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1.
Br J Nurs ; 31(7): 386-392, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786363

ABSTRACT

Delivery of the COVID-19 vaccine has been made possible in part through the use of mass vaccination centres (MVCs). The primary legal framework underpinning the MVC programme is a national protocol enabling registered and non-registered healthcare workers to contribute to the safe and effective administration of the vaccine. The national protocol provided a vehicle for an innovative supervised student nurse placement within an MVC in south Wales. This placement, for undergraduate pre-registration student nurses, formed part of a service improvement project. Through student feedback prior to, and following, the short placement, the learning was unequivocal in terms of knowledge and skills acquisition related to safe and effective vaccine administration, with students providing clear feedback on the positive nature of the placement experience. A placement within an MVC offers a rich educational experience for student nurses, which as yet appears to be underutilised across the UK.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mass Vaccination
2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266485, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779771

ABSTRACT

Governments around the world are seeking to slow the spread of Covid-19 and reduce hospitalisations by encouraging mass vaccinations for Covid-19. The success of this policy depends on most of the population accepting the vaccine and then being vaccinated. Understanding and predicting the motivation of individuals to be vaccinated is, therefore, critical in assessing the likely effectiveness of a mass vaccination programme in slowing the spread of the virus. In this paper we draw on the I3 Response Framework to understand and predict the willingness of New Zealanders to be vaccinated for Covid-19. The Framework differs from most studies predicting willingness to be vaccinated because it is based on the idea that the willingness to adopt a behaviour depends on both involvement (a measure of motivational strength) with the behaviour and attitudes towards the behaviour. We show that predictions of individuals' willingness to be vaccinated are improved using involvement and attitudes together, compared to attitudes alone. This result has important implications for the implementation of mass vaccination programmes for Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Mass Vaccination , New Zealand/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 769898, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775977

ABSTRACT

Background: In Africa, rabies causes an estimated 24,000 human deaths annually. Mass dog vaccinations coupled with timely post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for dog-bite patients are the main interventions to eliminate human rabies deaths. A well-informed healthcare workforce and the availability and accessibility of rabies biologicals at health facilities are critical in reducing rabies deaths. We assessed awareness and knowledge regarding rabies and the management of rabies among healthcare workers, and PEP availability in rural eastern Kenya. Methodology: We interviewed 73 healthcare workers from 42 healthcare units in 13 wards in Makueni and Kibwezi West sub-counties, Makueni County, Kenya in November 2018. Data on demographics, years of work experience, knowledge of rabies, management of bite and rabies patients, and availability of rabies biologicals were collected and analyzed. Results: Rabies PEP vaccines were available in only 5 (12%) of 42 health facilities. None of the health facilities had rabies immunoglobulins in stock at the time of the study. PEP was primarily administered intramuscularly, with only 11% (n = 8) of the healthcare workers and 17% (7/42) healthcare facilities aware of the dose-sparing intradermal route. Less than a quarter of the healthcare workers were aware of the World Health Organization categorization of bite wounds that guides the use of PEP. Eighteen percent (n = 13) of healthcare workers reported they would administer PEP for category I exposures even though PEP is not recommended for this category of exposure. Only one of six respondents with acute encephalitis consultation considered rabies as a differential diagnosis highlighting the low index of suspicion for rabies. Conclusion: The availability and use of PEP for rabies was sub-optimal. We identified two urgent needs to support rabies elimination programmes: improving availability and access to PEP; and targeted training of the healthcare workers to improve awareness on bite wound management, judicious use of PEP including appropriate risk assessment following bites and the use of the dose-sparing intradermal route in facilities seeing multiple bite patients. Global and domestic funding plan that address these gaps in the human health sector is needed for efficient rabies elimination in Africa.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Health Services Needs and Demand , Rabies , Rural Health , Animals , Bites and Stings/therapy , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/veterinary , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/supply & distribution , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Rabies Vaccines/supply & distribution
5.
Ann Fam Med ; 20(2): 149-156, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765517

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented global public health crisis. Mass vaccination is the safest and fastest pandemic exit strategy. Mass vaccination clinics are a particularly important tool in quickly achieving herd immunity. Primary care physicians have played a crucial role in organizing and running vaccination clinics. In this special report, we synthesize existing guidelines and peer-reviewed studies to provide physicians with practical guidance on planning and implementing COVID-19 mass vaccination clinics. METHODS: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE and Embase were used to search for relevant literature using search terms that included COVID-19, mass vaccination, and best practice. We also identified and analyzed national and international guidelines. RESULTS: Forty-six relevant articles, reports, and guidelines were identified and synthesized. Articles included mass vaccination clinic guidelines and studies before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Key considerations for COVID-19 mass vaccination clinics include leadership and role designation, site selection, clinic layout and workflow, day-to-day operations, infection prevention, and communication strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Planning and implementing a successful COVID-19 mass vaccination clinic requires several key considerations. Primary care plays an important role in organizing clinics and ensuring populations made vulnerable by social and economic policies are being reached. Ongoing data collection is required to evaluate and continuously improve COVID-19 mass vaccination efforts. As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine rollout occurs in various countries, research will be required to identify the main factors for success to inform future pandemic responses.VISUAL ABSTRACT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mass Vaccination , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 20(6): 647-671, 2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761413

ABSTRACT

The widespread outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in late 2019 caused many people worldwide to die or suffer from certain clinical complications even after the recovery. The virus has many social and economic adverse effects. Studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have specified that spike, surface glycoprotein antigen, is considered as a major target to stimulate the immune system. This glycoprotein binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 on the surface of human cells especially lung epithelial cells and facilitates the virus entry. Therefore, the immune response stimulated by vaccination targeting this antigen may cause immunity against the whole virus. Currently, many companies are working on SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. They include 'traditional' vaccines like attenuated or inactivated virus platforms as well as the brand-new generations of vaccines such as viral vector-based, subunit, nucleic acid-based, and virus-like particle vaccines. Certainly, each vaccine platform presents several advantages and disadvantages affecting its efficacy and safety which is the main topic of this paper.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Humans , Mass Vaccination , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Internalization
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 mass vaccination campaign posed new challenges not only from a healthcare perspective, but also in terms of distribution, logistics, and organization. Managing clinical risk in off-site vaccination centers during a pandemic provided a new opportunity for the training and acquisition of competencies through continuous learning from adverse events. The aim of this report, based on a review of activity, was to identify the most recurrent and high-risk failures of the vaccination process in a mass vaccination center. METHODS: Adverse events and near misses reported during the first 11 months of activity (February 2021-January 2022) in the mass vaccination center of Verona (Italy) were evaluated. RESULTS: From 15 February 2021 to 17 January 2022 the center administered about 460,000 doses to the population and nine adverse events and one near miss were reported. Most of the events were errors in vaccine administration, either in principle, dosage, or timing with respect to the indicated schedule. All events had minor outcomes. Communication errors, inadequate training, and general organizational issues were the most recurrent factors contributing to the events. CONCLUSIONS: Risk mitigation during mass vaccination in temporary sites is an essential element of a successful vaccination campaign. The reporting of adverse events should be encouraged in order to obtain as much information as possible for a continuous improvement of the activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Mass Vaccination , Risk Management , Vaccination
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2055, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747191

ABSTRACT

Understanding factors driving vaccine hesitancy is crucial to vaccination success. We surveyed adults (N = 2510) from February to March 2021 across five sites (Australia = 502, Germany = 516, Hong Kong = 445, UK = 512, USA = 535) using a cross-sectional design and stratified quota sampling for age, sex, and education. We assessed willingness to take a vaccine and a comprehensive set of putative predictors. Predictive power was analysed with a machine learning algorithm. Only 57.4% of the participants indicated that they would definitely or probably get vaccinated. A parsimonious machine learning model could identify vaccine hesitancy with high accuracy (i.e. 82% sensitivity and 79-82% specificity) using 12 variables only. The most relevant predictors were vaccination conspiracy beliefs, various paranoid concerns related to the pandemic, a general conspiracy mentality, COVID anxiety, high perceived risk of infection, low perceived social rank, lower age, lower income, and higher population density. Campaigns seeking to increase vaccine uptake need to take mistrust as the main driver of vaccine hesitancy into account.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Australia , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developed Countries , Female , Germany , Hong Kong , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United Kingdom , United States
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4339, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740464

ABSTRACT

We propose a novel Timed Intervention S, P, E, I, Q, R, D model for projecting the possible futures of the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA. The proposed model introduces a series of timed interventions that can account for the influence of real time changes in government policy and social norms. We consider three separate types of interventions: (i) Protective interventions: Where population moves from susceptible to protected corresponding to mask mandates, stay-at-home orders and/or social distancing. (ii) Release interventions: Where population moves from protected to susceptible corresponding to social distancing mandates and practices being lifted by policy or pandemic fatigue. (iii) Vaccination interventions: Where population moves from susceptible, protected, and exposed to recovered (meaning immune) corresponding to the mass immunization of the U.S. Population. By treating the pandemic with timed interventions, we are able to model the pandemic extremely effectively, as well as directly predicting the course of the pandemic under differing sets of intervention schedules. We show that without prompt effective protective/vaccination interventions the pandemic will be extended significantly and result in many millions of deaths in the U.S.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Forecasting , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination , Pandemics/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology
12.
Science ; 375(6585): 1127-1132, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736001

ABSTRACT

A diverse array of successful, first-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have played a huge role in efforts to bring the COVID-19 pandemic under control, even though inequitable distribution still leaves many vulnerable. Additional challenges loom for the next phase. These include optimizing the immunological rationale for boosting-how often and with what-and the best approaches for building a future-proofed, durable immune repertoire to protect against oncoming viral variants, including in children. The landscape of vaccine producers and technologies is likely to become even more heterogeneous. There is a need now for appraisal of future approaches: While some favor frequent boosting with the first-generation, ancestral spike vaccines, others propose frequent readjustment using current variant sequences, polyvalent vaccines, or pan-coronavirus strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , Adult , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mass Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
Lancet ; 399(10325): 678-690, 2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721141

ABSTRACT

Measles is a highly contagious, potentially fatal, but vaccine-preventable disease caused by measles virus. Symptoms include fever, maculopapular rash, and at least one of cough, coryza, or conjunctivitis, although vaccinated individuals can have milder or even no symptoms. Laboratory diagnosis relies largely on the detection of specific IgM antibodies in serum, dried blood spots, or oral fluid, or the detection of viral RNA in throat or nasopharyngeal swabs, urine, or oral fluid. Complications can affect many organs and often include otitis media, laryngotracheobronchitis, pneumonia, stomatitis, and diarrhoea. Neurological complications are uncommon but serious, and can occur during or soon after the acute disease (eg, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) or months or even years later (eg, measles inclusion body encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis). Patient management mainly involves supportive therapy, such as vitamin A supplementation, monitoring for and treatment of secondary bacterial infections with antibiotics, and rehydration in the case of severe diarrhoea. There is no specific antiviral therapy for the treatment of measles, and disease control largely depends on prevention. However, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine, measles is still endemic in many countries and causes considerable morbidity and mortality, especially among children in resource-poor settings. The low case numbers reported in 2020, after a worldwide resurgence of measles between 2017 and 2019, have to be interpreted cautiously, owing to the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on disease surveillance. Disrupted vaccination activities during the pandemic increase the potential for another resurgence of measles in the near future, and effective, timely catch-up vaccination campaigns, strong commitment and leadership, and sufficient resources will be required to mitigate this threat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mass Vaccination/standards , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/immunology , Measles/virology , Measles virus/immunology , Measles virus/pathogenicity , Pandemics/prevention & control
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(2): e1009872, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714704

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for children of age five and older in many countries. However, there is an ongoing debate as to whether children should be vaccinated and at what priority. In this work, we use mathematical modeling and optimization to study how vaccine allocations to different age groups effect epidemic outcomes. In particular, we consider the effect of extending vaccination campaigns to include the vaccination of children. When vaccine availability is limited, we consider Pareto-optimal allocations with respect to competing measures of the number of infections and mortality and systematically study the trade-offs among them. In the scenarios considered, when some weight is given to the number of infections, we find that it is optimal to allocate vaccines to adolescents in the age group 10-19, even when they are assumed to be less susceptible than adults. We further find that age group 0-9 is included in the optimal allocation for sufficiently high values of the basic reproduction number.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Care Rationing/statistics & numerical data , Mass Vaccination , Models, Statistical , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 804-806, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713525

ABSTRACT

In order to optimise the operational implementation of mass vaccination policies, it is critical to consider not only the supply of vaccines as well as each element of the vaccination process. This study, which was conducted in a vaccination center clearly shows how the choice of a syringe reference used during the COVID-19 vaccination campaign influences the number of vaccine doses available. The results appear to be closely related to the type of vaccine used (COMIRNATY® and SPIKEVAX®). In this context, the choice of the right reference of syringe has major economic and organisational consequences on a global scale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mass Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2 , Syringes , Vaccination
18.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(2): 193-206, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704182

ABSTRACT

The greatest hope for a return to normalcy following the COVID-19 pandemic is worldwide vaccination. Yet, a relaxation of social distancing that allows increased transmissibility, coupled with selection pressure due to vaccination, will probably lead to the emergence of vaccine resistance. We analyse the evolutionary dynamics of COVID-19 in the presence of dynamic contact reduction and in response to vaccination. We use infection and vaccination data from six different countries. We show that under slow vaccination, resistance is very likely to appear even if social distancing is maintained. Under fast vaccination, the emergence of mutants can be prevented if social distancing is maintained during vaccination. We analyse multiple human factors that affect the evolutionary potential of the virus, including the extent of dynamic social distancing, vaccination campaigns, vaccine design, boosters and vaccine hesitancy. We provide guidelines for policies that aim to minimize the probability of emergence of vaccine-resistant variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Drug Resistance, Viral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mass Vaccination , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/immunology , Humans , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Policy Making , Probability , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stochastic Processes
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 782198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699887

ABSTRACT

Misunderstanding temporal coincidence of adverse events during mass vaccination and invalid assessment of possible safety concerns have negative effects on immunization programs, leading to low immunization coverage. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the incidence rates of GBS that are temporally associated with viral vaccine administration but might not be attributable to the vaccines. By literature search in Embase and PubMed, we included 48 publications and 2,110,441,600 participants. The pooled incidence rate of GBS was 3.09 per million persons (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.67 to 3.51) within six weeks of vaccination, equally 2.47 per 100,000 person-year (95%CI: 2.14 to 2.81). Subgroup analyses illustrated that the pooled rates were 2.77 per million persons (95%CI: 2.47 to 3.07) for individuals who received the influenza vaccine and 2.44 per million persons (95%CI: 0.97 to 3.91) for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, respectively. Our findings evidence the GBS-associated safety of virus vaccines. We present a reference for the evaluation of post-vaccination GBS rates in mass immunization campaigns, including the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Mass Vaccination/adverse effects , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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