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1.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 33(1): 181-188, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596214

ABSTRACT

Affinity selection-mass spectrometry, which includes magnetic microbead affinity selection-screening (MagMASS), is ideal for the discovery of ligands in complex mixtures that bind to pharmacological targets. Therapeutic agents are needed to prevent or treat COVID-19, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Infection of human cells by SARS-CoV-2 involves binding of the virus spike protein subunit 1 (S1) to the human cell receptor angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Like antibodies, small molecules have the potential to block the interaction of the viral S1 protein with human ACE2 and prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, a MagMASS assay was developed for the discovery of ligands to the S1 protein. Unlike previous MagMASS approaches, this new assay used robotics for 5-fold enhancement of throughput and sensitivity. The assay was validated using the SBP-1 peptide, which is identical to the ACE2 amino acid sequence recognized by the S1 protein, and then applied to the discovery of natural ligands from botanical extracts. Small molecule ligands to the S1 protein were discovered in extracts of the licorice species, Glycyrrhiza inflata. In particular, the licorice ligand licochalcone A was identified through dereplication and comparison with standards using HPLC with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites/drug effects , COVID-19/metabolism , Chalcones/chemistry , Chalcones/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Fabaceae/chemistry , Humans , Ligands , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114760, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525847

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have made great contributions to the prevention and treatment of human diseases in China, and especially in cases of COVID-19. However, due to quality problems, the lack of standards, and the diversity of dosage forms, adverse reactions to TCMs often occur. Moreover, the composition of TCMs makes them extremely challenging to extract and isolate, complicating studies of toxicity mechanisms. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this paper is therefore to summarize the advanced applications of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) technology in the quality control, safety evaluations, and determination of toxicity mechanisms of TCMs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant studies from the literature have been collected from scientific databases, such as "PubMed", "Scifinder", "Elsevier", "Google Scholar" using the keywords "MSI", "traditional Chinese medicines", "quality control", "metabolomics", and "mechanism". RESULTS: MSI is a new analytical imaging technology that can detect and image the metabolic changes of multiple components of TCMs in plants and animals in a high throughput manner. Compared to other chemical analysis methods, such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), this method does not require the complex extraction and separation of TCMs, and is fast, has high sensitivity, is label-free, and can be performed in high-throughput. Combined with chemometrics methods, MSI can be quickly and easily used for quality screening of TCMs. In addition, this technology can be used to further focus on potential biomarkers and explore the therapeutic/toxic mechanisms of TCMs. CONCLUSIONS: As a new type of analysis method, MSI has unique advantages to metabolic analysis, quality control, and mechanisms of action explorations of TCMs, and contributes to the establishment of quality standards to explore the safety and toxicology of TCMs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers, Pharmacological , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/standards , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/instrumentation , Quality Control
3.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515726

ABSTRACT

Understanding pathways that might impact coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifestations and disease outcomes is necessary for better disease management and for therapeutic development. Here, we analyzed alterations in sphingolipid (SL) levels upon infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 infection induced elevation of SL levels in both cells and sera of infected mice. A significant increase in glycosphingolipid levels was induced early post SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was essential for viral replication. This elevation could be reversed by treatment with glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors. Levels of sphinganine, sphingosine, GA1, and GM3 were significantly increased in both cells and the murine model upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. The potential involvement of SLs in COVID-19 pathology is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Sphingolipids/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Dioxanes/pharmacology , Gangliosides/blood , Gangliosides/metabolism , Glucosyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Glucosyltransferases/metabolism , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Mice, Transgenic , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sphingolipids/blood , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Sphingosine/blood , Sphingosine/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512511

ABSTRACT

This work describes an untargeted analytical approach for the screening, identification, and characterization of the trans-epithelial transport of green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechin extracts with in vitro inhibitory effect against the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) activity. After specific catechin extraction, a chromatographic separation obtained six fractions were carried out. The fractions were assessed in vitro against the PLpro target. Fraction 5 showed the highest inhibitory activity against the SARS-CoV-2 PLpro (IC50 of 0.125 µg mL-1). The untargeted characterization revealed that (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) was the most abundant compound in the fraction and the primary molecule absorbed by differentiated Caco-2 cells. Results indicated that fraction 5 was approximately 10 times more active than ECG (IC50 value equal to 11.62 ± 0.47 µg mL-1) to inhibit the PLpro target. Overall, our findings highlight the synergistic effects of the various components of the crude extract compared to isolated ECG.


Subject(s)
Catechin/pharmacology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Tea/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Caco-2 Cells , Camellia sinensis/metabolism , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/chemistry , Catechin/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/drug effects , Epithelium/drug effects , Epithelium/metabolism , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tea/chemistry , Tea/physiology
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(46)2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493347

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. For the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, it has become increasingly apparent that T cell responses are equally if not more important than humoral responses in mediating recovery and immune protection. One major challenge in developing T cell-based therapies for infectious and malignant diseases has been the identification of immunogenic epitopes that can elicit a meaningful T cell response. Traditionally, this has been achieved using sophisticated in silico methods to predict putative epitopes deduced from binding affinities. Our studies find that, in contrast to current convention, "immunodominant" SARS-CoV-2 peptides defined by such in silico methods often fail to elicit T cell responses recognizing naturally presented SARS-CoV-2 epitopes. We postulated that immunogenic epitopes for SARS-CoV-2 are best defined empirically by directly analyzing peptides eluted from the naturally processed peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and then validating immunogenicity by determining whether such peptides can elicit T cells recognizing SARS-CoV-2 antigen-expressing cells. Using a tandem mass spectrometry approach, we identified epitopes derived from not only structural but also nonstructural genes in regions highly conserved among SARS-CoV-2 strains, including recently recognized variants. Finally, there are no reported T cell receptor-engineered T cell technology that can redirect T cell specificity to recognize and kill SARS-CoV-2 target cells. We report here several SARS-CoV-2 epitopes defined by mass spectrometric analysis of MHC-eluted peptides, provide empiric evidence for their immunogenicity, and demonstrate engineered TCR-redirected killing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/isolation & purification , Epitopes/isolation & purification , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cell Line , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Peptides , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Metabolism ; 126: 154922, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global COVID-19 pandemic has led to extensive development in many fields, including the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection by mass spectrometry. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the accuracy of mass spectrometry diagnostic tests developed so far, across a wide range of biological matrices, and additionally to assess risks of bias and applicability in studies published to date. METHOD: 23 retrospective observational cohort studies were included in the systematic review using the PRISMA-DTA framework, with a total of 2858 COVID-19 positive participants and 2544 controls. Risks of bias and applicability were assessed via a QUADAS-2 questionnaire. A meta-analysis was also performed focusing on sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy and Youden's Index, in addition to assessing heterogeneity. FINDINGS: Sensitivity averaged 0.87 in the studies reviewed herein (interquartile range 0.81-0.96) and specificity 0.88 (interquartile range 0.82-0.98), with an area under the receiver operating characteristic summary curve of 0.93. By subgroup, the best diagnostic results were achieved by viral proteomic analyses of nasopharyngeal swabs and metabolomic analyses of plasma and serum. The performance of other sampling matrices (breath, sebum, saliva) was less good, indicating that these protocols are currently insufficiently mature for clinical application. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates the potential for mass spectrometry and 'omics in achieving accurate test results for COVID-19 diagnosis, but also highlights the need for further work to optimize and harmonize practice across laboratories before these methods can be translated to clinical applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(29): 7305-7318, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460297

ABSTRACT

The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the global pandemic of COVID-19, is an abundant, heavily glycosylated surface protein that plays a key role in receptor binding and host cell fusion, and is the focus of all current vaccine development efforts. Variants of concern are now circulating worldwide that exhibit mutations in the spike protein. Protein sequence and glycosylation variations of the spike may affect viral fitness, antigenicity, and immune evasion. Global surveillance of the virus currently involves genome sequencing, but tracking emerging variants should include quantitative measurement of changes in site-specific glycosylation as well. In this work, we used data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) mass spectrometry to quantitatively characterize the five N-linked glycosylation sites of the glycoprotein standard alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), as well as the 22 sites of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We found that DIA compared favorably to DDA in sensitivity, resulting in more assignments of low-abundance glycopeptides. However, the reproducibility across replicates of DIA-identified glycopeptides was lower than that of DDA, possibly due to the difficulty of reliably assigning low-abundance glycopeptides confidently. The differences in the data acquired between the two methods suggest that DIA outperforms DDA in terms of glycoprotein coverage but that overall performance is a balance of sensitivity, selectivity, and statistical confidence in glycoproteomics. We assert that these analytical and bioinformatics methods for assigning and quantifying glycoforms would benefit the process of tracking viral variants as well as for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Glycomics/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Glycosylation , Humans , Limit of Detection , Reproducibility of Results , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
Proteomics ; 21(10): e2000279, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384282

ABSTRACT

While protein-protein interaction is the first step of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, recent comparative proteomic profiling enabled the identification of over 11,000 protein dynamics, thus providing a comprehensive reflection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular system in response to viral infection. Here we summarize and rationalize the results obtained by various mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approaches applied to the functional characterization of proteins and pathways associated with SARS-CoV-2-mediated infections in humans. Comparative analysis of cell-lines versus tissue samples indicates that our knowledge in proteome profile alternation in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is still incomplete and the tissue-specific response to SARS-CoV-2 infection can probably not be recapitulated efficiently by in vitro experiments. However, regardless of the viral infection period, sample types, and experimental strategies, a thorough cross-comparison of the recently published proteome, phosphoproteome, and interactome datasets led to the identification of a common set of proteins and kinases associated with PI3K-Akt, EGFR, MAPK, Rap1, and AMPK signaling pathways. Ephrin receptor A2 (EPHA2) was identified by 11 studies including all proteomic platforms, suggesting it as a potential future target for SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanisms and the development of new therapeutic strategies. We further discuss the potentials of future proteomics strategies for identifying prognostic SARS-CoV-2 responsive age-, gender-dependent, tissue-specific protein targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Protein Interaction Mapping/methods , Protein Interaction Maps , Protein Kinases/analysis , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteome/analysis , Proteome/metabolism , Receptor, EphA2/analysis , Receptor, EphA2/metabolism , Signal Transduction
9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(12): 1430-1433, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387498

ABSTRACT

The main viral protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is a nucleophilic cysteine hydrolase and a current target for anti-viral chemotherapy. We describe a high-throughput solid phase extraction coupled to mass spectrometry Mpro assay. The results reveal some ß-lactams, including penicillin esters, are active site reacting Mpro inhibitors, thus highlighting the potential of acylating agents for Mpro inhibition.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Acylation , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , beta-Lactams/chemistry
10.
Anal Biochem ; 634: 114362, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377633

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that caused the COVID-19 disease, has highlighted our urgent need for sensitive, fast and accurate diagnostic technologies. In fact, one of the main challenges for flatting COVID-19 spread charts is the ability to accurately and rapidly identify asymptomatic cases that result in spreading the virus to close contacts. SARS-CoV-2 virus mutation is also relatively rapid, which makes the detection of COVID-19 diseases still crucial even after the vaccination. Conventional techniques, which are commercially available have focused on clinical manifestation, along with molecular and serological detection tools that can identify the SARS-CoV-2 virus however, owing to various disadvantages including low specificity and sensitivity, a quick, low cost and easy approach is needed for diagnosis of COVID-19. Scientists are now showing extensive interest in an effective portable and simple detection method to diagnose COVID-19. There are several novel methods and approaches that are considered viable advanced systems that can meet the demands. This study reviews the new approaches and sensing technologies that work on COVID-19 diagnosis for easy and successful detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Limit of Detection , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 237: 113830, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375960

ABSTRACT

Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) belongs to the complex group of synthetic perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) which have led to ubiquitous environmental contamination. While some of the long-chain compounds accumulate in the human body, the short-chain compound PFBA was found to have a relatively short half-life in blood of a few days, in agreement with relatively low PFBA serum/plasma levels of roughly 0.01 ng/ml in European studies. Surprisingly, very high median levels of PFBA of 807 and 263 ng/g tissue for human lung and kidney autopsy samples, respectively, were reported in a paper of Pérez et al. (2013). This would question the concept of PFAS blood analysis reflecting the body burden of these compounds. To verify the results of high PFBA tissue accumulation in humans, we have analyzed PFBA in a set of 7 lung and 9 kidney samples from tumor patients with a different method of quantification, using high-resolution mass spectrometry with the accurate mass as analytical parameter. The only human sample with a quantifiable amount of PFBA (peak area more than twice above the analytical background signals) contained approximately 0.17 ng/g lung tissue. In the light of our results and considering the analytical problems with the short-chain compound PFBA exhibiting only one mass fragmentation, it appears to be likely that PFBA is not accumulating on a high level in human lung and kidney tissue. In general, the analysis of short-chain PFAS in complex matrices like food or tissue is very challenging with respect to instrumental quantification and possible sample contamination.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Fluorocarbons/analysis , Kidney/chemistry , Lung/chemistry , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Middle Aged
12.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 934, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341013

ABSTRACT

We describe an analytical method for the identification, mapping and relative quantitation of glycopeptides from SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. The method may be executed using a LC-TOF mass spectrometer, requires no specialized knowledge of glycan analysis and exploits the differential resolving power of reverse phase HPLC. While this separation technique resolves peptides with high efficiency, glycans are resolved poorly, if at all. Consequently, glycopeptides consisting of the same peptide bearing different glycan structures will all possess very similar retention times and co-elute. Rather than a disadvantage, we show that shared retention time can be used to map multiple glycan species to the same peptide and location. In combination with MSMS and pseudo MS3, we have constructed a detailed mass-retention time database for Spike glycopeptides. This database allows any accurate mass LC-MS laboratory to reliably identify and quantify Spike glycopeptides from a single overnight elastase digest in less than 90 minutes.


Subject(s)
Glycopeptides/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Databases, Protein , Time Factors
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4635, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333940

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-191, features a receptor-binding domain (RBD) for binding to the host cell ACE2 protein1-6. Neutralizing antibodies that block RBD-ACE2 interaction are candidates for the development of targeted therapeutics7-17. Llama-derived single-domain antibodies (nanobodies, ~15 kDa) offer advantages in bioavailability, amenability, and production and storage owing to their small sizes and high stability. Here, we report the rapid selection of 99 synthetic nanobodies (sybodies) against RBD by in vitro selection using three libraries. The best sybody, MR3 binds to RBD with high affinity (KD = 1.0 nM) and displays high neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses (IC50 = 0.42 µg mL-1). Structural, biochemical, and biological characterization suggests a common neutralizing mechanism, in which the RBD-ACE2 interaction is competitively inhibited by sybodies. Various forms of sybodies with improved potency have been generated by structure-based design, biparatopic construction, and divalent engineering. Two divalent forms of MR3 protect hamsters from clinical signs after live virus challenge and a single dose of the Fc-fusion construct of MR3 reduces viral RNA load by 6 Log10. Our results pave the way for the development of therapeutic nanobodies against COVID-19 and present a strategy for rapid development of targeted medical interventions during an outbreak.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/ultrastructure , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Female , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Mesocricetus , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding/drug effects , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Single-Domain Antibodies/chemistry , Single-Domain Antibodies/metabolism
14.
EBioMedicine ; 69: 103465, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has overwhelmed health systems worldwide and highlighted limitations of diagnostic testing. Several types of diagnostic tests including RT-PCR-based assays and antigen detection by lateral flow assays, each with their own strengths and weaknesses, have been developed and deployed in a short time. METHODS: Here, we describe an immunoaffinity purification approach followed a by high resolution mass spectrometry-based targeted qualitative assay capable of detecting SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen from nasopharyngeal swab samples. Based on our discovery experiments using purified virus, recombinant viral protein and nasopharyngeal swab samples from COVID-19 positive patients, nucleocapsid protein was selected as a target antigen. We then developed an automated antibody capture-based workflow coupled to targeted high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) - parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay on an Orbitrap Exploris 480 mass spectrometer. An ensemble machine learning-based model for determining COVID-19 positive samples was developed using fragment ion intensities from the PRM data. FINDINGS: The optimized targeted assay, which was used to analyze 88 positive and 88 negative nasopharyngeal swab samples for validation, resulted in 98% (95% CI = 0.922-0.997) (86/88) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI = 0.958-1.000) (88/88) specificity using RT-PCR-based molecular testing as the reference method. INTERPRETATION: Our results demonstrate that direct detection of infectious agents from clinical samples by tandem mass spectrometry-based assays have potential to be deployed as diagnostic assays in clinical laboratories, which has hitherto been limited to analysis of pure microbial cultures. FUNDING: This study was supported by DBT/Wellcome Trust India Alliance Margdarshi Fellowship grant IA/M/15/1/502023 awarded to AP and the generosity of Eric and Wendy Schmidt.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Immunoassay/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Animals , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Automation, Laboratory/methods , Automation, Laboratory/standards , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunoassay/standards , Machine Learning , Mass Spectrometry/standards , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217089

ABSTRACT

Platelets are components of the blood that are highly reactive, and they quickly respond to multiple physiological and pathophysiological processes. In the last decade, it became clear that platelets are the key components of circulation, linking hemostasis, innate, and acquired immunity. Protein composition, localization, and activity are crucial for platelet function and regulation. The current state of mass spectrometry-based proteomics has tremendous potential to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from a minimal amount of material, unravel multiple post-translational modifications, and monitor platelet activity during drug treatments. This review focuses on the role of proteomics in understanding the molecular basics of the classical and newly emerging functions of platelets. including the recently described role of platelets in immunology and the development of COVID-19.The state-of-the-art proteomic technologies and their application in studying platelet biogenesis, signaling, and storage are described, and the potential of newly appeared trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) is highlighted. Additionally, implementing proteomic methods in platelet transfusion medicine, and as a diagnostic and prognostic tool, is discussed.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/metabolism , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Platelet Function Tests/methods , Proteomics/methods , Animals , Blood Platelets/cytology , Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Platelet Transfusion , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Signal Transduction , Transfusion Medicine/methods
16.
SLAS Discov ; 26(6): 749-756, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136206

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents a significant threat to human health. Despite its similarity to related coronaviruses, there are currently no specific treatments for COVID-19 infection, and therefore there is an urgent need to develop therapies for this and future coronavirus outbreaks. Formation of the cap at the 5' end of viral RNA has been shown to help coronaviruses evade host defenses. Nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14) is responsible for N7-methylation of the cap guanosine in coronaviruses. This enzyme is highly conserved among coronaviruses and is a bifunctional protein with both N7-methyltransferase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities that distinguish nsp14 from its human equivalent. Mutational analysis of SARS-CoV nsp14 highlighted its role in viral replication and translation efficiency of the viral genome. In this paper, we describe the characterization and development of a high-throughput assay for nsp14 utilizing RapidFire technology. The assay has been used to screen a library of 1771 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. From this, we have validated nitazoxanide as a selective inhibitor of the methyltransferase activity of nsp14. Although modestly active, this compound could serve as a starting point for further optimization.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Exoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , RNA Caps/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiparasitic Agents/chemistry , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Cloning, Molecular , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Assays , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Methylation , Nitro Compounds/chemistry , Prescription Drugs/chemistry , Prescription Drugs/pharmacology , RNA Caps/genetics , RNA Caps/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Thiazoles/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
J Proteome Res ; 20(3): 1464-1475, 2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091530

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the causative agent of the 2020 pandemic leading to the COVID-19 respiratory disease. With many scientific and humanitarian efforts ongoing to develop diagnostic tests, vaccines, and treatments for COVID-19, and to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, mass spectrometry research, including proteomics, is playing a role in determining the biology of this viral infection. Proteomics studies are starting to lead to an understanding of the roles of viral and host proteins during SARS-CoV-2 infection, their protein-protein interactions, and post-translational modifications. This is beginning to provide insights into potential therapeutic targets or diagnostic strategies that can be used to reduce the long-term burden of the pandemic. However, the extraordinary situation caused by the global pandemic is also highlighting the need to improve mass spectrometry data and workflow sharing. We therefore describe freely available data and computational resources that can facilitate and assist the mass spectrometry-based analysis of SARS-CoV-2. We exemplify this by reanalyzing a virus-host interactome data set to detect protein-protein interactions and identify host proteins that could potentially be used as targets for drug repurposing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Information Dissemination/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Computational Biology , Databases, Protein/statistics & numerical data , Drug Repositioning , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Interaction Maps , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteomics/methods , Proteomics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/physiology
18.
Elife ; 102021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069944

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein is the main handle for SARS-CoV-2 to enter host cells via surface angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. How ACE2 binding activates proteolysis of S protein is unknown. Here, using amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and molecular dynamics simulations, we have mapped the S:ACE2 interaction interface and uncovered long-range allosteric propagation of ACE2 binding to sites necessary for host-mediated proteolysis of S protein, critical for viral host entry. Unexpectedly, ACE2 binding enhances dynamics at a distal S1/S2 cleavage site and flanking protease docking site ~27 Å away while dampening dynamics of the stalk hinge (central helix and heptad repeat [HR]) regions ~130 Å away. This highlights that the stalk and proteolysis sites of the S protein are dynamic hotspots in the prefusion state. Our findings provide a dynamics map of the S:ACE2 interface in solution and also offer mechanistic insights into how ACE2 binding is allosterically coupled to distal proteolytic processing sites and viral-host membrane fusion. Thus, protease docking sites flanking the S1/S2 cleavage site represent alternate allosteric hotspot targets for potential therapeutic development.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Allosteric Site , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteolysis , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization
19.
Nature ; 589(7843): 630-632, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049956
20.
J Proteome Res ; 20(2): 1133-1152, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036024

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was declared a pandemic infection in March 2020. As of December 2020, two COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized for emergency use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but there are no effective drugs to treat COVID-19, and pandemic mitigation efforts like physical distancing have had acute social and economic consequences. In this perspective, we discuss how the proteomic research community can leverage technologies and expertise to address the pandemic by investigating four key areas of study in SARS-CoV-2 biology. Specifically, we discuss how (1) mass spectrometry-based structural techniques can overcome limitations and complement traditional structural approaches to inform the dynamic structure of SARS-CoV-2 proteins, complexes, and virions; (2) virus-host protein-protein interaction mapping can identify the cellular machinery required for SARS-CoV-2 replication; (3) global protein abundance and post-translational modification profiling can characterize signaling pathways that are rewired during infection; and (4) proteomic technologies can aid in biomarker identification, diagnostics, and drug development in order to monitor COVID-19 pathology and investigate treatment strategies. Systems-level high-throughput capabilities of proteomic technologies can yield important insights into SARS-CoV-2 biology that are urgently needed during the pandemic, and more broadly, can inform coronavirus virology and host biology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Pandemics , Protein Interaction Maps , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
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