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2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262874, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643288

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has circulated worldwide and causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, infection control measures were taken, such as hand washing, mask wearing, and behavioral restrictions. However, it is not fully clear how the effects of these non-pharmaceutical interventions changed the prevalence of other pathogens associated with respiratory infections. In this study, we collected 3,508 nasopharyngeal swab samples from 3,249 patients who visited the Yamanashi Central Hospital in Japan from March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021. We performed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the FilmArray Respiratory Panel and singleplex quantitative reverse transcription PCR targeting SARS-CoV-2 to detect respiratory disease-associated pathogens. At least one pathogen was detected in 246 (7.0%) of the 3,508 samples. Eleven types of pathogens were detected in the samples collected from March-May 2020, during which non-pharmaceutical interventions were not well implemented. In contrast, after non-pharmaceutical interventions were thoroughly implemented, only five types of pathogens were detected, and the majority were SARS-CoV-2, adenoviruses, or human rhinoviruses / enteroviruses. The 0-9 year age group had a higher prevalence of infection with adenoviruses and human rhinoviruses / enteroviruses compared with those 10 years and older, while those 10 years and older had a higher prevalence of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens. These results indicated that non-pharmaceutical interventions likely reduced the diversity of circulating pathogens. Moreover, differences in the prevalence of pathogens were observed among the different age groups.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enterovirus/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/classification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Enterovirus/classification , Female , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Masks/supply & distribution , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nasopharynx/virology , Prevalence , Quarantine/organization & administration , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Rhinovirus/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 159, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the COVID-19 pandemic context, a massive shortage of personal protective equipment occurred. To increase the available stocks, several countries appealed for donations from individuals or industries. While national and international standards to evaluate personal protective equipment exist, none of the previous research studied how to evaluate personal protective equipment coming from donations to healthcare establishments. Our aim was to evaluate the quality and possible use of the personal protective equipment donations delivered to our health care establishment in order to avoid a shortage and to protect health care workers throughout the COVID-19 crisis. METHODS: Our intervention focused on evaluation of the quality of donations for medical use through creation of a set of assessment criteria and analysis of the economic impact of these donations. RESULTS: Between 20th March 2020 and 11th May 2020, we received 239 donations including respirators, gloves, coveralls, face masks, gowns, hats, overshoes, alcohol-based hand rubs, face shields, goggles and aprons. A total of 448,666 (86.3%) products out of the 519,618 initially received were validated and distributed in health care units, equivalent to 126 (52.7%) donations out of the 239 received. The budgetary value of the validated donations was 32,872 euros according to the pre COVID-19 prices and 122,178 euros according to the current COVID-19 prices, representing an increase of 371.7%. CONCLUSIONS: By ensuring a constant influx of personal protective equipment and proper stock management, shortages were avoided. Procurement and distribution of controlled and validated personal protective equipment is the key to providing quality care while guaranteeing health care worker safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Eye Protective Devices/supply & distribution , Health Personnel/psychology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks/supply & distribution , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Protective Clothing/supply & distribution , Safety Management , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Protective Clothing/statistics & numerical data , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2
6.
ACS Nano ; 14(6): 7651-7658, 2020 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387149

ABSTRACT

Layered systems of commonly available fabric materials can be used by the public and healthcare providers in face masks to reduce the risk of inhaling viruses with protection that is about equivalent to or better than the filtration and adsorption offered by 5-layer N95 respirators. Over 70 different common fabric combinations and masks were evaluated under steady-state, forced convection air flux with pulsed aerosols that simulate forceful respiration. The aerosols contain fluorescent virus-like nanoparticles to track transmission through materials that greatly assist the accuracy of detection, thus avoiding artifacts including pore flooding and the loss of aerosol due to evaporation and droplet breakup. Effective materials comprise both absorbent, hydrophilic layers and barrier, hydrophobic layers. Although the hydrophobic layers can adhere virus-like nanoparticles, they may also repel droplets from adjacent absorbent layers and prevent wicking transport across the fabric system. Effective designs are noted with absorbent layers comprising terry cloth towel, quilting cotton, and flannel. Effective designs are noted with barrier layers comprising nonwoven polypropylene, polyester, and polyaramid.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Textiles , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Filtration , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Masks/supply & distribution , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Particle Size , Permeability , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
8.
Am J Public Health ; 111(9): 1595-1599, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374179

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a shortage of personal protective equipment compromised efficient patient care and provider safety. Volunteers from many different backgrounds worked to meet these demands. Additive manufacturing, laser cutting, and alternative supply chains were used to produce, test, and deliver essential equipment for health care workers and first responders. Distributed equipment included ear guards, face shields, and masks. Contingent designs were created for powered air-purifying respirator hoods, filtered air pumps, intubation shields, and N95 masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment and Supplies/supply & distribution , Colorado/epidemiology , Equipment Design , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Volunteers
9.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 34: e37234, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1328341

ABSTRACT

Objetivo relatar a experiência de produção de máscaras cirúrgicas por uma comissão de produção de inovação tecnológica. Método estudo descritivo do tipo relato de experiência. O processo de produção envolveu seis costureiras, uma cortando o tecido-não-tecido hospitalar, uma na máquina Overlock para fazer o acabamento nas laterais e quatro, costurando na máquina Reta. Foi utilizado tecido-não-tecido gramatura de 60, linhas brancas e arame galvanizado encapado. Resultado a produção chegou a 1.300 máscaras cirúrgicas por dia. Todas passaram pelo teste de qualidade em uma central de distribuição antes de serem encaminhadas aos serviços de saúde. O processo foi gerenciado por duas enfermeiras. Conclusão a estratégia relatada representou a produção de 63 mil unidades de máscaras cirúrgicas e foi uma maneira alternativa de suprir a demanda de máscaras cirúrgicas nos serviços de saúde, contribuindo para melhorar a segurança dos profissionais de saúde no âmbito da COVID-19.


Objetivo informar la experiencia de producción de mascarillas quirúrgicas por una comisión de producción de innovación tecnológica. Método estudio descriptivo del tipo informe de experiencia. El proceso de producción implicó seis costureras, una cortando la tela no tejida hospitalaria, una en la máquina Sobrehilada para hacer el acabado en los lados y cuatro cosiendo en la máquina Recta. Se utilizó una tela no tejida de 60 gramos, hilos blancos y un alambre galvanizado camuflado. Resultado la producción alcanzó 1.300 máscaras quirúrgicas por día. El proceso fue gestionado por dos enfermeras. Conclusión la estrategia reportada representó la producción de 63.000 unidades de mascarillas quirúrgicas y fue una forma alternativa de satisfacer la demanda de mascarillas quirúrgicas en los servicios de salud, contribuyendo a mejorar la seguridad de los profesionales de la salud en el contexto da la COVID-19.


Objective to report the experience of production of surgical masks by a committee of technological innovation production. Method descriptive study of the experience-report type. The production process involved six seamstresses, one cutting the hospital nonwoven fabric, one at the Overlock stitch machine to make the finish of sides and four sewing with the Straight stitch machine. A 60-grammage nonwoven fabric, white thread and a cloaked galvanized wire were used. Result production reached 1,300 surgical masks per day. The process was managed by two nurses. Conclusion the strategy reported represented the production of 63,000 units of surgical masks and was an alternative to meet the demand for surgical masks in health services, contributing to improve the safety of health professionals within the scope of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Masks/supply & distribution , Quality Control , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Equipment and Supplies, Disasters , Masks/economics , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control
10.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 18(7): 334-344, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254232

ABSTRACT

Homemade cloth masks and other improvised face coverings have become widespread during the COVID-19 pandemic driven by severe shortages of personal protective equipment. In this study, various alternative (mostly common household) materials, which have not traditionally been used in respiratory protective devices, were tested for particle filtration performance and breathability. Most of these materials were found of some-but rather limited-utility in facemasks. At a breathing flow rate of 30 L min-1, 17 out of 19 tested materials demonstrated collection efficiency below 50%; at 85 L min-1, only one material featured particle collection efficiency above 50%. Pressure drop values were mostly below 4 mm w.g. (observed in 89% of cases for the two flow rates), which provides comfortable breathing. Only for one fabric material (silk) tested at 85 L min-1 did the pressure drop reach 11 mm w.g. Based on these results, a three-layer facemask prototype was designed and fabricated comprised of the best performing materials. Additional tests were conducted to examine possible particle detachment/shedding from the materials used in the newly developed facemask, but no such phenomenon was observed. The prototype was evaluated on 10 human subjects using the standard OSHA-approved quantitative fit testing protocol. The mask protection level, determined as an adopted fit factor, was found to lie between that of the two commercial surgical/medical masks tested for comparison. A 10-cycle washing of the mask prototype lowered its collection efficiency across the particle size range; however, washing did not substantially affect mask breathability. The study revealed that although homemade masks offer a certain level of protection to a wearer, one should not expect them to provide the same respiratory protection as high-end commercial surgical/medical masks or-by any means-NIOSH-certified N95 filtering facepieces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Equipment Design , Filtration/instrumentation , Masks/standards , Materials Testing , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Particle Size , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Respiration , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , Respiratory Protective Devices/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
11.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252224, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249577

ABSTRACT

As countries are lifting restrictions and resuming international travels, the rising risk of COVID-19 importation remains concerning, given that the SARS-CoV-2 virus could be transmitted unintentionally through the global transportation network. To explore and assess the effective strategies for curtailing the epidemic risk from international importation nationwide, we evaluated "the joint prevention and control" mechanism, which made up of 19 containment policies, on how it impacted the change of medical observation and detection time from border arrival to laboratory confirmation of COVID-19 in its burst in China. Based on 1,314 epidemiological-survey cases from February 29 to May 25, 2020, we found that the synchronized approach of implementing multi-dimensional interventional policies, such as a centralized quarantine and nucleic acid testing (NAT), flight service adjustment and border closure, effectively facilitate early identification of infected case. Specifically, the implementation of the international flight service reduction was found to be associated with a reduction of the mean intervals of diagnosis from arrival to lab-confirmation by 0.44 days maximally, and the border closure was associated with a reduction of the diagnosis interval of imported cases by 0.69 days, from arrival to laboratory confirmation. The study suggests that a timely and synchronized implementation of multi-dimensional policies is compelling in preventing domestic spreading from importation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Government Regulation , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Emigration and Immigration/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , Quarantine/organization & administration , Travel/statistics & numerical data
12.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0251722, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mexican state governments' actions are essential to control the COVID-19 pandemic within the country. However, the type, rigor and pace of implementation of public policies have varied considerably between states. Little is known about the subnational (state) variation policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected daily information on public policies designed to inform the public, as well as to promote distancing, and mask use. The policies analyzed were: School Closure, Workplace Closure, Cancellation of Public Events, Restrictions on Gatherings, Stay at Home Order, Public Transit Suspensions, Information Campaigns, Internal Travel Controls, International Travel Controls, Use of Face Masks We use these data to create a composite index to evaluate the adoption of these policies in the 32 states. We then assess the timeliness and rigor of the policies across the country, from the date of the first case, February 27, 2020. RESULTS: The national average in the index during the 143 days of the pandemic was 41.1 out of a possible 100 points on our index. Nuevo León achieved the highest performance (50.4); San Luis Potosí the lowest (34.1). The differential between the highest versus the lowest performance was 47.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies variability and heterogeneity in how and when Mexican states implemented policies to contain COVID-19. We demonstrate the absence of a uniform national response and widely varying stringency of state responses. We also show how these responses are not based on testing and do not reflect the local burden of disease. National health system stewardship and a coordinated, timely, rigorous response to the pandemic did not occur in Mexico but is desirable to contain COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Government Regulation , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Mexico/epidemiology , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , Quarantine/organization & administration , Travel
13.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211019854, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249513

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on the 11th of March 2020, leading to some form of lockdown across almost all countries of the world. The extent of the global pandemic due to COVID-19 has a significant impact on our lives that must be studied carefully to combat it. This study highlights the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on crucial aspects of daily life globally, including; Food security, Global economy, Education, Tourism, hospitality, sports and leisure, Gender Relation, Domestic Violence/Abuse, Mental Health and Environmental air pollution through a systematic search of the literature. The COVID-19 global lockdown was initiated to stem the spread of the virus and 'flatten the curve' of the pandemic. However, the impact of the lockdown has had far-reaching effects in different strata of life, including; changes in the accessibility and structure of education delivery to students, food insecurity as a result of unavailability and fluctuation in prices, the depression of the global economy, increase in mental health challenges, wellbeing and quality of life amongst others. This review article highlights the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown across the globe. As the global lockdown is being lifted in a phased manner in various countries of the world, it is necessary to explore its impacts to understand its consequences comprehensively. This will guide future decisions that will be made in a possible future wave of the COVID-19 pandemic or other global disease outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Domestic Violence/psychology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/transmission , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Education/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/economics , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Leisure Activities/psychology , Masks/supply & distribution , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/organization & administration , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sports/psychology , Tourism
14.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200276, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243895

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe a proposal for making and distributing masks for population in risk, with guidance on the stages of making them and the care in handling them based on the development of educational video and infographic. METHOD: Experience report on the stages of the process of training people to make fabric masks for the population at risk, between March and June 2020, in a city in the interior of São Paulo. RESULTS: 1,650 masks were made and distributed to vulnerable population groups from different contexts and tutorial video and infographic were elaborated and released to enable people to make their own masks with resources available at home. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: It was possible to manufacture and distribute masks for the population at risk and develop educational actions to contain the disease, given the advance of confirmed cases and deaths by Covid-19, corroborating the role of nursing in health education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Masks/supply & distribution , Vulnerable Populations , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation , Health Education , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Textiles , Video Recording
16.
Health Sociol Rev ; 29(2): 158-167, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116776

ABSTRACT

Shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) and medical devices needed during the COVID-19 pandemic were widely reported in early 2020. In response, civic DIY volunteers explored how they could produce the required equipment. Members of communities such as hacker- and makerspaces employed their skills and tools to manufacture, for example, face shields and masks. The article discusses these civic innovation practices and their broader social implications by relating them to critical making theory. Methodologically, it is based on a digital ethnography approach, focusing on hacker and maker communities in the UK. Communities' DIY initiatives display characteristics of critical making and 'craftivism', as they assessed and counteracted politicised healthcare supply shortages. It is argued that their manufacturing activities during the COVID pandemic relate to UK austerity politics' effects on healthcare and government failure to ensure medical crisis supplies. Facilitated by open source design, communities' innovation enabled healthcare emergency equipment. At the same time, their DIY manufacturing raises practical as well as ethical issues concerning, among other things, efficacy and safety of use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/supply & distribution , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Protective Devices , Equipment Design , Humans , Masks/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Private Sector , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Can J Psychiatry ; 66(1): 17-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072892

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between perceived adequacy of personal protective equipment (PPE) and workplace-based infection control procedures (ICP) and mental health symptoms among a sample of health-care workers in Canada within the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A convenience-based internet survey of health-care workers in Canada was facilitated through various labor organizations between April 7 and May 13, 2020. A total of 7,298 respondents started the survey, of which 5,988 reported information on the main exposures and outcomes. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-2) screener, and depression symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) screener. We assessed the perceived need and adequacy of 8 types of PPE and 10 different ICP. Regression analyses examined the proportion of GAD-2 and PHQ-2 scores of 3 and higher across levels of PPE and ICP, adjusted for a range of demographic, occupation, workplace, and COVID-19-specific measures. RESULTS: A total of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53.5% to 56.1%) of the sample had GAD-2 scores of 3 and higher, and 42.3% (95% CI, 41.0% to 43.6%) of the sample had PHQ-2 scores of 3 and higher. Absolute differences of 18% (95% CI, 12% to 23%) and 17% (95% CI, 12% to 22%) were observed in the prevalence of GAD-2 scores of 3 and higher between workers whose perceived PPE needs and ICP needs were met compared to those who needs were not met. Differences of between 11% (95% CI, 6% to 17%) and 19% (95% CI, 14% to 24%) were observed in PHQ-2 scores of 3 and higher across these same PPE and ICP categories. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest strengthening employer-based infection control strategies likely has important implications for the mental health symptoms among health-care workers in Canada.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Infection Control/standards , Occupational Health , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Age Factors , Anxiety/epidemiology , Attitude of Health Personnel , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Eye Protective Devices/supply & distribution , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Masks/supply & distribution , N95 Respirators/supply & distribution , Patient Health Questionnaire , Perception , Respiratory Protective Devices/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Surgical Attire/supply & distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(6): e640-e642, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052239

ABSTRACT

On January 8, 2020, a novel coronavirus was officially announced as the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.On February 26, COVID-19 has been recognized in 34 countries, with a total of 80,239 laboratory-confirmed patients and 2700 deaths.Protecting healthcare workers from infectious hazards is paramount to ensuring their safety in delivering health care.In addition, being able to protect healthcare workers, constituting the front-line response against high-threat respiratory pathogens, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, is important for reducing secondary transmission in healthcare-associated outbreaks.Authors present a simple, reliable, and cheap protocol to produce a custom-made sterilizable filtering facepiece 2/3 masks for healthcare providers during pandemic COVID-19 emergency.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Masks/supply & distribution , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Masks/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Sterilization
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