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1.
Med Care ; 61(8): 554-561, 2023 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic led to clinical practice changes, which affected cancer preventive care delivery. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on the delivery of colorectal cancer (CRC) and cervical cancer (CVC) screenings. RESEARCH DESIGN: Parallel mixed methods design using electronic health record data (extracted between January 2019 and July 2021). Study results focused on 3 pandemic-related periods: March-May 2020, June-October 2020, and November 2020-September 2021. SUBJECTS: Two hundred seventeen community health centers located in 13 states and 29 semistructured interviews from 13 community health centers. MEASURES: Monthly up-to-date CRC and CVC screening rates and monthly rates of completed colonoscopies, fecal immunochemical test (FIT)/fecal occult blood test (FOBT) procedures, Papanicolaou tests among age and sex-eligible patients. Analysis used generalized estimating equations Poisson modeling. Qualitative analysts developed case summaries and created a cross-case data display for comparison. RESULTS: The results showed a reduction of 75% for colonoscopy [rate ratio (RR) = 0.250, 95% CI: 0.224-0.279], 78% for FIT/FOBT (RR = 0.218, 95% CI: 0.208-0.230), and 87% for Papanicolaou (RR = 0.130, 95% CI: 0.125-0.136) rates after the start of the pandemic. During this early pandemic period, CRC screening was impacted by hospitals halting services. Clinic staff moved toward FIT/FOBT screenings. CVC screening was impacted by guidelines encouraging pausing CVC screening, patient reluctance, and concerns about exposure. During the recovery period, leadership-driven preventive care prioritization and quality improvement capacity influenced CRC and CVC screening maintenance and recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts supporting quality improvement capacity could be key actionable elements for these health centers to endure major disruptions to their care delivery system and to drive rapid recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Public Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Mass Screening/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Occult Blood , Colonoscopy
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(Suppl 1): 971, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Partner-delivered HIV self-testing kits has previously been highlighted as a safe, acceptable and effective approach to reach men. However, less is known about its real-world implementation in reaching partners of people living with HIV. We evaluated programmatic implementation of partner-delivered self-testing through antenatal care (ANC) attendees and people newly diagnosed with HIV by assessing use, positivity, linkage and cost per kit distributed. METHODS: Between April 2018 and December 2019, antenatal care (ANC) clinic attendees and people or those newly diagnosed with HIV clients across twelve clinics in three cities in South Africa were given HIVST kits (OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test, OraSure Technologies) to distribute to their sexual partners. A follow-up telephonic survey was administered to all prior consenting clients who were successfully reached by telephone to assess primary outcomes. Incremental economic costs of the implementation were estimated from the provider's perspective. RESULTS: Fourteen thousand four hundred seventy-three HIVST kits were distributed - 10,319 (71%) to ANC clients for their male partner and 29% to people newly diagnosed with HIV for their partners. Of the 4,235 ANC clients successfully followed-up, 82.1% (3,475) reportedly offered HIVST kits to their male partner with 98.1% (3,409) accepting and 97.6% (3,328) using the kit. Among ANC partners self-testing, 159 (4.8%) reported reactive HIVST results, of which 127 (79.9%) received further testing; 116 (91.3%) were diagnosed with HIV and 114 (98.3%) initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART). Of the 1,649 people newly diagnosed with HIV successfully followed-up; 1,312 (79.6%) reportedly offered HIVST kits to their partners with 95.8% (1,257) of the partners accepting and 95.9% (1,206) reported that their partners used the kit. Among these index partners, 297 (24.6%) reported reactive HIVST results of which 261 (87.9%) received further testing; 260 (99.6%) were diagnosed with HIV and 258 (99.2%) initiated ART. The average cost per HIVST distributed in the three cities was US$7.90, US$11.98, and US$14.81, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Partner-delivered HIVST in real world implementation was able to affordably reach many male partners of ANC attendees and index partners of people newly diagnosed with HIV in South Africa. Given recent COVID-19 related restrictions, partner-delivered HIVST provides an important strategy to maintain essential testing services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Self-Testing , South Africa , Mass Screening/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy
3.
Trials ; 23(1): 635, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 7% of all reported tuberculosis (TB) cases each year are recurrent, occurring among people who have had TB in the recent or distant past. TB recurrence is particularly common in India, which has the largest TB burden worldwide. Although patients recently treated for TB are at high risk of developing TB again, evidence around effective active case finding (ACF) strategies in this population is scarce. We will conduct a hybrid type I effectiveness-implementation non-inferiority randomized trial to compare the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of two ACF strategies among individuals who have completed TB treatment and their household contacts (HHCs). METHODS: We will enroll 1076 adults (≥ 18 years) who have completed TB treatment at a public TB unit (TU) in Pune, India, along with their HHCs (averaging two per patient, n = 2152). Participants will undergo symptom-based ACF by existing healthcare workers (HCWs) at 6-month intervals and will be randomized to either home-based ACF (HACF) or telephonic ACF (TACF). Symptomatic participants will undergo microbiologic testing through the program. Asymptomatic HHCs will be referred for TB preventive treatment (TPT) per national guidelines. The primary outcome is rate per 100 person-years of people diagnosed with new or recurrent TB by study arm, within 12 months following treatment completion. The secondary outcome is proportion of HHCs < 6 years, by study arm, initiated on TPT after ruling out TB disease. Study staff will collect socio-demographic and clinical data to identify risk factors for TB recurrence and will measure post-TB lung impairment. In both arms, an 18-month "mop-up" visit will be conducted to ascertain outcomes. We will use the RE-AIM framework to characterize implementation processes and explore acceptability through in-depth interviews with index patients, HHCs and HCWs (n = 100). Cost-effectiveness will be assessed by calculating the incremental cost per TB case detected within 12 months and projected for disability-adjusted life years averted based on modeled estimates of morbidity, mortality, and time with infectious TB. DISCUSSION: This novel trial will guide India's scale-up of post-treatment ACF and provide an evidence base for designing strategies to detect recurrent and new TB in other high burden settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04333485 , registered April 3, 2020. CTRI/2020/05/025059 [Clinical Trials Registry of India], registered May 6 2020.


Subject(s)
Mass Screening , Tuberculosis , Adult , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Personnel , Humans , India , Mass Screening/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
4.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285774, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lesotho is one of the 30 countries with the highest tuberculosis incidence rates in the world, estimated at 650 per 100,000 population. Tuberculosis case detection is extremely low, particularly with the rapid spread of COVID-19, dropping from an estimated 51% in 2020 to 33% in 2021. The aim of this study is to understand the barriers to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment completion. METHODS: We used a convergent mixed methods study design. We collected data on the number of clients reporting symptoms upon tuberculosis screening, their sputum test results, the number of clients diagnosed, and the number of clients who started treatment from one district hospital and one health center in Berea district, Lesotho. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 53 health workers and patients. We used a content analysis approach to analyze qualitative data and integrated quantitative and qualitative findings in a joint display. FINDINGS: During March-August, 2019, 218 clients at the hospital and 292 clients at the health center reported tuberculosis symptoms. The full diagnostic testing process was completed for 66% of clients at the hospital and 68% at the health center. Among clients who initiated tuberculosis treatment, 68% (61/90) at the hospital and 74% (32/43) at the health center completed treatment. The main barriers to testing and treatment completion were challenges at sample collection, lack of decentralized diagnostic services, and socioeconomic factors such as food insecurity and high patient movement to search for jobs. CONCLUSIONS: Tuberculosis diagnosis could be improved through the effective decentralization of laboratory services at the health facility level, and treatment completion could be improved by providing food and other forms of social support to patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Humans , Lesotho/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Focus Groups , Mass Screening/methods , COVID-19 Testing
5.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 14: 21501319231168022, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293631

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Despite the introduction of lung cancer screening using low dose computed tomography (LDCT), overall screening rates in the U.S. remain low, with certain populations including Black and rural communities experiencing additional disparities. The primary objective of this study was to understand the facilitators of lung cancer screening initiation and retention in Alabama reported by people at risk from mostly rural, mostly Black populations in Jefferson County-including the urban center of Birmingham-and 6 rural counties: Choctaw, Dallas, Greene, Hale, Marengo, and Sumter. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 58 people who underwent lung cancer screening between December 2019 and January 2022. Participant responses were recorded by the interviewer for analysis. Open-ended responses were coded to identify emergent themes. RESULTS: The most reported influences to initiate screening were information or suggestion from a Community Health Advisor (CHAs) or the supervising county coordinator, suggestion from a friend, or consideration of a personal history of smoking. Most participants reported multiple influences. Physicians were not very influential in decisions to initiate screening, but they were extremely influential in participants' intent to continue screening, both positively and negatively. Knowing the recommended timeline for their annual scans was also a predictor of intention to continue screening. Participants screened during the COVID-19 state of emergency expressed less certainty about dates of next scans and more ambivalence about intention to continue screening. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the benefit of using multiple methods to support increased awareness of and interest in lung cancer screening, particularly when educational messaging through CHAs is used. Clear guideline-based messages from healthcare providers about recommended screening is important for increasing retention. COVID-19 related implementation challenges impacted screening recruitment and retention. Future research is warranted to further explore use of CHAs in lung cancer screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/prevention & control , Alabama , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Rural Population , Mass Screening/methods
6.
Can J Psychiatry ; 66(6): 577-585, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The co-occurrence of different classes of population-level stressors, such as social unrest and public health crises, is common in contemporary societies. Yet, few studies explored their combined mental health impact. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of repeated exposure to social unrest-related traumatic events (TEs), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-related events (PEs), and stressful life events (SLEs) on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms, and the potential mediating role of event-based rumination (rumination of TEs-related anger, injustice, guilt, and insecurity) between TEs and PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Community members in Hong Kong who had utilized a screening tool for PTSD and depressive symptoms were invited to complete a survey on exposure to stressful events and event-based rumination. RESULTS: A total of 10,110 individuals completed the survey. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that rumination, TEs, and SLEs were among the significant predictors for PTSD symptoms (all P < 0.001), accounting for 32% of the variance. For depression, rumination, SLEs, and PEs were among the significant predictors (all P < 0.001), explaining 24.9% of the variance. Two-way analysis of variance of different recent and prior TEs showed significant dose-effect relationships. The effect of recent TEs on PTSD symptoms was potentiated by prior TEs (P = 0.005). COVID-19 PEs and prior TEs additively contributed to PTSD symptoms, with no significant interaction (P = 0.94). Meanwhile, recent TEs were also potentiated by SLEs (P = 0.002). The effects of TEs on PTSD symptoms were mediated by rumination (ß = 0.38, standard error = 0.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.36 to 0.41), with 40.4% of the total effect explained. All 4 rumination subtypes were significant mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Prior and ongoing TEs, PEs, and SLEs cumulatively exacerbated PTSD and depressive symptoms. The role of event-based rumination and their interventions should be prioritized for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Rumination, Cognitive/classification , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Life Change Events , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mental Health , Psychological Techniques , Public Health , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociological Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282853, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278548

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer screening rates are declining in the US, with persistent disparities among vulnerable populations. Strategies to better reach under-screened communities are needed. The COVID pandemic sparked major shifts in healthcare delivery, including the accelerated development and adoption of rapid diagnostic testing, broadened access to remote care, and growing consumer demand for self-testing, which could be leveraged for cervical cancer. Rapid tests for the detection of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) have the potential to improve cervical cancer screening coverage, and if coupled with patient-collected cervicovaginal samples, create an opportunity for self-testing. The objectives of this study were: 1) to examine whether COVID influenced clinician perspectives of rapid testing as a screening modality; and 2) to assess clinician awareness, perceived benefits and limitations, and willingness to adopt point-of-care HPV testing, patient self-sampling, and rapid HPV self-testing with self-collected samples. The methodology adopted consisted of an online cross-sectional survey (n = 224) and in-depth interviews (n = 20) were conducted with clinicians who perform cervical cancer screening in Indiana, ranked in the top ten states for cervical cancer mortality and with marked disparities across socio-demographic groups. The main findings show that about half the clinicians reported that the COVID pandemic had influenced their views on rapid testing as a screening modality both positively (greater public acceptability of rapid testing and impact on patient care) and negatively (concerns regarding accuracy of rapid tests). The majority of clinicians (82%) were willing to adopt rapid HPV testing at the point-of-care, while only 48% were willing to adopt rapid HPV self-testing with self-collected samples. In-depth interviews revealed provider concerns around patients' ability to collect their own sample, report results correctly, and return to the clinic for follow-up and other preventive care. Addressing clinician concerns about self-sampling and rapid HPV testing, such as ensuring that rapid tests include sample adequacy controls, is necessary to mitigate barriers to adoption for cervical cancer screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Vaginal Smears/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Papillomaviridae , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Specimen Handling/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Self Care , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
8.
Thorax ; 78(6): 543-550, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252884

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Incorporating spirometry into low-dose CT (LDCT) screening for lung cancer may help identify people with undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although the downstream impacts are not well described. METHODS: Participants attending a Lung Health Check (LHC) as part of the Yorkshire Lung Screening Trial were offered spirometry alongside LDCT screening. Results were communicated to the general practitioner (GP), and those with unexplained symptomatic airflow obstruction (AO) fulfilling agreed criteria were referred to the Leeds Community Respiratory Team (CRT) for assessment and treatment. Primary care records were reviewed to determine changes to diagnostic coding and pharmacotherapy. RESULTS: Of 2391 LHC participants undergoing prebronchodilator spirometry, 201 (8.4%) fulfilled the CRT referral criteria of which 151 were invited for further assessment. Ninety seven participants were subsequently reviewed by the CRT, 46 declined assessment and 8 had already been seen by their GP at the time of CRT contact. Overall 70 participants had postbronchodilator spirometry checked, of whom 20 (29%) did not have AO. Considering the whole cohort referred to the CRT (but excluding those without AO postbronchodilation), 59 had a new GP COPD code, 56 commenced new pharmacotherapy and 5 were underwent pulmonary rehabilitation (comprising 2.5%, 2.3% and 0.2% of the 2391 participants undergoing LHC spirometry). CONCLUSIONS: Delivering spirometry alongside lung cancer screening may facilitate earlier diagnosis of COPD. However, this study highlights the importance of confirming AO by postbronchodilator spirometry prior to diagnosing and treating patients with COPD and illustrates some downstream challenges in acting on spirometry collected during an LHC.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Early Detection of Cancer , Smoking , Lung , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Spirometry , Mass Screening/methods , Forced Expiratory Volume
9.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0280643, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Testing for high-risk HPV is a more sensitive screening method than cervical cytology for detecting cervical changes that may lead to cancer. Consistent with recent evidence of efficacy and acceptability, Aotearoa New Zealand plans to introduce HPV testing as the primary approach to screening, replacing cervical cytology, from mid-2023. Any equitable cervical screening programme must be effective across a diverse population, including women that the current programme fails to reach, particularly Maori and those in rural areas. Currently, we do not know the best model for implementing an equitable HPV self-testing screening programme. METHODS: This implementation trial aims to assess whether a universal offer of HPV self-testing (offered to all people eligible for cervical screening) achieves non-inferior screening coverage (equal) to a universal offer of cervical cytology alone (the present programme). The study population is all people aged from 24.5 to 70 years due for cervical screening in a 12-month period (including those whose screening is overdue or who have never had screening). A range of quantitative and qualitative secondary outcomes will be explored, including barriers and facilitators across screening and diagnostic pathways. This study takes place in Te Tai Tokerau/Northland which covers a diverse range of urban and rural areas and has a large Indigenous Maori population. A total of fourteen practices will be involved. Seven practices will offer HPV self-testing universally to approximately 2800 women and will be compared to seven practices providing routine clinical care (offer of cervical cytology) to an approximately equal number of women. DISCUSSION: This trial will answer important questions about how to implement an equitable, high-quality, effective national programme offering HPV self-testing as the primary screening method for cervical cancer prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 07/12/2021: ACTRN12621001675819.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Australia , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Mass Screening/methods , New Zealand/epidemiology , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaginal Smears
10.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(6): E825-E830, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289103

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Birth cohort ("baby boomer") screening represents a well-validated strategy for the identification of asymptomatic hepatitis C-infected patients. However, successful linkage of newly diagnosed patients to antiviral therapy has been more difficult to accomplish. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of a systemwide birth cohort screening program in a US community health care system. DESIGN: We analyzed the data from an ongoing hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening and treatment program that was established at NorthShore University Health System in 2015. Hepatitis C virus screening by primary care providers was prompted through automated Best Practice and Health Maintenance alerts. Patient visits and screening orders were tracked using a customized HCV dashboard. Virologic, demographic, and treatment data were assessed and compared with those of a cohort of patients with previously established HCV infection. RESULTS: Since program inception, 61 8161 (64.3%) of the entire NorthShore baby boomer population of 96 001 patients have completed HCV antibody testing, and 160 patients (0.26%) were antibody positive. Of 152 antibody-positive patients who underwent HCV RNA testing, 53 (34.2%) were viremic. A total of 39 of 53 patients (73.6%) underwent antiviral therapy and achieved a sustained virologic response. Compared with patients identified through screening, a comparison cohort of patients with previously established HCV had more advanced fibrosis and significantly lower dropout rates. The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a decrease in the number of outpatient visits of screening-eligible patients and with a reduction in HCV screening rates. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the electronic medical records-assisted systemwide implementation of HCV birth cohort screening and successful linkage to antiviral therapy in a community-based US multihospital system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Birth Cohort , Community Health Planning , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Pandemics , RNA
11.
Gastroenterology ; 163(3): 723-731.e6, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected clinical services globally, including colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and diagnostic testing. We investigated the pandemic's impact on fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening, colonoscopy utilization, and colorectal neoplasia detection across 21 medical centers in a large integrated health care organization. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in Kaiser Permanente Northern California patients ages 18 to 89 years in 2019 and 2020 and measured changes in the numbers of mailed, completed, and positive FITs; colonoscopies; and cases of colorectal neoplasia detected by colonoscopy in 2020 vs 2019. RESULTS: FIT kit mailings ceased in mid-March through April 2020 but then rebounded and there was an 8.7% increase in kits mailed compared with 2019. With the later mailing of FIT kits, there were 9.0% fewer FITs completed and 10.1% fewer positive tests in 2020 vs 2019. Colonoscopy volumes declined 79.4% in April 2020 compared with April 2019 but recovered to near pre-pandemic volumes in September through December, resulting in a 26.9% decline in total colonoscopies performed in 2020. The number of patients diagnosed by colonoscopy with CRC and advanced adenoma declined by 8.7% and 26.9%, respectively, in 2020 vs 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic led to fewer FIT screenings and colonoscopies in 2020 vs 2019; however, after the lifting of shelter-in-place orders, FIT screenings exceeded, and colonoscopy volumes nearly reached numbers from those same months in 2019. Overall, there was an 8.7% reduction in CRC cases diagnosed by colonoscopy in 2020. These data may help inform the development of strategies for CRC screening and diagnostic testing during future national emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colonoscopy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Community Health Services , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Feces , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Occult Blood , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 193-199, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: facing the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic requires intensive testing on the population to early identify and isolate infected subjects. Although RT-PCR is the most reliable technique to detect ongoing infections, serological tests are frequently proposed as tools in heterogeneous screening strategies. OBJECTIVES: to analyse the performance of a screening strategy proposed by the local government of Tuscany (Central Italy), which first uses qualitative rapid tests for antibody detection, and then RT-PCR tests on the positive subjects. METHODS: a simulation study is conducted to investigate the number of RT-PCR tests required by the screening strategy and the undetected ongoing infections in a pseudo-population of 500,000 subjects, under different prevalence scenarios and assuming a sensitivity of the serological test ranging from 0.50 to 0.80 (specificity 0.98). A compartmental model is used to predict the number of new infections generated by the false negatives two months after the screening, under different values of the infection reproduction number. RESULTS: assuming a sensitivity equal to 0.80 and a prevalence of 0.3%, the screening procedure would require on average 11,167 RT-PCR tests and would produce 300 false negatives, responsible after two months of a number of contagions ranging from 526 to 1,132, under the optimistic scenario of a reproduction number between 0.5 to 1. Resources and false negatives increase with the prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: the analysed screening procedure should be avoided unless the prevalence and the rate of contagion are very low. The cost and effectiveness of the screening strategies should be evaluated in the actual context of the epidemic, accounting for the fact that it may change over time.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Computer Simulation , Mass Screening/methods , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing/economics , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Cost-Benefit Analysis , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mass Screening/economics , Monte Carlo Method , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Prev Med ; 166: 107376, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2211682

ABSTRACT

Due to COVID-19, the Dutch breast cancer screening program was interrupted for three months with uncertain long-term effects. The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term impact of this interruption on delay in detection, tumour size of screen-detected breast cancers, and interval cancer rate. After validation, the micro-simulation model SiMRiSc was used to calculate the effects of interruption of the breast cancer screening program for three months and for hypothetical interruptions of six and twelve months. A scenario without interruption was used as reference. Outcomes considered were tumour size of screen-detected breast cancers and interval cancer rate. Women of 55-59 and 60-64 years old at time of interruption were considered. Uncertainties were estimated using a sensitivity analysis. The three-month interruption had no clinically relevant long-term effect on the tumour size of screen-detected breast cancers. A 19% increase in interval cancer rate was found between last screening before and first screening after interruption compared to no interruption. Hypothetical interruptions of six and twelve months resulted in larger increases in interval cancer rate of 38% and 78% between last screening before and first screening after interruption, respectively, and an increase in middle-sized tumours in first screening after interruption of 26% and 47%, respectively. In conclusion, the interruption of the Dutch screening program is not expected to result in a long-term delay in detection or clinically relevant change in tumour size of screen-detected cancers, but only affects the interval cancer rate between last screening before and first screening after interruption.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mammography/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis
14.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(11): 600-604, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206465

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant disruption, then recovery, of health care services use. Prior research has not examined the relative rates of resumption of high-value and low-value care. We examined the use of 6 common low-value services that received a D grade from the US Preventive Services Task Force compared with clinically comparable high-value services in a large commercially insured population nationwide from before the pandemic to April 1, 2021. We found that, overall, low-value services and high-value services were disrupted similarly. In aggregate, low-value care declined to 56.2% and high-value care to 53.2% in the initial month of the pandemic (April 2020) relative to baseline (number of visits in 2019 normalized by relevant enrolled population), then rebounded to 83.1% of baseline for low-value services and 95.0% of baseline for high-value services by January 2021. Substantial heterogeneity appeared across clinical contexts, such as prostate cancer screening for men 70 years and older rebounding to 111.8% of baseline and asymptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screening remaining at 38.5% of baseline in January 2021. This suggests that although, on average, resuming lower-value services may have been perceived to be a lesser priority by providers and patients, the pandemic may have had heterogeneous effects on consumer and provider decision-making along the dimension of clinical value. This enhances our understanding of how disruptions affect the relationship between clinical value and usage of different services and suggests the need for more targeted interventions to reduce low-value care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods
15.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e4, 2022 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201553

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to a reordering of healthcare priorities. Health resources were turned to the screening and diagnosis of COVID-19, leading to a reduction in tuberculosis (TB) testing and treatment initiation. An innovative model that integrated TB and COVID-19 services was adopted at primary care facilities in Johannesburg Health District, Gauteng. This short report illustrates results from this model's implementation in two facilities. Patients were screened for COVID-19 at a single point of entry and separated according to screening result. Self-reported human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, symptom, and symptom duration were then used to determine TB risk amongst those screening positive for COVID-19. Data from clinical records were extracted. Approximately 9% of patients with a positive symptom screen (n = 76) were sent for a TB test and 84% were sent for a COVID-19 test. Amongst those sent for a TB test, 8% (n = 6) had TB detected, and amongst those sent for a COVID-19 test, 18% (n = 128) were positive. Amongst those with COVID-19-related symptoms, 15% (n = 130) presented with a cough or fever and were known HIV positive and 121 (93%) of these were sent for a COVID-19 test and 31 (24%) were sent for a TB test. Given the HIV prevalence and symptoms in our study, our results show lower-than-expected TB tests conducted.Contribution: Our study documents the outcomes of an innovative way to combine operational workflows for TB and COVID-19. This provides a starting point for countries seeking to integrate TB and COVID-19 screening and testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Tuberculosis , Humans , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , South Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods
16.
Lancet ; 400 Suppl 1: S25, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Response to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the temporary disruption of routine services in the UK National Health Service, including cancer screening. Following the reintroduction of services, we explored the impact on inequalities in uptake of the Bowel Screening Wales (BSW) programme to identify groups who might benefit from tailored intervention. METHODS: BSW records were linked to electronic health record and administrative data within the Secured Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Databank Trusted Research Environment. We examined uptake in the first 3 months (from August to October, 2020) of invitations following the reintroduction of the BSW programme compared with the same period in the preceding 3 years. We analysed inequalities in uptake by sex, age group, income deprivation quintile, urban and rural location, ethnic group, and uptake between different periods using logistic regression models. FINDINGS: Overall uptake remained above the 60% Welsh standard during the COVID-19 pandemic period of 2020-21 but declined compared with the pre-pandemic period of 2019-20 (60·4% vs 62·7%; p<0·001). During the COVID-19 pandemic period of 2020-21, uptake declined for most demographic groups, except for older individuals (70-74 years) and those in the most deprived quintile. Variation by sex, age, income deprivation, and ethnic groups was observed in all periods studied. Among low-uptake groups, including males, younger individuals (60-64 years), those living in most deprived areas, and ethnic minorities, uptake remains below the 60% Welsh standard. INTERPRETATION: Despite the disruption, uptake remained above the Welsh standard and inequalities did not worsen after the programme resumed activities. However, variations associated with sex, age, deprivation, and ethnicity remain. These findings need to be considered in targeting strategies to improve uptake and informed choice in colorectal cancer screening such as co-producing information products with low-uptake groups and upscaling the use of GP-endorsed invitations and reminder letters for bowel screening. FUNDING: Health Data Research UK, UK Medical Research Council, Administrative Data Research UK, and Health and Care Research Wales.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Humans , Wales/epidemiology , State Medicine , Retrospective Studies , Mass Screening/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology
20.
Curr Oncol ; 29(8): 5644-5654, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032870

ABSTRACT

Quality medical practice is based on science and evidence. For over a half-century, the efficacy of breast cancer screening has been challenged, particularly for women aged 40-49. As each false claim has been raised, it has been addressed and refuted based on science and evidence. Nevertheless, misinformation continues to be promoted, resulting in confusion for women and their physicians. Early detection has been proven to save lives for women aged 40-74 in randomized controlled trials of mammography screening. Observational studies, failure analyses, and incidence of death studies have provided evidence that there is a major benefit when screening is introduced to the general population. In large part due to screening, there has been an over 40% decline in deaths from breast cancer since 1990. Nevertheless, misinformation about screening continues to be promoted, adding to the confusion. Despite claims to the contrary, a careful reading of the guidelines issued by major groups such as the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American College of Physicians shows that they all agree that most lives are saved by screening starting at the age of 40. There is no scientific support for using the age of 50 as a threshold for screening. All women should be provided with the facts and not false information about breast cancer screening so that they can make "informed decisions" for themselves about whether to participate.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Communication , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Mammography/methods , Mass Screening/methods
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