participants from 27 countries were included (Median age 32 years; 63% female). In total, 252 (89%) wore facemasks everywhere in public, 13 (5%) wore facemasks in most places, and 17 (6%) did not wear facemasks in public. Half of the participants reported that it was uncomfortable to wear facemasks because of runny nose, cough, or difficulty breathing. Participants less often wore facemasks when there was no national requirement. Conclusion: Most people with PCD wore facemasks despite frequent respiratory problems related to their use. Facemask usage was most frequent in countries with a national requirement emphasizing the importance of nationwide policies mandating facemasks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ciliary Motility Disorders , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1773-1777, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593939

ABSTRACT

On July 12, 2021, the California Department of Public Health updated COVID-19 school guidance, allowing a Test to Stay (TTS) strategy to increase access to in-person learning* (1). The TTS strategy enabled unvaccinated students, exposed in school to a person infected with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), to remain in school while under quarantine, if both the infected person and the exposed person wore masks correctly and consistently throughout the exposure. To stay in school during the quarantine period, the exposed student must remain asymptomatic, wear a mask at school, and undergo twice weekly testing for SARS-CoV-2. To date, few studies have evaluated the impact of TTS on transmission (2-4). This study evaluated a TTS strategy implemented by Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LAC DPH). During September 20-October 31, 2021, among 78 school districts, one half permitted TTS; in total, 432 (21%) of 2,067 schools adopted TTS. TTS schools did not experience increases in COVID-19 incidence among students after TTS implementation, and in 20 identified outbreaks in TTS schools,† no tertiary transmission was identified. The ratio of student COVID-19 incidence in TTS districts to that in non-TTS districts was similar before and after TTS adoption (rate ratio = 0.5). Non-TTS schools lost an estimated 92,455 in-person school days during September 20-October 31 while students were in quarantine, compared with no lost days among quarantined students in TTS schools. Non-TTS schools cited resource-related reasons for not adopting TTS; 75% of these schools were in LAC's most disadvantaged neighborhoods. Preliminary data from LAC suggest that a school-based TTS strategy does not increase school transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and might greatly reduce loss of in-person school days; however, TTS might have barriers to implementation and require resources that are not available for some schools. Continued efforts to simplify school quarantine strategies might help to ensure that all students have access to safe in-person education. Although vaccination remains the leading public health recommendation to protect against COVID-19 for persons aged ≥5 years, schools might consider TTS as an option for allowing students with a school exposure who are not fully vaccinated to remain in the classroom as an alternative to home quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , Schools , Students , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Masks
8.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501319211069473, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593650

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Federally-funded community health centers (CHCs) serve on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic, providing essential COVID-19 testing and care for vulnerable patient populations. Overlooked in the scholarly literature is a description of how different characteristics and vulnerabilities shaped COVID-19 care delivery at CHCs in the first year of the pandemic. Our research objective was to identify organization- and state-level factors associated with more or fewer COVID-19 care and testing visits at CHCs in 2020. METHODS: Multilevel random intercept regression models examined associations among organization and state-level predictor variables and the frequency of COVID-19 care and testing visits at CHCs in 2020. The study sample included 1267 CHCs across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. RESULTS: The average CHC provided 932 patient visits for COVID-19-related care in 2020. Yet, the CHC's role in delivering COVID-19 services proved as diverse as the populations and localities CHCs serve. For example, after adjusting for other factors, each percentage-point increase in a CHC's Hispanic patient population size was associated with a 1.3% increase in the frequency of patient visits for COVID-19 care in 2020 (P < .001). Serving a predominantly rural patient population was associated with providing significantly fewer COVID-19-related care visits (P = .002). Operating in a state that enacted a mask-wearing policy in 2020 was associated with a 26.2% lower frequency of COVID-19 testing visits at CHCs in 2020, compared to CHCs operating in states without mask-wearing policies (P = .055). CONCLUSIONS: In response to the pandemic, the federal government legislated funding to help CHCs address challenges associated with COVID-19 and provide services to medically-underserved patient populations. Policymakers will likely need to provide additional support to help CHCs address population-specific vulnerabilities affecting COVID-19 care and testing delivery, especially as highly contagious COVID-19 variants proliferate (eg, Delta and Omicron).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Community Health Centers/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Policy , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
9.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(3): 391-398, 2021.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599823

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop a methodology for evaluating the level of respiratory protection provided by respirators, surgical masks and community face masks used by the Peruvian population; protection was evaluated against particles of a size similar to those containing active SARS-CoV-2 virus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A direct linear relationship has been determined between the logarithm of the concentration of airborne particles and the elapsed time; thus, it is possible to compare the quantity of particles inside and outside of the mask or respirator in the same time period, as well as to obtain the percentage of respiratory protection for each evaluated sample. RESULTS: A methodology was established to evaluate the level of respiratory protection against aerosols smaller than 5.0 µm. Also, the use of accessories such as rubber bands or adjusters behind the head and neck, and the use of robust nasal clips, significantly increased the level of respiratory protection against particles with a high probability of containing SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: We found concordance between the obtained respiratory protection values and those expected, considering the filtration level of the material used for each surgical mask or respirator, as well as the tightness. A significant increase in the levels of respiratory protection was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Aerosols , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
10.
Rev Port Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 40(12): 965-967, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598996

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Exercise , Humans
11.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 306-307, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597277

ABSTRACT

Though masks are the best shield against COVID-19, they can be a source of discomfort and ocular side effects. We discuss three cases of corneal injury due to mask use. Three patients, who were healthcare workers, presented with discomfort, photophobia, and pain in the eyes. While adjusting the mask, they had an ocular injury. There were multiple superficial linear abrasions in the eyes. They recovered with treatment. Though masks are imperative during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to be aware of a possible mask injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Corneal Injuries , Corneal Injuries/diagnosis , Corneal Injuries/epidemiology , Corneal Injuries/etiology , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether children receiving immunosuppressive therapies for neuroimmunologic disorders had (1) increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection or to develop more severe forms of COVID-19; (2) increased relapses or autoimmune complications if infected; and (3) changes in health care delivery during the pandemic. METHODS: Patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment were recruited to participate in a retrospective survey evaluating the period from March 14, 2020, to March 30, 2021. Demographics, clinical features, type of immunosuppressive treatment, suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in the patients or cohabitants, and changes in care delivery were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three children were included: 84 (55%) female, median age 13 years (interquartile range [8-16] years), 79 (52%) on immunosuppressive treatment. COVID-19 was suspected or confirmed in 17 (11%) (all mild), with a frequency similar in patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment (11/79 [14%] vs 6/74 [8%], p = 0.3085). The frequency of neurologic relapses was similar in patients with (18%) and without (21%) COVID-19. Factors associated with COVID-19 included having cohabitants with COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and lower blood levels of vitamin D (p = 0.039). Return to face-to-face schooling or mask type did not influence the risk of infection, although 43(28%) children had contact with a classmate with COVID-19. Clinic visits changed from face to face to remote for 120 (79%) patients; 110 (92%) were satisfied with the change. DISCUSSION: In this cohort of children with neuroimmunologic disorders, the frequency of COVID-19 was low and not affected by immunosuppressive therapies. The main risk factors for developing COVID-19 were having cohabitants with COVID-19 and low vitamin D levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Child , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Masks/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D/blood
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1778-1781, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596398

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures and reduction of in-person learning (1). In August 2021, the Lake County Health Department (LCHD) in Illinois introduced a Test to Stay (TTS) strategy, whereby unvaccinated students, teachers, and staff members with certain school-related COVID-19 exposures could remain in school and participate in school-related extracurricular activities. Eligibility to participate in TTS required the following conditions to be met: 1) the exposure occurred while both the person with COVID-19 (index patient) and the close contact were masked; 2) the close contact remained asymptomatic, practiced consistent mask wearing, and maintained physical distancing; and 3) the close contact underwent testing for SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after exposure to the index patient. LCHD permitted kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) schools in Lake County to implement TTS; 90 schools, representing 31 school districts in Lake County, implemented TTS during August 9-October 29, 2021. During the implementation period, 258 COVID-19 cases were reported. Among 1,035 students and staff members enrolled in TTS, the secondary attack risk (number of close contacts who received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result within 14 days after exposure to an index patient, divided by total number of close contacts) was 1.5% (16 of 1,035). Among the 16 secondary cases identified, all were in students, and none appeared to transmit SARS-CoV-2 to other school-based contacts. However, nine tertiary cases were identified among household contacts of the 16 secondary cases, and four of the nine were fully vaccinated. Assuming a maximum of 8 missed school days for every 10-day quarantine period, up to 8,152 in-person learning days were saved among TTS participants. Implementation of TTS with other concurrent prevention strategies, including masking and physical distancing, limited further spread of SARS-CoV-2 within K-12 schools and allowed students to safely sustain in-person learning. Although vaccination remains the leading public health recommendation to protect against COVID-19 for those aged ≥5 years, schools might consider TTS as an option for allowing close contacts who are not fully vaccinated to remain in the classroom as an alternative to home quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , Schools , Students , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Masks
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24490, 2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594104

ABSTRACT

During the first wave of Covid-19 infections in Germany in April 2020, clinics reported a shortage of filtering face masks with aerosol retention> 94% (FFP2 & 3, KN95, N95). Companies all over the world increased their production capacities, but quality control of once-certified materials and masks came up short. To help identify falsely labeled masks and ensure safe protection equipment, we tested 101 different batches of masks in 993 measurements with a self-made setup based on DIN standards. An aerosol generator provided a NaCl test aerosol which was applied to the mask. A laser aerosol spectrometer measured the aerosol concentration in a range from 90 to 500 nm to quantify the masks' retention. Of 101 tested mask batches, only 31 batches kept what their label promised. Especially in the initial phase of the pandemic in Germany, we observed fluctuating mask qualities. Many batches show very high variability in aerosol retention. In addition, by measuring with a laser aerosol spectrometer, we were able to show that not all masks filter small and large particles equally well. In this study we demonstrate how important internal and independent quality controls are, especially in times of need and shortage of personal protection equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Aerosols , Filtration/instrumentation , Germany , Humans , Masks/standards , Masks/trends , N95 Respirators/standards , N95 Respirators/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Quality Control , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(3): 1674, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583240

ABSTRACT

With the Covid-19 pandemic, face masks have become part of our daily lives. While face masks are effective in slowing down the spread of the virus, they also make face-to-face communication more challenging. The present study sought to examine the impact of face masks on listeners' intelligibility and recall of sentences produced by one German native adult and one child talker. In the intelligibility task, German native adult listeners watched video clips of either an adult or a child talker producing sentences with and without a face mask. In a cued-recall experiment, another group of German native listeners watched the same video clips and then completed a cued-recall task. The results showed that face masks significantly affected listeners' intelligibility and recall performance, and this effect was equally true for both talkers. The findings here contribute to the fast growing and urgent research regarding the impact of face masks on communication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Speech Perception , Adult , Child , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Speech Intelligibility
16.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(3): 6596, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579427

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Face masks are widely recommended as a COVID-19 prevention strategy. State mask mandates have generally reduced the spread of the disease, but decisions to wear a mask depend on many factors. Recent increases in case rates in rural areas following initial outbreaks in more densely populated areas highlight the need to focus on prevention and education. Messaging about disease risk has faced challenges in rural areas in the past. While surges in cases within some communities are likely an impetus for behavior change, rising case rates likely explain only part of mask-wearing decisions. The current study examined the relationship between county-level indicators of rurality and mask wearing in the USA. METHODS: National data from the New York Times' COVID-19 cross-sectional mask survey was used to identify the percentage of a county's residents who reported always/frequently wearing a mask (2-14 July 2020). The New York Times' COVID-19 data repository was used to calculate county-level daily case rates for the 2 weeks preceding the mask survey (15 June - 1 July 2020), and defined county rurality using the Index of Relative Rurality (n=3103 counties). Multivariate linear regression was used to predict mask wearing across levels of rurality. The model was adjusted for daily case rates and other relevant county-level confounders, including county-level indicators of age, race/ethnicity, gender, political partisanship, income inequality, and whether each county was subject to a statewide mask mandate. RESULTS: Large clusters of counties with high rurality and low mask wearing were observed in the Midwest, upper Midwest, and mountainous West. Holding daily case rates and other county characteristics constant, the predicted probability of wearing a mask decreased significantly as counties became more rural (β=-0.560; p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Upticks in COVID-19 cases and deaths in rural areas are expected to continue, and localized outbreaks will likely occur indefinitely. The present findings highlight the need to better understand the mechanisms underlying perceptions of COVID-19 risk in rural areas. Dissemination of scientifically correct and consistent information is critical during national emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Status Disparities , Masks/trends , Rural Population/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
Gac Sanit ; 35 Suppl 2: S546-S548, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587738

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The qualitative research participants were 15 mothers, had children, and did not work. METHODS: Collecting data through in-depth interviews, observations, and field notes. The data were arranged into transcripts, analyzed through the process of data reduction, triangulation and conclusions. RESULTS: The resulting themes include: inner family conflicts, the mother of a central family figure, increased family burdens, lack of awareness, fluctuations in family income which are internal causes, while external causes are inconsistencies in implementing regulations, the uncertainty of information validity, lack of role models, restrictions in cultivating culture. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to strengthen multisectoral coordination continuously in fostering a culture of awareness of using masks during the Covid-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Masks , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Rev Port Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 40(12): 957-964, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586735

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, among the safety measures adopted, use of facemasks during exercise training sessions in cardiac rehabilitation programs raised concerns regarding possible detrimental effects on exercise capacity. Our study examined the cardiorespiratory impact of wearing two types of the most common facemasks during treadmill aerobic training. METHODS: Twelve healthy health professionals completed three trials of a symptom-limited Bruce treadmill protocol: Without a mask, with a surgical mask and with a respirator. Perceived exertion and dyspnea were evaluated with the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion and the Borg Dyspnea Scale, respectively. Blood pressure, heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured at each 3-minute stage. RESULTS: Using a surgical mask or a respirator resulted in a shorter duration of exercise testing. At peak capacity, using a respirator resulted in higher levels of dyspnea and perceived exertion compared to not wearing a facemask. A significant drop in SpO2 was present at the end of exercise testing only when using a respirator. There were no differences in either chronotropic or blood pressure responses between testing conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Professionals involved in cardiac rehabilitation should be aware of the cardiorespiratory impact of facemasks. Future studies should assess whether exposure to these conditions may impact on the overall results of contemporary cardiac rehabilitation programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Exercise , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24183, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585792

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has restricted singing in communal worship. We sought to understand variations in droplet transmission and the impact of wearing face masks. Using rapid laser planar imaging, we measured droplets while participants exhaled, said 'hello' or 'snake', sang a note or 'Happy Birthday', with and without surgical face masks. We measured mean velocity magnitude (MVM), time averaged droplet number (TADN) and maximum droplet number (MDN). Multilevel regression models were used. In 20 participants, sound intensity was 71 dB for speaking and 85 dB for singing (p < 0.001). MVM was similar for all tasks with no clear hierarchy between vocal tasks or people and > 85% reduction wearing face masks. Droplet transmission varied widely, particularly for singing. Masks decreased TADN by 99% (p < 0.001) and MDN by 98% (p < 0.001) for singing and 86-97% for other tasks. Masks reduced variance by up to 48%. When wearing a mask, neither singing task transmitted more droplets than exhaling. In conclusion, wide variation exists for droplet production. This significantly reduced when wearing face masks. Singing during religious worship wearing a face mask appears as safe as exhaling or talking. This has implications for UK public health guidance during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Face , Masks , Singing/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exhalation/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding/physiology
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