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1.
Sex Transm Infect ; 98(3): 237-238, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788985

Subject(s)
Mass Media , Humans
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 583, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to successive COVID-19 restrictions in Wales, the Welsh ACE Support Hub launched the #TimeToBeKind campaign in March 2021. The campaign used a short film broadcast on national television and promoted on social media to encourage behaviour change for kindness. We evaluated the #TimeToBeKind campaign film to identify whether watching the film would result in increased intention to act in ways that promote kindness to others and if intentions were associated with being emotionally affected by the film. METHODS: A mixed methods evaluation was employed, using a short online survey and interaction with the film on the Twitter social media platform. The online survey measured public (n = 390) attitudes towards the film including feelings invoked, and behavioural intentions for acts of kindness as a result of viewing the film. Tweets which interacted with the film (n = 59; likes, re-tweets or comments), and tweet sentiment (positive, negative, or neutral) towards the film were also explored. RESULTS: The majority of participants reported positive attitudes to the film and agreed that they understood the campaign message (91.8%). 67.9% reported that the film made them feel upset or sad and for 22.6% the film resonated with their lockdown experience. As a result of seeing the film, 63.6% reported intentions to be kinder to others, 65.6% intended to try and help other members of their community, and 70.5% were more likely to check in on friends, family and neighbours. A higher proportion of individuals who were emotionally affected by the film (e.g. upset or sad, hopeful or encouraged, gained something positive) and those for whom the film resonated with their lockdown experience reported increased kindness behavioural intentions as a result of seeing the film. CONCLUSIONS: Film can be an effective tool to promote behaviour change for kindness. Films that provoke strong emotional reactions can still be perceived positively and lead to behaviour change. With the COVID-19 pandemic accelerating a move online for many, the findings of the present evaluation are relevant to how public health messaging can adapt and utilise this space to target individuals and promote behaviour change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Mass Media , Pandemics , Wales
3.
J Adolesc Health ; 70(4): 528-530, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757462
5.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(3): 578-590, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740385

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diets high in red and processed meat (RPM) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, greenhouse gas emissions and the global burden of chronic disease. High-profile reports have called for significant global RPM reduction, especially in high-income settings. Despite this, policy attention and political priority for the issue are low. DESIGN: The study used a theoretically guided framing analysis to identify frames used by various interest groups in relation to reducing RPM in online news media articles published in the months around the release of four high-profile reports by authoritative organisations that included a focus on the impacts of high RPM production and/or consumption. SETTING: Four major RPM producing and consuming countries - USA, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: None. RESULTS: Hundred and fifty news media articles were included. Articles reported the views of academics, policymakers, industry representatives and the article authors themselves. RPM reduction was remarkably polarising. Industry frequently framed RPM reduction as part of a 'Vegan Agenda' or as advocated by an elite minority. Reducing RPM was also depicted as an infringement on personal choice and traditional values. Many interest groups attempted to discredit the reports by citing a lack of consensus on the evidence, or that only certain forms of farming and processing were harmful. Academics and nutrition experts were more likely to be cited in articles that were aligned with the findings of the reports. CONCLUSIONS: The polarisation of RPM reduction has led to a binary conflict between pro- and anti-meat reduction actors. This division may diminish the extent to which political leaders will prioritise this in policy agendas. Using nuanced and context-dependent messaging could ensure the narratives around meat are less conflicting and more effective in addressing health and environmental harms associated with RPM.


Subject(s)
Greenhouse Gases , Red Meat , Animals , Cattle , Diet , Humans , Mass Media , Meat
6.
Soc Sci Med ; 291: 114502, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720945

ABSTRACT

Childhood vaccine refusal is a globally contentious topic, with some jurisdictions addressing it with punitive policies. Media discourse influences how solutions are framed by implying blame - a process known as framing. We examined Australian media discourse on vaccine rejection over a period in which mandatory childhood vaccination policies were discussed and introduced, focusing on the common Australian pejorative term 'anti-vaxxer'. We mapped frequency of use from January 2008 to December 2018. We then searched Factiva for print media articles on childhood vaccination and parents published in that period, searching separately for articles using and not using 'anti-vaxxer' and variants. We constructed a set of 85 articles that did, and 85 articles date-matched that did not use the term to make comparisons and conducted a frame analysis of each set. 'Anti-vaxxer' was absent in Australian media discourse 2008-2010, rising to a peak of 247 articles using the term at the height of legislative change in 2017. Parents were framed as: 1) deviant "others"; 2) ignorant and in need of informing; 3) vulnerable and in need of protection from anti-vaccination activists; 4) thoughtful, critical, informed, and in need of agency and respect; 5) entitled, privileged and selfish; and finally, 6) lacking access to vaccination, rather than being unwilling. Articles using 'anti-vax' terms were more likely to negatively characterise non-vaccinating parents, while articles not including this language were more likely to frame them as thoughtful or lacking access. This study clearly demonstrates strategic use of pejoratives in the Australian mass media around a time of pressure for legislative change and conflation of anti-vaccination activists with non-vaccinating parents. We suggest fundamental changes to how non-vaccination is framed and dealt with in the media to curb polarization and fostering more respectful dialogue, and better social and public health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Vaccination Refusal , Vaccines , Australia , Humans , Mass Media , Vaccination
7.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 24(3): 181-193, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702388

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reports a review of the empirical research examining the association between mass trauma media contact and depression in children, the factors that may influence the association, and the difficulties encountered in the study of media effects on depression. RECENT FINDINGS: All of the included studies assessed general population samples. Pre-COVID-19 research focused primarily on television coverage alone or on multiple media forms including television, while COVID-19 media studies examined various media forms including social media. Most studies used cross-sectional design and non-probability sampling. The review revealed inconclusive findings across studies. The study of mass trauma media effects on depression in children is complicated by a number of potential confounding factors and by the relatively high prevalence of depression in the general population. Media contact was a relatively minor consideration among other interests in the extant studies which failed to explore numerous issues that warrant attention in future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Child , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mass Media
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2627, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692539

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of wireless emergency alerts (WEAs) on social distancing policy. The Republic of Korea has been providing information to the public through WEAs using mobile phones. This study used five data sets: WEA messages, news articles including the keyword "COVID-19," the number of confirmed COVID-19 patients, public foot traffic data, and the government's social distancing level. The WEAs were classified into two topics-"warning" and "guidance"-using a random forest model. The results of the correlation analysis and further detailed analysis confirmed that the "warning" WEA topic and number of news articles significantly affected public foot traffic. However, the "guidance" topic was not significantly associated with public foot traffic. In general, the Korean government's WEAs were effective at encouraging the public to follow social distance recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, the "warning" WEA topic, by providing information about the relative risk directly concerning the recipients, was significantly more effective than the "guidance" topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Phone , Disease Notification/methods , Physical Distancing , Humans , Mass Media , Public Health Practice , Republic of Korea
9.
Saúde Soc ; 31(1): e210298, 2022. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1690633

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study comprised the application of a survey in São Paulo, Brazil, in 2 different periods of 2020: the beginning of the covid-19 pandemic and the disease's first peak (from March to April, 100 interviews) to the time of stability in case fatality rates (from May to July, 100 interviews); the questionnaire included was composed of 14 multiple-choice questions to evaluate the importance of mass communication channels, including social media, and the level of importance attributed to preventive measures at the beginning of the pandemic. The changes in people's behavior, even in a group with more schooling, which initially considered preventive measures to be very important (91%) but, in the second survey, was reduced to 82%. The reinforcement of preventive measures to reduce cases and deaths by covid-19 in Brazil is urgent, allied to recommendations with clear information on the importance of vaccination to avoid low rates as the current situation of vaccine coverage for preventable diseases.


Resumo Foi conduzida uma pesquisa em São Paulo, no Brasil, em 2 períodos distintos de 2020: sendo o primeiro no início da pandemia do covid-19 com um elevado pico de incidência da doença (de março a abril, foram realizadas 100 entrevistas) até o momento de estabilidade nas taxas de letalidade (de maio a julho, foram realizadas outras 100 entrevistas), composto por 14 questões de múltipla escolha para avaliar a importância dos canais de comunicação em massa (incluindo as redes sociais) e o nível de importância atribuído às medidas preventivas no início da pandemia. As mudanças no comportamento das pessoas, mesmo dentro de um grupo de nível educacional alto, que inicialmente considerava as medidas preventivas muito importantes (91%), apresenta considerável queda na segunda pesquisa realizada (redução para 82%). Há a necessidade urgente de reforço de medidas preventivas para redução de casos e óbitos por covid-19 no Brasil, aliadas a recomendações com informações claras como a importância da vacinação para evitar baixas taxas de cobertura vacinal que se apresentam em outras doenças preveníveis por vacinas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Immunization Programs , Communication , Transtheoretical Model , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy , Mass Media
10.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263787, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690711

ABSTRACT

Implementing countrywide lockdown measures in India, from March 2020 to May 2020 was a major step to deal with the COVID -19 pandemic crisis. The decision of country lockdown adversely affected the urban migrant population, and a large section of them was compelled to move out of the urban areas to their native places. The reverse migration garnered widespread media attention and coverage in electronic as well as print media. The present study focuses on the coverage of the issue by print media using descriptive natural language text mining. The study uses topic modelling, clustering, and sentiment analysis to examine the articles on migration issues during the lockdown period published in two leading English newspapers in India- The Times of India and The Hindu. The sentiment analysis results indicate that the majority of articles have neutral sentiment while very few articles show high negative or positive polarity. Descriptive topic modelling results show that transport, food security, special services, and employment with migration and migrants are the majorly covered topics after employing Bag of Words and TF-IDF models. Clustering is performed to group the article titles based on similar traits using agglomerative hierarchical clustering.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Mass Media/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Soc Sci Med ; 294: 114718, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683613

ABSTRACT

This paper explores news media discourse about COVID-19 during the spring of 2020 in Sweden, aiming to provide an understanding of how moralising discourse is employed in narratives about public health risks and responses. We investigate print news media content about the corona virus and COVID-19 during the early stages of the outbreak, guided analytically by framework focusing on the relationship between moral panics and moral regulation. We direct attention, first, to how both moral majorities and villains, i.e., 'folk devils', and heroes are constructed in the news. Secondly, we look at how visions for interventions are produced discursively in relation to such constructions. Our findings suggest that moralising discourse largely target risk behaviours and health care claims of middle-class groups. We also find that news media discourse about the pandemic in Sweden is marked by attacks on government interventions that are distinctly different from observations in other contexts. In conclusion, we discuss these observations in relation the political and discursive context, and the potential impact of moralising discourse on the legitimacy of public health interventions and the welfare state. Finally, we also discuss how our findings can inform theoretical discussions about political populism, moralising discourse and public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Mass Media , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden
12.
Health Commun ; 37(3): 375-383, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671907

ABSTRACT

In times of health crisis, news media have generally contributed to public panic, though these instances are usually explored in crises involving communicable diseases. However, in 2017, the long-brewing opioid crisis was formally declared a federal emergency by the United States government, leading to a considerable uptick in media attention to drugs and drug addiction. Considering 1) the news media's tendency to contribute to public fear and panic during times of emergency or crisis, 2) the problematic representations of drug addiction in previous years, and 3) developing social media production practices among journalists on social media, this research uses content analysis to explore how highly circulated news outlets covered drug addiction in 2017-2018 and social media audiences' emotional responses. Results indicate that political intervention drove media coverage rather than the effects of opioid addiction on people. Political interference led to increased anger and laughter reactions among Facebook users.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Substance-Related Disorders , Communication , Fear , Humans , Mass Media , United States
13.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261942, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630823

ABSTRACT

Moral panics are moments of intense and widespread public concern about a specific group, whose behaviour is deemed a moral threat to the collective. We examined public health guidelines in the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canadian newspaper editorials, columns and letters to the editor, to evaluate how perceived threats to public interests were expressed and amplified through claims-making processes. Normalization of infection control behaviours has led to a moral panic about lack of compliance with preventive measures, which is expressed in opinion discourse. Following public health guidelines was construed as a moral imperative and a civic duty, while those who failed to comply with these guidelines were stigmatized, shamed as "covidiots," and discursively constructed as a threat to public health and moral order. Unlike other moral panics in which there is social consensus about what needs to be done, Canadian commentators presented a variety of possible solutions, opening a debate around infection surveillance, privacy, trust, and punishment. Public health communication messaging needs to be clear, to both facilitate compliance and provide the material conditions necessary to promote infection prevention behaviour, and reduce the stigmatization of certain groups and hostile reactions towards them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Mass Media , Panic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Newspapers as Topic
16.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 34(2-3): 300-301, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556262
17.
J Community Health ; 47(2): 306-310, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549475

ABSTRACT

A number of the people who have recovered from the acute effects of COVID-19 are facing long term sequelae from the infection. As the COVID-19 pandemic is still evolving, so is knowledge of the long-term effects of the virus on patients who still experience symptoms. Clearly, news media play a crucial role in distributing information and this distribution of information can, in turn, influence the actions of the public. The purpose of this study was to describe the content of news coverage of COVID-19 long haul symptoms currently posted on the internet. This study utilized Google News, a news aggregator service, and included the first 100 English language pieces of news. Video content and news article content were coded in depth for information on COVID-19 long haul symptoms. A total of 41% of news reports mentioned the length of time that the COVID-19 related symptoms persist. The length of time was reported to range from 1 month to more than 1 year. The symptom most commonly mentioned was tiredness or fatigue (74%), followed by difficulty breathing or shortness of breath (62 cases; 62%), and difficulty thinking or concentrating (50 cases; 50%). Other symptoms were mentioned less frequently. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the content including having video, written news reports, or both video and written news reports by source of the news reports based on consumer, professional, or television or internet-based news (p = .14). More complete coverage by online news media of the long-term effects of COVID-19 enhances public awareness of the post-acute syndromes, augments health providers' awareness of the range of chronic COVID-19 effects and the possibility of a second infection, increases the probability of patients' seeking and obtaining the proper care for their symptoms, and contributes to preventive actions for enhancing public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Mass Media , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Television
18.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259473, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546939

ABSTRACT

The present study, conducted immediately after the 2020 presidential election in the United States, examined whether Democrats' and Republicans' polarized assessments of election legitimacy increased over time. In a naturalistic survey experiment, people (N = 1,236) were randomly surveyed either during the week following Election Day, with votes cast but the outcome unknown, or during the following week, after President Joseph Biden was widely declared the winner. The design unconfounded the election outcome announcement from the vote itself, allowing more precise testing of predictions derived from cognitive dissonance theory. As predicted, perceived election legitimacy increased among Democrats, from the first to the second week following Election Day, as their expected Biden win was confirmed, whereas perceived election legitimacy decreased among Republicans as their expected President Trump win was disconfirmed. From the first to the second week following Election Day, Republicans reported stronger negative emotions and weaker positive emotions while Democrats reported stronger positive emotions and weaker negative emotions. The polarized perceptions of election legitimacy were correlated with the tendencies to trust and consume polarized media. Consumption of Fox News was associated with lowered perceptions of election legitimacy over time whereas consumption of other outlets was associated with higher perceptions of election legitimacy over time. Discussion centers on the role of the media in the experience of cognitive dissonance and the implications of polarized perceptions of election legitimacy for psychology, political science, and the future of democratic society.


Subject(s)
Emotions , Mass Media/statistics & numerical data , Motivation , Politics , Cognitive Dissonance , Democracy , Humans , Mass Media/ethics , United States
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2181, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic brought the production of scientific knowledge onto the public agenda in real-time. News media and commentators analysed the successes and failures of the pandemic response in real-time, bringing the process of scientific inquiry, which is also fraught with uncertainty, onto the public agenda. We examine how Canadian newspapers framed scientific uncertainty in their initial coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic and how journalists made sense of the scientific process. METHODS: We conducted a framing analysis of 1143 news stories and opinion during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a qualitative analysis software, our analysis focused, first, on how scientific uncertainty was framed in hard news and opinion discourse (editorial, op-ed). Second, we compared how specialist health and science reporters discussed scientific evidence versus non-specialist reporters in hard news and columns. RESULTS: Uncertainty emerged as a "master frame" across the sample, and four additional framing strategies were used by reporters and commentators when covering the pandemic: (1), evidence -focusing on presence or absence of it-; (2) transparency and leadership -focusing on the pandemic response-; (3) duelling experts - highlighting disagreement among experts or criticizing public health decisions for not adhering to expert recommendations-; and (4) mixed messaging -criticizing public health communication efforts. While specialist journalists understood that scientific knowledge evolves and the process is fraught with uncertainty, non-specialist reporters and commentators expressed frustration over changing public health guidelines, leading to the politicization of the pandemic response and condemnation of elected officials' decisions. CONCLUSIONS: Managing scientific uncertainty in evolving science-policy situations requires timely and clear communication. Public health officials and political leaders need to provide clear and consistent messages and access to data regarding infection prevention guidelines. Public health officials should quickly engage in communication course corrections if original messages are missing the intended mark, and clearly explain the shift. Finally, public health communicators should be aware of and more responsive to a variety of media reporters, who will bring different interpretative frames to their reporting. More care and effort are needed in these communication engagements to minimize inconsistencies, uncertainty, and politicization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Canada , Humans , Mass Media , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Uncertainty
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523974

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need to strengthen health communication in times of crisis. This study aims to analyze the media agenda of press conferences on COVID-19 in Mexico during the first two phases of the pandemic, based on journalists' questions. The study is based on framing theory. The method used was content analysis from a quantitative perspective. This method was explicitly applied to the final section of the conferences, which dealt with "questions from the press." The results show that at the beginning of the pandemic, the press was more interested in the government's management of the health crisis than in issues such as the prevention of the disease itself or the economic impact of the crisis on the country. Moreover, the main characteristic of the questions was that they were generally socially relevant. In conclusion, we found that in the media agenda of the Mexican conference, the frame of attribution of responsibility was prominent but in combination with the frames of conflict, human interest, morality, and economic consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Mass Media , Mexico , SARS-CoV-2
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