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1.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether children receiving immunosuppressive therapies for neuroimmunologic disorders had (1) increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection or to develop more severe forms of COVID-19; (2) increased relapses or autoimmune complications if infected; and (3) changes in health care delivery during the pandemic. METHODS: Patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment were recruited to participate in a retrospective survey evaluating the period from March 14, 2020, to March 30, 2021. Demographics, clinical features, type of immunosuppressive treatment, suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in the patients or cohabitants, and changes in care delivery were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three children were included: 84 (55%) female, median age 13 years (interquartile range [8-16] years), 79 (52%) on immunosuppressive treatment. COVID-19 was suspected or confirmed in 17 (11%) (all mild), with a frequency similar in patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment (11/79 [14%] vs 6/74 [8%], p = 0.3085). The frequency of neurologic relapses was similar in patients with (18%) and without (21%) COVID-19. Factors associated with COVID-19 included having cohabitants with COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and lower blood levels of vitamin D (p = 0.039). Return to face-to-face schooling or mask type did not influence the risk of infection, although 43(28%) children had contact with a classmate with COVID-19. Clinic visits changed from face to face to remote for 120 (79%) patients; 110 (92%) were satisfied with the change. DISCUSSION: In this cohort of children with neuroimmunologic disorders, the frequency of COVID-19 was low and not affected by immunosuppressive therapies. The main risk factors for developing COVID-19 were having cohabitants with COVID-19 and low vitamin D levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Child , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Masks/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D/blood
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24318, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585786

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique challenge to the healthcare community due to the high infectivity rate and need for effective personal protective equipment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have shown promising antimicrobial properties and are recognized as a safe additive in many food and cosmetic products. This work presents a novel nanocomposite synthesis approach, which allows zinc oxide nanoparticles to be grown within textile and face mask materials, including melt-blown polypropylene and nylon-cotton. The resulting nanocomposite achieves greater than 3 log10 reduction (≥ 99.9%) in coronavirus titer within a contact time of 10 min, by disintegrating the viral envelope. The new nanocomposite textile retains activity even after 100 laundry cycles and has been dermatologist tested as non-irritant and hypoallergenic. Various face mask designs were tested to improve filtration efficiency and breathability while offering antiviral protection, with Claros' design reporting higher filtration efficiency than surgical masks (> 50%) for particles ranged 200 nm to 5 µm in size.


Subject(s)
Masks/virology , Nanocomposites/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Filtration/methods , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nylons/chemistry , Polypropylenes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/analysis , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19216, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442804

ABSTRACT

Global health organizations recommend the use of cloth face coverings to slow the spread of COVID-19. Seemingly overnight, companies whose primary business is in no way related to healthcare or personal protective equipment-from mattresses manufacturers to big box stores-transitioned into the "mask business." Many companies advertise antimicrobial masks containing silver, copper, or other antimicrobials. Often, the techniques used to load such antimicrobials onto mask fibers are undisclosed, and the potential for metal leaching from these masks is yet unknown. We exposed nine so-called "antimicrobial" face masks (and one 100% cotton control mask) to deionized water, laundry detergent, and artificial saliva to quantify the leachable silver and copper that may occur during mask washing and wearing. Leaching varied widely across manufacturer, metal, and leaching solution, but in some cases was as high as 100% of the metals contained in the as-received mask after 1 h of exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , Anti-Infective Agents , Filtration , Humans , Masks/virology , Metals , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257428, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435612

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Twitter represents a mainstream news source for the American public, offering a valuable vehicle for learning how citizens make sense of pandemic health threats like Covid-19. Masking as a risk mitigation measure became controversial in the US. The social amplification risk framework offers insight into how a risk event interacts with psychological, social, institutional, and cultural communication processes to shape Covid-19 risk perception. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis was conducted on 7,024 mask tweets reflecting 6,286 users between January 24 and July 7, 2020, to identify how citizens expressed Covid-19 risk perception over time. Descriptive statistics were computed for (a) proportion of tweets using hyperlinks, (b) mentions, (c) hashtags, (d) questions, and (e) location. RESULTS: Six themes emerged regarding how mask tweets amplified and attenuated Covid-19 risk: (a) severity perceptions (18.0%) steadily increased across 5 months; (b) mask effectiveness debates (10.7%) persisted; (c) who is at risk (26.4%) peaked in April and May 2020; (d) mask guidelines (15.6%) peaked April 3, 2020, with federal guidelines; (e) political legitimizing of Covid-19 risk (18.3%) steadily increased; and (f) mask behavior of others (31.6%) composed the largest discussion category and increased over time. Of tweets, 45% contained a hyperlink, 40% contained mentions, 33% contained hashtags, and 16.5% were expressed as a question. CONCLUSIONS: Users ascribed many meanings to mask wearing in the social media information environment revealing that COVID-19 risk was expressed in a more expanded range than objective risk. The simultaneous amplification and attenuation of COVID-19 risk perception on social media complicates public health messaging about mask wearing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Communication , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Perception/physiology , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Opinion , Risk-Taking , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255148, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405336

ABSTRACT

The widespread use of facemasks throughout the population is recommended by the WHO to reduce transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. As some regions of the world are facing mask shortages, reuse may be necessary. However, used masks are considered as a potential hazard that may spread and transmit disease if they are not decontaminated correctly and systematically before reuse. As a result, the inappropriate decontamination practices that are commonly witnessed in the general public are challenging management of the epidemic at a large scale. To achieve public acceptance and implementation, decontamination procedures need to be low-cost and simple. We propose the use of hot hygroscopic materials to decontaminate non-medical facemasks in household settings. We report on the inactivation of a viral load on a facial mask exposed to hot hygroscopic materials for 15 minutes. As opposed to recent academic studies whereby decontamination is achieved by maintaining heat and humidity above a given value, a more flexible procedure is proposed here using a slow decaying pattern, which is both effective and easier to implement, suggesting straightforward public deployment and hence reliable implementation by the population.


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Equipment Reuse/standards , Masks/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hot Temperature , Humans , Humidity , SARS-CoV-2
7.
ACS Nano ; 14(7): 9188-9200, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387153

ABSTRACT

Filtration efficiency (FE), differential pressure (ΔP), quality factor (QF), and construction parameters were measured for 32 cloth materials (14 cotton, 1 wool, 9 synthetic, 4 synthetic blends, and 4 synthetic/cotton blends) used in cloth masks intended for protection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus (diameter 100 ± 10 nm). Seven polypropylene-based fiber filter materials were also measured including surgical masks and N95 respirators. Additional measurements were performed on both multilayered and mixed-material samples of natural, synthetic, or natural-synthetic blends to mimic cloth mask construction methods. Materials were microimaged and tested against size selected NaCl aerosol with particle mobility diameters between 50 and 825 nm. Three of the top five best performing samples were woven 100% cotton with high to moderate yarn counts, and the other two were woven synthetics of moderate yarn counts. In contrast to recently published studies, samples utilizing mixed materials did not exhibit a significant difference in the measured FE when compared to the product of the individual FE for the components. The FE and ΔP increased monotonically with the number of cloth layers for a lightweight flannel, suggesting that multilayered cloth masks may offer increased protection from nanometer-sized aerosol with a maximum FE dictated by breathability (i.e., ΔP).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , Textiles/standards , Aerosols/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Filtration , Humans , Masks/virology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/virology , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles/adverse effects , Textiles/virology
8.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(4): 678-697, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385931

ABSTRACT

During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic new studies are emerging daily providing novel information about sources, transmission risks and possible prevention measures. In this review, we aimed to comprehensively summarize the current evidence on possible sources for SARS-CoV-2, including evaluation of transmission risks and effectiveness of applied prevention measures. Next to symptomatic patients, asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic carriers are a possible source with respiratory secretions as the most likely cause for viral transmission. Air and inanimate surfaces may be sources; however, viral RNA has been inconsistently detected. Similarly, even though SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected on or in personal protective equipment (PPE), blood, urine, eyes, the gastrointestinal tract and pets, these sources are currently thought to play a negligible role for transmission. Finally, various prevention measures such as handwashing, hand disinfection, face masks, gloves, surface disinfection or physical distancing for the healthcare setting and in public are analysed for their expected protective effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Carrier State/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Carrier State/virology , Gloves, Protective/virology , Hand Disinfection/methods , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Masks/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/virology
9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(9): e296-e301, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371553

ABSTRACT

Adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been highly variable across settings, particularly in the USA. In this Personal View, we review data supporting the importance of the viral inoculum (the dose of viral particles from an infected source over time) in increasing the probability of infection in respiratory, gastrointestinal, and sexually transmitted viral infections in humans. We also review the available evidence linking the relationship of the viral inoculum to disease severity. Non-pharmaceutical interventions might reduce the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection by reducing the viral inoculum when there is exposure to an infectious source. Data from physical sciences research suggest that masks protect the wearer by filtering virus from external sources, and others by reducing expulsion of virus by the wearer. Social distancing, handwashing, and improved ventilation also reduce the exposure amount of viral particles from an infectious source. Maintaining and increasing non-pharmaceutical interventions can help to quell SARS-CoV-2 as we enter the second year of the pandemic. Finally, we argue that even as safe and effective vaccines are being rolled out, non-pharmaceutical interventions will continue to play an essential role in suppressing SARS-CoV-2 transmission until equitable and widespread vaccine administration has been completed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Masks/virology , Physical Distancing , Severity of Illness Index , Ventilation , Virus Diseases/transmission
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0241734, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325370

ABSTRACT

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is crucially important to the safety of both patients and medical personnel, particularly in the event of an infectious pandemic. As the incidence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases exponentially in the United States and many parts of the world, healthcare provider demand for these necessities is currently outpacing supply. In the midst of the current pandemic, there has been a concerted effort to identify viable ways to conserve PPE, including decontamination after use. In this study, we outline a procedure by which PPE may be decontaminated using ultraviolet (UV) radiation in biosafety cabinets (BSCs), a common element of many academic, public health, and hospital laboratories. According to the literature, effective decontamination of N95 respirator masks or surgical masks requires UV-C doses of greater than 1 Jcm-2, which was achieved after 4.3 hours per side when placing the N95 at the bottom of the BSCs tested in this study. We then demonstrated complete inactivation of the human coronavirus NL63 on N95 mask material after 15 minutes of UV-C exposure at 61 cm (232 µWcm-2). Our results provide support to healthcare organizations looking for methods to extend their reserves of PPE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Decontamination/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Equipment Reuse , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Laboratories/organization & administration , Masks/virology , N95 Respirators/virology , Radiometry/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
13.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(12): 2489-2496, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293388

ABSTRACT

Easy access to screening for timely identification and isolation of infectious COVID-19 patients remains crucial in sustaining the international efforts to control COVID-19 spread. A major barrier limiting broad-based screening is the lack of a simple, rapid, and cost-effective COVID-19 testing method. We evaluated the feasibility and utility of facemask sampling in a cohort of 42 COVID-19-positive and 36 COVID-19-negative patients. We used a prototype of Steri-Strips™ (3 M) applied to the inner surface of looped surgical facemasks (Assure), which was worn by patients for a minimum wear time of 3 h, then removed and sent for SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing. Baseline demographics and symptomatology were also collected. Facemask sampling positivity was highest within the first 5 days of symptomatic presentation. Patients with nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal swab SARS-CoV-2 PCR Ct values < 25.09 had SARS-CoV-2 detected on facemask sampling, while patients with Ct values ≥ 25.2 had no SARS-CoV-2 detected on facemask sampling. Facemask sampling can identify patients with COVID-19 during the early symptomatic phase or those with high viral loads, hence allowing timely identification and isolation of those with the highest transmission risk. Given the widespread use of facemasks, this method can potentially be easily applied to achieve broad-based, or even continuous, population screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/virology , Masks/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , Cohort Studies , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13476, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287817

ABSTRACT

Face masks and personal respirators are used to curb the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory droplets; filters embedded in some personal protective equipment could be used as a non-invasive sample source for applications, including at-home testing, but information is needed about whether filters are suited to capture viral particles for SARS-CoV-2 detection. In this study, we generated inactivated virus-laden aerosols of 0.3-2 microns in diameter (0.9 µm mean diameter by mass) and dispersed the aerosolized viral particles onto electrostatic face mask filters. The limit of detection for inactivated coronaviruses SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 extracted from filters was between 10 to 100 copies/filter for both viruses. Testing for SARS-CoV-2, using face mask filters and nasopharyngeal swabs collected from hospitalized COVID-19-patients, showed that filter samples offered reduced sensitivity (8.5% compared to nasopharyngeal swabs). The low concordance of SARS-CoV-2 detection between filters and nasopharyngeal swabs indicated that number of viral particles collected on the face mask filter was below the limit of detection for all patients but those with the highest viral loads. This indicated face masks are unsuitable to replace diagnostic nasopharyngeal swabs in COVID-19 diagnosis. The ability to detect nucleic acids on face mask filters may, however, find other uses worth future investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Masks/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aerosols , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Limit of Detection , Male , Middle Aged , Particle Size , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Static Electricity , Viral Load , Young Adult
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 199-207, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279597

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine patterns of mask wearing and other infection prevention behaviours, over two time periods of the COVID-19 pandemic, in cities where mask wearing was not a cultural norm. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of masks and other preventive behaviours in adults aged ≥18 years was conducted in five cities: Sydney and Melbourne, Australia; London, UK; and Phoenix and New York, USA. Data were analysed according to the epidemiology of COVID-19, mask mandates and a range of predictors of mask wearing. RESULTS: The most common measures used were avoiding public areas (80.4%), hand hygiene (76.4%), wearing masks (71.8%) and distancing (67.6%). Over 40% of people avoided medical facilities. These measures decreased from March-July 2020. Pandemic fatigue was associated with younger age, low perceived severity of COVID-19 and declining COVID-19 prevalence. Predictors of mask wearing were location (US, UK), mandates, age <50 years, education, having symptoms and knowing someone with COVID-19. Negative experiences with mask wearing and low perceived severity of COVID-19 reduced mask wearing. Most respondents (98%) believed that hand washing and distancing were necessary, and 80% reported no change or stricter adherence to these measures when wearing masks. CONCLUSION: Pandemic mitigation measures were widely reported across all cities, but decreased between March and July 2020. Pandemic fatigue was more common in younger people. Cities with mandates had higher rates of mask wearing. Promotion of mask use for older people may be useful. Masks did not result in a reduction of other hygiene measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mandatory Programs , Masks/virology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 18(7): 345-360, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269471

ABSTRACT

First responders may have high SARS-CoV-2 infection risks due to working with potentially infected patients in enclosed spaces. The study objective was to estimate infection risks per transport for first responders and quantify how first responder use of N95 respirators and patient use of cloth masks can reduce these risks. A model was developed for two Scenarios: an ambulance transport with a patient actively emitting a virus in small aerosols that could lead to airborne transmission (Scenario 1) and a subsequent transport with the same respirator or mask use conditions, an uninfected patient; and remaining airborne SARS-CoV-2 and contaminated surfaces due to aerosol deposition from the previous transport (Scenario 2). A compartmental Monte Carlo simulation model was used to estimate the dispersion and deposition of SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent infection risks for first responders, accounting for variability and uncertainty in input parameters (i.e., transport duration, transfer efficiencies, SARS-CoV-2 emission rates from infected patients, etc.). Infection risk distributions and changes in concentration on hands and surfaces over time were estimated across sub-Scenarios of first responder respirator use and patient cloth mask use. For Scenario 1, predicted mean infection risks were reduced by 69%, 48%, and 85% from a baseline risk (no respirators or face masks used) of 2.9 × 10-2 ± 3.4 × 10-2 when simulated first responders wore respirators, the patient wore a cloth mask, and when first responders and the patient wore respirators or a cloth mask, respectively. For Scenario 2, infection risk reductions for these same Scenarios were 69%, 50%, and 85%, respectively (baseline risk of 7.2 × 10-3 ± 1.0 × 10-2). While aerosol transmission routes contributed more to viral dose in Scenario 1, our simulations demonstrate the ability of face masks worn by patients to additionally reduce surface transmission by reducing viral deposition on surfaces. Based on these simulations, we recommend the patient wear a face mask and first responders wear respirators, when possible, and disinfection should prioritize high use equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks/virology , N95 Respirators/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Ambulances , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Simulation , Emergency Responders , Equipment Contamination , Humans , Monte Carlo Method , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , Risk Reduction Behavior , Transportation of Patients
17.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244142

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted the need for protective and effective personal protective equipment (PPE). Research has shown that SARS-CoV-2 can survive on personal protective equipment, such as commonly used surgical masks. Methods are needed to inactivate virus on contaminated material. We show here that embedding viral-disinfecting compounds during the manufacturing of surgical masks inactivates a high dose (up to 1 × 105 pfu) of live, authentic SARS-CoV-2 within minutes.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Masks/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Humans
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10187, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228269

ABSTRACT

The severe outbreak of respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 has increased the significant demand of respiratory mask and its use become ubiquitous worldwide to control this unprecedented respiratory pandemic. The performance of a respiratory mask depends on the efficiency of the filter layer which is mostly made of polypropylene melt blown non-woven (PP-MB-NW). So far, very limited characterization data are available for the PPE-MB-NW in terms to achieve desired particulate filtration efficiency (PFE) against 0.3 µm size, which are imperative in order to facilitate the right selection of PP-MB-NW fabric for the development of mask. In present study, eight different kinds of PP-MB-NW fabrics (Sample A-H) of varied structural morphology are chosen. The different PP-MB-NW were characterized for its pore size and distribution by mercury porosimeter and BET surface area analyzer was explored first time to understand the importance of blind pore in PFE. The PP-MB-NW samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy so as to know the surface morphology. The filtration efficiency, pressure drop and breathing resistance of various PP-MB-NW fabric samples are investigated in single and double layers combination against the particle size of 0.3, 0.5 and 1 µm. The samples which are having low pore dia, high solid fraction volume, and low air permeability has high filtration efficiency (> 90%) against 0.3 µm particle with high pressure drop (16.3-21.3 mm WC) and breathing resistance (1.42-1.92 mbar) when compared to rest of the samples. This study will pave the way for the judicial selection of right kind of filter layer i.e., PP-MB-NW fabric for the development of mask and it will be greatly helpful in manufacturing of mask in this present pandemic with desired PFE indicating considerable promise for defense against respiratory pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Aerosols/isolation & purification , Air Filters/virology , Equipment Design , Humans , Masks/virology , Particle Size , Polypropylenes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/virology
19.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110411, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225344

ABSTRACT

Many countries across the globe utilized medical and non-medical facemasks as non-pharmaceutical intervention for reducing the transmission and infectivity of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Although, scientific evidence supporting facemasks' efficacy is lacking, adverse physiological, psychological and health effects are established. Is has been hypothesized that facemasks have compromised safety and efficacy profile and should be avoided from use. The current article comprehensively summarizes scientific evidences with respect to wearing facemasks in the COVID-19 era, providing prosper information for public health and decisions making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hypercapnia/etiology , Hypercapnia/physiopathology , Hypercapnia/psychology , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/psychology , Masks/adverse effects , Masks/standards , Masks/virology , N95 Respirators/adverse effects , N95 Respirators/standards , N95 Respirators/virology , Respiration , Safety , Treatment Outcome
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2689-2702, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186650

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is requesting highly effective protective personnel equipment, mainly for healthcare professionals. However, the current demand has exceeded the supply chain and, consequently, shortage of essential medical materials, such as surgical masks. Due to these alarming limitations, it is crucial to develop effective means of disinfection, reusing, and thereby applying antimicrobial shielding protection to the clinical supplies. Purpose: Therefore, in this work, we developed a novel, economical, and straightforward approach to promote antimicrobial activity to surgical masks by impregnating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Methods: Our strategy consisted of fabricating a new alcohol disinfectant formulation combining special surfactants and AgNPs, which is demonstrated to be extensively effective against a broad number of microbial surrogates of SARS-CoV-2. Results: The present nano-formula reported a superior microbial reduction of 99.999% against a wide number of microorganisms. Furthermore, the enveloped H5N1 virus was wholly inactivated after 15 min of disinfection. Far more attractive, the current method for reusing surgical masks did not show outcomes of detrimental amendments, suggesting that the protocol does not alter the filtration effectiveness. Conclusion: The nano-disinfectant provides a valuable strategy for effective decontamination, reuse, and even antimicrobial promotion to surgical masks for frontline clinical personnel.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Masks , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Silver/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Chick Embryo , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfection/methods , Dynamic Light Scattering , Equipment Reuse , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Masks/virology , Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Silver/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Textiles , X-Ray Diffraction
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