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1.
Retina ; 41(11): 2215-2220, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483570

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the bacterial growth in the surgical face masks used by patients who received intravitreal injections and study the effect of povidone-iodine on the periocular area (PA) of masks. METHODS: Forty patients who attended for intravitreal injections were divided in those with less (<4 hours) and more (>4 hours) than 4 hours of mask use. Each group was divided depending on the application or not of povidone-iodine in the PA of the mask. Bacterial load was studied on PA and mouth area samples. RESULTS: The bacterial load in the PA was higher in the >4 hours group compared with the <4 hours group (13.2 vs. 48.75 colony-forming units/µL; P = 0.03). The contamination in the PA significantly decreased after applying povidone-iodine in the >4 hours group (P = 0.01). The use or not of povidone-iodine was strongly correlated to a positive culture (OR = 9.0, P = 0.00. CI 1.63-49.44). CONCLUSION: Surgical face masks worn for more than 4 hours present higher contamination in the PA than those with less use. Bacterial load in the PA is reduced with povidone-iodine on masks used for more than 4 hours. This contamination should be considered in the asepsis protocol of intravitreal injections.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment Contamination , Masks/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Bacterial Load , Bacteriological Techniques , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Povidone-Iodine/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 114, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In healthcare facilities, nosocomial transmissions of respiratory viruses are a major issue. SARS-CoV-2 is not exempt from nosocomial transmission. Our goals were to describe COVID-19 nosocomial cases during the first pandemic wave among patients in a French university hospital and compliance with hygiene measures. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in Grenoble Alpes University Hospital from 01/03/2020 to 11/05/2020. We included all hospitalised patients with a documented SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Nosocomial case was defined by a delay of 5 days between hospitalisation and first symptoms. Hygiene measures were evaluated between 11/05/2020 and 22/05/2020. Lockdown measures were effective in France on 17/03/2020 and ended on 11/05/2020. Systematic wearing of mask was mandatory for all healthcare workers (HCW) and visits were prohibited in our institution from 13/03/2021 and for the duration of the lockdown period. RESULTS: Among 259 patients included, 14 (5.4%) were considered as nosocomial COVID-19. Median time before symptom onset was 25 days (interquartile range: 12-42). Eleven patients (79%) had risk factors for severe COVID-19. Five died (36%) including 4 deaths attributable to COVID-19. Two clusters were identified. The first cluster had 5 cases including 3 nosocomial acquisitions and no tested HCWs were positive. The second cluster had 3 cases including 2 nosocomial cases and 4 HCWs were positive. Surgical mask wearing and hand hygiene compliance were adequate for 95% and 61% of HCWs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The number of nosocomial COVID-19 cases in our hospital was low. Compliance regarding mask wearing, hand hygiene and lockdown measures drastically reduced transmission of the virus. Monitoring of nosocomial COVID-19 cases during the first wave enabled us to determine to what extent the hygiene measures taken were effective and patients protected. Trial registration Study ethics approval was obtained retrospectively on 30 September 2020 (CECIC Rhône-Alpes-Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, IRB 5891).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cross Infection/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Health Personnel , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Masks/microbiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
3.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251872, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic accelerates, the supply of personal protective equipment remains under strain. To combat shortages, re-use of surgical masks and filtering facepiece respirators has been recommended. Prior decontamination is paramount to the re-use of these typically single-use only items and, without compromising their integrity, must guarantee inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and other contaminating pathogens. AIM: We provide information on the effect of time-dependent passive decontamination (infectivity loss over time during room temperature storage in a breathable bag) and evaluate inactivation of a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate and a non-enveloped model virus as well as mask and respirator integrity following active multiple-cycle vaporised hydrogen peroxide (VHP), ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), and dry heat (DH) decontamination. METHODS: Masks and respirators, inoculated with infectious porcine respiratory coronavirus or murine norovirus, were submitted to passive decontamination or single or multiple active decontamination cycles; viruses were recovered from sample materials and viral titres were measured via TCID50 assay. In parallel, filtration efficiency tests and breathability tests were performed according to EN standard 14683 and NIOSH regulations. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Infectious porcine respiratory coronavirus and murine norovirus remained detectable on masks and respirators up to five and seven days of passive decontamination. Single and multiple cycles of VHP-, UVGI-, and DH were shown to not adversely affect bacterial filtration efficiency of masks. Single- and multiple UVGI did not adversely affect respirator filtration efficiency, while VHP and DH induced a decrease in filtration efficiency after one or three decontamination cycles. Multiple cycles of VHP-, UVGI-, and DH slightly decreased airflow resistance of masks but did not adversely affect respirator breathability. VHP and UVGI efficiently inactivated both viruses after five, DH after three, decontamination cycles, permitting demonstration of a loss of infectivity by more than three orders of magnitude. This multi-disciplinal approach provides important information on how often a given PPE item may be safely reused.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Decontamination/methods , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Norovirus/drug effects , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Reuse , Hot Temperature , Humans , Masks/microbiology , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/microbiology , Respiratory Protective Devices/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ultraviolet Rays , Ultraviolet Therapy , Ventilators, Mechanical/microbiology , Volatilization
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5887, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135699

ABSTRACT

Based on the current knowledge of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, wearing a mask has been recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic. Bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) measurements enable designing and regulating medical masks to prevent bioaerosol dissemination; however, despite the simplicity of these measurements, several scientific questions remain unanswered regarding BFE tests. Here, we investigated (1) the impact of substituting 100-mm Petri dishes with 90-mm disposable Petri dishes, (2) the impact of colony-counting methods on the bioaerosol aerodynamic size, and (3) the impact of colony-counting methods on the total viable particle counts. We demonstrated that disposable 90-mm Petri dishes can be used to replace the 100-mm dishes. We also showed that an automatic high-resolution colony counter can be used to directly count viable particles on collection substrates and to measure the bioaerosol size parameters. Our results enable possible modernization of the outdated testing methods recommended in the US and European standards for BFE measurements. Specifically, use of a modernized colony counter should be clearly regulated and permitted to avoid the counting of positive holes. The median aerodynamic diameter appears to be the most relevant parameter for characterizing bioaerosol size.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Filtration/standards , Masks/standards , Bacterial Load , Environmental Microbiology , Filtration/methods , Humans , Masks/microbiology , Particle Size , Porosity
5.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(1): 31-36, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Non-traditional materials are used for mask construction to address personal protective equipment shortages during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Reusable masks made from surgical sterilization wrap represent such an innovative approach with social media frequently referring to them as "N95 alternatives." This material was tested for particle filtration efficiency and breathability to clarify what role they might have in infection prevention and control. METHODS: A heavyweight, double layer sterilization wrap was tested when new and after 2, 4, 6, and 10 autoclave sterilizing cycles and compared with an approved N95 respirator and a surgical mask via testing procedures using a sodium chloride aerosol for N95 efficiency testing similar to 42 CFR 84.181. Pressure testing to indicate breathability was also conducted. RESULTS: The particle filtration efficiency for the sterilization wrap ranged between 58% to 66%, with similar performance when new and after sterilizing cycles. The N95 respirator and surgical mask performed at 95% and 68% respectively. Pressure drops for the sterilization wrap, N95 and surgical mask were 10.4 mmH2O, 5.9 mmH2O, and 5.1 mmH2O, respectively, well below the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health limits of 35 mmH2O during initial inhalation and 25 mmH2O during initial exhalation. CONCLUSIONS: The sterilization wrap's particle filtration efficiency is much lower than a N95 respirator, but falls within the range of a surgical mask, with acceptable breathability. Performance testing of non-traditional mask materials is crucial to determine potential protection efficacy and for correcting misinterpretation propagated through popular media.


Subject(s)
Filtration/standards , Masks/standards , Filtration/instrumentation , Filtration/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Masks/microbiology , Masks/virology , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Sterilization/methods , Sterilization/standards , Sterilization/statistics & numerical data
6.
ACS Nano ; 14(10): 13161-13171, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-798108

ABSTRACT

The regeneration of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) is of critical importance because of the severe shortage of FFRs during large-scale outbreaks of respiratory epidemics, such as COVID-19. Comprehensive experiments regarding FFR regeneration were performed in this study with model bacteria to illustrate the decontamination performance of the regeneration processes. The results showed that it is dangerous to use a contaminated FFR without any microbe inactivation treatment because the bacteria can live for more than 8 h. The filtration efficiency and surface electrostatic potential of 75% ethanol-treated FFRs were significantly reduced, and a most penetrating particle size of 200 nm was observed. Steam and microwave irradiation (MWI) showed promising decontamination performances, achieving 100% inactivation in 90 and 30 min, respectively. The filtration efficiencies of steam-treated FFRs for 50 and 100 nm particles decreased from 98.86% and 99.51% to 97.58% and 98.79%, respectively. Ultraviolet irradiation (UVI) effectively inactivated the surface bacteria with a short treatment of 5 min and did not affect the filtration performance. However, the UV dose reaching different layers of the FFP2 mask sample gradually decreased from the outermost layer to the innermost layer, while the model bacteria on the second and third layers could not be killed completely. UVI+MWI and steam were recommended to effectively decontaminate the used respirators and still maintain the respirators' filtration efficiency. The present work provides a comprehensive evaluation for FFR regeneration in terms of the filtration efficiencies for 50-500 nm particles, the electrostatic properties, mechanical properties, and decontamination effects.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/radiation effects , Disinfection/methods , Masks/microbiology , Respiratory Protective Devices/microbiology , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Disinfection/standards , Ethanol/toxicity , Filtration , Humans , Masks/standards , Microwaves , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , Steam , Textiles/microbiology , Textiles/standards , Ultraviolet Rays
7.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(12): 1543-1545, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-653329

ABSTRACT

Many healthcare systems have been forced to outsource simple mask production due to international shortages caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Providence created simple masks using surgical wrap and submitted samples to an environmental lab for bacterial filtration efficiency testing. Bacterial filtration efficiency rates ranged from 83.0% to 98.1% depending on specific material and ply, and particular filtration efficiency rates ranged from 92.3% to 97.7%. Based on mask configuration, specific surgical wrap selected, and ply, the recommended filtration efficiency for isolation and surgical masks of 95% and 98%, respectively can be achieved. These alternative masks can allow for similar coverage and safety when hospital-grade isolation masks are in short supply.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Equipment Safety/statistics & numerical data , Filtration/instrumentation , Masks/microbiology , Respiratory Protective Devices/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Air Microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Equipment Design , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Materials Testing , Particulate Matter/isolation & purification , Respiratory Protective Devices/supply & distribution
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13875, 2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720847

ABSTRACT

Respiratory protection is key in infection prevention of airborne diseases, as highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic for instance. Conventional technologies have several drawbacks (i.e., cross-infection risk, filtration efficiency improvements limited by difficulty in breathing, and no safe reusability), which have yet to be addressed in a single device. Here, we report the development of a filter overcoming the major technical challenges of respiratory protective devices. Large-pore membranes, offering high breathability but low bacteria capture, were functionalized to have a uniform salt layer on the fibers. The salt-functionalized membranes achieved high filtration efficiency as opposed to the bare membrane, with differences of up to 48%, while maintaining high breathability (> 60% increase compared to commercial surgical masks even for the thickest salt filters tested). The salt-functionalized filters quickly killed Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria aerosols in vitro, with CFU reductions observed as early as within 5 min, and in vivo by causing structural damage due to salt recrystallization. The salt coatings retained the pathogen inactivation capability at harsh environmental conditions (37 °C and a relative humidity of 70%, 80% and 90%). Combination of these properties in one filter will lead to the production of an effective device, comprehensibly mitigating infection transmission globally.


Subject(s)
Air Filters/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks/microbiology , Membranes, Artificial , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Protective Devices/microbiology , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Aerosols , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Crystallization , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Hot Temperature , Humans , Humidity , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology
9.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(9): 1037-1041, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634244

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: One of the serious consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is the shortage of protective equipment for health personnel. N95 masks are considered one of the essential protective equipment in the management of patients with COVID-19. The shortage of N95 masks implies potential health risks for health personnel and significant economic losses for the health institution. The objective of this work was to investigate the disinfection of N95 masks artificially contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 and ESKAPE bacteria by using hydrogen peroxide plasma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined the disinfection capacity of hydrogen peroxide plasma against the SARS-CoV-2 and 2 members of the ESKAPE bacteria (Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus) through a study of artificial contamination in situ of N95 masks. Amplification of specific genes by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of SARS-CoV-2 and microbiological culture of ESKAPE bacteria was performed before and after the disinfection process. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in all assays using 5 different concentrations of the virus, and A baumannii and S aureus were not cultivable with inoculums of 102 to 106 CFU after disinfection tests of N95 masks with hydrogen peroxide plasma. CONCLUSION: Disinfection of N95 masks by using the hydrogen peroxide plasma technology can be an alternative for their reuse in a shortage situation. Implications for the use of disinfection technologies of N95 masks and the safety of health personnel are discussed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Reuse , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Masks/microbiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , COVID-19 , Humans , Respiratory Protective Devices/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
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