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1.
Health Sociol Rev ; 29(2): 158-167, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066140

ABSTRACT

Shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) and medical devices needed during the COVID-19 pandemic were widely reported in early 2020. In response, civic DIY volunteers explored how they could produce the required equipment. Members of communities such as hacker- and makerspaces employed their skills and tools to manufacture, for example, face shields and masks. The article discusses these civic innovation practices and their broader social implications by relating them to critical making theory. Methodologically, it is based on a digital ethnography approach, focusing on hacker and maker communities in the UK. Communities' DIY initiatives display characteristics of critical making and 'craftivism', as they assessed and counteracted politicised healthcare supply shortages. It is argued that their manufacturing activities during the COVID pandemic relate to UK austerity politics' effects on healthcare and government failure to ensure medical crisis supplies. Facilitated by open source design, communities' innovation enabled healthcare emergency equipment. At the same time, their DIY manufacturing raises practical as well as ethical issues concerning, among other things, efficacy and safety of use.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Masks/supply & distribution , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Protective Devices , Equipment Design , Humans , Masks/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Private Sector
2.
Enferm Clin ; 31 Suppl 1: S73-S77, 2021 Feb.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046465

ABSTRACT

The main element of personal protective equipment against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are masks, which protect against droplets and aerosols that can remain suspended in the air. The objective of this study is to summarize the existing evidence on the filtration of different materials for the manufacture of masks. A scoping review or exploratory review has been carried out in the PubMEd and Scopus databases, using the terms "respirator", "mask", "facemask", "material", and "tissue", combined with Boolean operators. The results show some of the materials used for the manufacture of masks, both surgical masks and medium-high filtration masks, as well as materials used for the manufacture of household masks. As a conclusion, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the different materials as well as their properties to guarantee an adequate use according to the specific needs in each context, being fundamental the application of particle filtration systems as well as support materials that comply with current recommendations.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Masks/standards , /epidemiology , Cellulose/standards , Equipment Design/methods , Filtration/instrumentation , Filtration/standards , Health Personnel , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Polypropylenes/standards , Static Electricity , Textiles/standards
3.
Ann Fam Med ; 19(1): 55-62, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024391

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led at times to a scarcity of personal protective equipment, including medical masks, for health care clinicians, especially in primary care settings. The objective of this review was to summarize current evidence regarding the use of cloth masks to prevent respiratory viral infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), among health care clinicians. METHODS: We searched 5 databases, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website, and the reference lists of identified articles on April 3, 2020. All identified publications were independently screened by 2 reviewers. Two authors independently extracted data and graded the studies. Randomized control trials (RCTs) were graded using the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist, and observational and nonhuman subject studies were graded using 11 domains common across frequently used critical appraisal tools. All discrepancies were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Our search identified 136 original publications. Nine studies met inclusion criteria. We performed a qualitative synthesis of the data from these studies. Four nonrandomized trials, 3 laboratory studies, 1 single-case experiment, and 1 RCT were identified. The laboratory studies found that cloth materials provided measurable levels of particle filtration but were less efficacious at blocking biologic material than medical masks. The RCT found that cloth masks were associated with significantly more viral infections than medical masks. CONCLUSIONS: The current literature suggests that cloth materials are somewhat efficacious in filtering particulate matter and aerosols but provide a worse fit and inferior protection compared to medical masks in clinical environments. The quality and quantity of literature addressing this question are lacking. Cloth masks lack evidence for adequate protection of health care clinicians against respiratory viral infections.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks/standards , Textiles , Equipment Design , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Materials Testing , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , United States
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 18, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994232

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the increased demands of health facilities and workers due to coronavirus overwhelm the already burdened Tanzanian health systems. This study evaluates the current capacity of facilities and providers for HIV care and treatment services and their preparedness to adhere to the national and global precaution guidelines for HIV service providers and patients. Methods: data for this study come from the latest available, Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey 2014-15. Frequencies and percentages described the readiness and availability of HIV services and providers. Chi-square test compared the distribution of services by facility location and availability and readiness of precaution commodities and HIV services by managing authorities. Results: availability of latex gloves was high (83% at OPD and 95.3% laboratory). Availability of medical masks, alcohol-based hand rub and disinfectants was low. Availability of medical mask at outpatient department (OPD) was 28.7% urban (23.5% public; 33.8% private, p=0.02) and 13.5% rural (10.1% public; 25.4% private, p=0.001) and lower at laboratories. Fewer facilities in rural area (68.4%) had running water in OPD than urban (86.3%). Higher proportions of providers at public than private facilities in urban (82.8% versus 73.1%) and rural (88.2% versus 81.6%) areas provided HIV test counseling and at least two other HIV services. Conclusion: availability of commodities such as medical masks, alcohol-based hand rub, and disinfectant was low while the readiness of providers to multitask HIV related services was high. Urgent distribution and re-assessment of these supplies are necessary, to protect HIV patients, their caregivers, and health providers from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/therapy , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Disinfectants/supply & distribution , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Sanitizers/supply & distribution , Health Care Surveys , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Private Facilities/standards , Private Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Public Facilities/standards , Public Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Rural Health Services/standards , Rural Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Tanzania , Urban Health Services/standards , Urban Health Services/statistics & numerical data
5.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 179, 2020 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916354

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is continuing to ravage the globe. In many Western Countries, the populous has not embraced public health advice which has resulted in a resurgence of the COVID-19 virus. In the United States, there is an absence of a coordinated Federal response. Instead, frontline workers and average citizens are having to cope with extensive mixed messaging regarding mask usage and social distancing from the highest levels of government. This has resulted in the United States not being able to achieve a low level of infection since the pandemic began. In addition, many citizens hold a profound belief that individual freedoms must be preserved, even at the expense of public health; and view the wearing of masks as renouncing this right. These engrained political beliefs can be traced back to the late 1800s. The response of the United States has also been hampered by a highly cost-efficient healthcare system, which does not provide universal care and has a just-in-time supply chain, with far too few supplies in reserve. This efficiency prevented a rapid scaling up of the healthcare response, which resulted in severe deficiencies in available personal protective equipment (PPE) and healthcare staff. To compound issues many healthcare staff are not provided an economic or healthcare safety net. Other frontline workers, such as those who work in transportation and food services, are working under even greater adversities. Many of these workers are from diverse backgrounds, who, along with their families, are at even greater risk for COVID-19. This vulnerable population of frontline workers are faced with a choice of going to work with inadequate PPE or placing food on their families' table. In the United States, official recommendations seem to be ever changing, based more upon supply and test availability, than on science. We must rely on science and learn from the lessons of past pandemics or we will relive, even to a greater degree, the deaths and devastations experienced by our ancestors over 100 years ago.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Global Health , Internationality , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS Virus , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution
7.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50360, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-831603

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever as recomendações sobre o uso racional e seguro dos equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) no transcorrer da cadeia assistencial de pessoas com suspeita ou confirmação de contaminação pelo novo coronavírus. Conteúdo: o novo coronavírus é responsável pela doença Covid-19, e dentre as pessoas com maior risco de desenvolver a infecção estão os trabalhadores de saúde, devido ao contato muito próximo a pacientes. Desse modo, a utilização de EPI é recomendação prioritária a estes trabalhadores. Todavia, em função do desabastecimento internacional e nacional relacionado a estes equipamentos, o uso racional é fundamental a fim de evitar que o impacto do desabastecimento seja ainda maior. Conclusão: o uso de EPI é indispensável aos trabalhadores de saúde durante a pandemia de Covid-19, contudo, é imprescindível coordenar a cadeia de fornecimento destes insumos, implementar estratégias que minimizem a necessidade de EPI e garantir o uso de maneira adequada.


Objective: to describe the recommendations on the rational, safe use of personal protective equipment (PPE) throughout the chain of care for people with suspected or confirmed contamination by the new coronavirus. Content: the new coronavirus is responsible for the disease Covid-19, and among those at high risk of infection are health workers in very close contact with patients. It is thus a priority recommendation for these workers to use PPE. However, international and national shortages of this equipment make rational use essential in order to prevent even greater impact from these shortages. Conclusion: it is essential that health workers use PPE during the Covid-19 pandemic, but it is also essential to coordinate the supply chain for these inputs, implement strategies that minimize the need for PPE and ensure proper use.


Objetivo: describir las recomendaciones sobre el uso racional y seguro del equipo de protección personal (EPP) en toda la cadena de atención para las personas con sospecha o confirmación de contaminación por el nuevo coronavirus. Contenido: el nuevo coronavirus es responsable de la enfermedad de Covid-19, y entre aquellos con alto riesgo de infección se encuentran los trabajadores de la salud en contacto muy cercano con los pacientes. Por lo tanto, es una recomendación prioritaria para estos trabajadores usar EPP. Sin embargo, la escasez internacional y nacional de este equipo hace que el uso racional sea esencial para evitar un impacto aún mayor de esta escasez. Conclusión: es esencial que los trabajadores de la salud usen EPP durante la pandemia de Covid-19, pero también es esencial coordinar la cadena de suministro para estos insumos, implementar estrategias que minimicen la necesidad de EPP y garantizar un uso adecuado.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Betacoronavirus , Masks/supply & distribution , Occupational Risks , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Masks/standards
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e042045, 2020 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a previous randomised controlled trial (RCT) in hospital healthcare workers (HCWs), cloth masks resulted in a higher risk of respiratory infections compared with medical masks. This was the only published RCT of cloth masks at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To do a post hoc analysis of unpublished data on mask washing and mask contamination from the original RCT to further understand poor performance of the two-layered cotton cloth mask used by HCWs in that RCT. SETTING: 14 secondary-level/tertiary-level hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: A subgroup of 607 HCWs aged ≥18 years working full time in selected high-risk wards, who used a two-layered cloth mask and were part of a randomised controlled clinical trial comparing medical masks and cloth masks. INTERVENTION: Washing method for cloth masks (self-washing or hospital laundry). A substudy of contamination of a sample of 15 cloth and medical masks was also conducted. OUTCOME MEASURE: Infection rate over 4 weeks of follow up and viral contamination of masks tested by multiplex PCR. RESULTS: Viral contamination with rhinovirus was identified on both used medical and cloth masks. Most HCW (77% of daily washing) self-washed their masks by hand. The risk of infection was more than double among HCW self-washing their masks compared with the hospital laundry (HR 2.04 (95% CI 1.03 to 4.00); p=0.04). There was no significant difference in infection between HCW who wore cloth masks washed in the hospital laundry compared with medical masks (p=0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Using self-reported method of washing, we showed double the risk of infection with seasonal respiratory viruses if masks were self-washed by hand by HCWs. The majority of HCWs in the study reported hand-washing their mask themselves. This could explain the poor performance of two layered cloth masks, if the self-washing was inadequate. Cloth masks washed in the hospital laundry were as protective as medical masks. Both cloth and medical masks were contaminated, but only cloth masks were reused in the study, reiterating the importance of daily washing of reusable cloth masks using proper method. A well-washed cloth mask can be as protective as a medical mask. TRIAL RESGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12610000887077.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disinfection , Equipment Contamination , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Disinfection/statistics & numerical data , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Male , Masks/classification , Masks/standards , Masks/supply & distribution , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Vietnam/epidemiology
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e039424, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788150

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined the ability of fabrics which might be used to create home-made face masks to filter out ultrafine (0.02-0.1 µm) particles at the velocity of adult human coughing. METHODS: Twenty commonly available fabrics and materials were evaluated for their ability to reduce air concentrations of ultrafine particles at coughing face velocities. Further assessment was made on the filtration ability of selected fabrics while damp and of fabric combinations which might be used to construct home-made masks. RESULTS: Single fabric layers blocked a range of ultrafine particles. When fabrics were layered, a higher percentage of ultrafine particles were filtered. The average filtration efficiency of single layer fabrics and of layered combination was found to be 35% and 45%, respectively. Non-woven fusible interfacing, when combined with other fabrics, could add up to 11% additional filtration efficiency. However, fabric and fabric combinations were more difficult to breathe through than N95 masks. CONCLUSIONS: The current coronavirus pandemic has left many communities without access to N95 face masks. Our findings suggest that face masks made from layered common fabric can help filter ultrafine particles and provide some protection for the wearer when commercial face masks are unavailable.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough , Masks/supply & distribution , Materials Testing , Particulate Matter , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Textiles , Air Filters , Betacoronavirus , Cellulose , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cotton Fiber , Humans , Nylons , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Polyesters , Polyurethanes , Respiratory Protective Devices/supply & distribution , Wool Fiber
11.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 132, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-762367

ABSTRACT

Facial masks may be one of the most cost-effective strategies to prevent the diffusion of COVID 19 infection. Nevertheless, fake news are spreading, alerting parents on dangerous side effects in children, such as hypercapnia, hypoxia, gut dysbiosis and immune system weakness. Aim of the Italian Pediatric Society statement is to face misconception towards the use of face masks and to spread scientific trustable information.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Masks/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Equipment Design , Humans , Masks/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
12.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760260

ABSTRACT

Face masks and respirators are the most widely used intervention measures for respiratory protection. In the wake of COVID-19, in response to shortages and lack of availability of surgical masks and respirators, the use of cloth masks has become a research focus. Various fabrics have been promoted with little evidence-based foundation and without guidelines on design principles for optimal performance. In these circumstances, it is essential to understand the properties, key performance factors, filter mechanisms and evidence on cloth masks materials. The general community might also need to decontaminate and reuse disposable, single-use devices as a last resort. We present an overview of the filter materials, filter mechanisms and effectiveness, key performance factors, and hydrophobicity of the common disposable masks, as well as cloth masks. We also reviewed decontamination methods for disposable respiratory devices. As an alternative to surgical masks and respirators, we recommend a cloth mask made of at least three layers (300-350 threads per inch) and adding a nylon stocking layer over the mask for a better fit. Water-resistant fabrics (polyesters/nylon), blends of fabrics and water-absorbing fabrics (cotton) should be in the outside layer, middle layer/layers and inside layer, respectively. The information outlined here will help people to navigate their choices if facing shortages of appropriate respiratory protection during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Decontamination , Masks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Decontamination/standards , Equipment Design , Humans , Masks/standards , Masks/supply & distribution , Medical Waste Disposal/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
13.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim ; 67(8): 417-424, 2020 10.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is a shortage of supplies for the protection of professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. 3D printing offers the possibility to compensate for the production of some of the equipment needed. The objective is to describe the role of 3D printing in a health service during the COVID-19 pandemic, with an emphasis on the process to develop a final product ready to be implemented in the clinical environment. METHODS: A working group was formed between the healthcare administration, clinicians and other public and private institutions in Cantabria, Spain coordinated by the Valdecilla Virtual Hospital. The process included receiving the printing proposals, learning about the printing resources in the region, selecting the devices, creating a team for each project, prototyping, evaluation and redesign, manufacturing, assembly and distribution. RESULTS: The following supplies are produced: 1) devices that help protect providers: face protection screens (2,400 units), personalized accessories for photophores (20 units) and ear-protection forks for face-masks (1,200 units); 2) products related to the ventilation of infected patients: connectors for non-invasive ventilation systems; and 3) oral and nasopharyngeal swabs (7,500 units) for the identification of coronavirus carriers with the aim of designing action protocols in clinical areas. CONCLUSIONS: 3D printing is a valid resource for the production of protective material for professionals whose supply is reduced during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Ventilators, Mechanical , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care , Equipment Design/methods , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Spain , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4049, 2020 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720833

ABSTRACT

The ongoing novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has already infected millions worldwide and, with no vaccine available, interventions to mitigate transmission are urgently needed. While there is broad agreement that travel restrictions and social distancing are beneficial in limiting spread, recommendations around face mask use are inconsistent. Here, we use mathematical modeling to examine the epidemiological impact of face masks, considering resource limitations and a range of supply and demand dynamics. Even with a limited protective effect, face masks can reduce total infections and deaths, and can delay the peak time of the epidemic. However, random distribution of masks is generally suboptimal; prioritized coverage of the elderly improves outcomes, while retaining resources for detected cases provides further mitigation under a range of scenarios. Face mask use, particularly for a pathogen with relatively common asymptomatic carriage, is an effective intervention strategy, while optimized distribution is important when resources are limited.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks/supply & distribution , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Resource Allocation/methods , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical , Morbidity , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237691, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717606

ABSTRACT

Efficient strategies to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are peremptory to relieve the negatively impacted public health and global economy, with the full scope yet to unfold. In the absence of highly effective drugs, vaccines, and abundant medical resources, many measures are used to manage the infection rate and avoid exhausting limited hospital resources. Wearing masks is among the non-pharmaceutical intervention (NPI) measures that could be effectively implemented at a minimum cost and without dramatically disrupting social practices. The mask-wearing guidelines vary significantly across countries. Regardless of the debates in the medical community and the global mask production shortage, more countries and regions are moving forward with recommendations or mandates to wear masks in public. Our study combines mathematical modeling and existing scientific evidence to evaluate the potential impact of the utilization of normal medical masks in public to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. We consider three key factors that contribute to the effectiveness of wearing a quality mask in reducing the transmission risk, including the mask aerosol reduction rate, mask population coverage, and mask availability. We first simulate the impact of these three factors on the virus reproduction number and infection attack rate in a general population. Using the intervened viral transmission route by wearing a mask, we further model the impact of mask-wearing on the epidemic curve with increasing mask awareness and availability. Our study indicates that wearing a face mask can be effectively combined with social distancing to flatten the epidemic curve. Wearing a mask presents a rational way to implement as an NPI to combat COVID-19. We recognize our study provides a projection based only on currently available data and estimates potential probabilities. As such, our model warrants further validation studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Masks/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
16.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim ; 67(8): 417-424, 2020 10.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is a shortage of supplies for the protection of professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. 3D printing offers the possibility to compensate for the production of some of the equipment needed. The objective is to describe the role of 3D printing in a health service during the COVID-19 pandemic, with an emphasis on the process to develop a final product ready to be implemented in the clinical environment. METHODS: A working group was formed between the healthcare administration, clinicians and other public and private institutions in Cantabria, Spain coordinated by the Valdecilla Virtual Hospital. The process included receiving the printing proposals, learning about the printing resources in the region, selecting the devices, creating a team for each project, prototyping, evaluation and redesign, manufacturing, assembly and distribution. RESULTS: The following supplies are produced: 1) devices that help protect providers: face protection screens (2,400 units), personalized accessories for photophores (20 units) and ear-protection forks for face-masks (1,200 units); 2) products related to the ventilation of infected patients: connectors for non-invasive ventilation systems; and 3) oral and nasopharyngeal swabs (7,500 units) for the identification of coronavirus carriers with the aim of designing action protocols in clinical areas. CONCLUSIONS: 3D printing is a valid resource for the production of protective material for professionals whose supply is reduced during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Ventilators, Mechanical , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care , Equipment Design/methods , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Spain , Tertiary Care Centers
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 965-966, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696389

ABSTRACT

Use of medical masks is a key strategy for COVID-19 prevention among healthcare workers. Unfortunately, there are global shortages of this essential commodity, and many have resulted in inappropriate usage to conserve supply. This article highlights the likely benefits of face mask containers in promoting safe, appropriate, and extended use of medical masks by healthcare workers in settings where a sustainable supply of medical masks may be limited.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution
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