Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2147042, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680203


Importance: Given limited COVID-19 vaccine availability early in the pandemic, optimizing immunization strategies was of paramount importance. Ring vaccination has been used successfully to control transmission of other airborne respiratory viruses. Objective: To assess the association of a ring vaccination intervention on COVID-19 spread in the initial epicenter of SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant transmission in Montreal, Canada. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study compared COVID-19 daily disease risk in 3 population-based groups of neighborhoods in Montreal, Canada, defined by their intervention-specific vaccine coverage at the neighborhood level: the primary intervention group (500 or more vaccinated persons per 10 000 persons), secondary intervention group (95 to 499), and control group (0 to 50). The groups were compared within each of 3 time periods: before intervention (December 1, 2020, to March 16, 2021), during and immediately after intervention (March 17 to April 17, 2021), and 3 weeks after the intervention midpoint (April 18 to July 18, 2021). Data were analyzed between June 2021 and November 2021. Exposures: Vaccination targeted parents and teachers of children attending the 32 schools and 48 childcare centers in 2 adjacent neighborhoods with highest local transmission (case counts) of Alpha variant shortly after its introduction. Participants were invited to receive 1 dose of mRNA vaccine between March 22 and April 9, 2021 (before vaccine was available to these age groups). Main Outcomes and Measures: COVID-19 risk in 3 groups of neighborhoods based on intervention-specific vaccine coverage. Results: A total of 11 794 residents were immunized, with a mean (SD) age of 43 (8) years (range, 16-93 years); 5766 participants (48.9%) lived in a targeted neighborhood, and 9784 (83.0%) were parents. COVID-19 risk in the primary intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group before (unadjusted risk ratio [RR], 1.58; 95% CI 1.52-1.65) and during (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.52-1.76) intervention, and reached a level similar to the other groups in the weeks following the intervention (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94-1.12). A similar trend was observed when restricting to SARS-CoV-2 variants and persons aged 30 to 59 years (before: RR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.63-1.83 vs after: RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.88-1.17). Conclusions and Relevance: Our findings show that ring vaccination was associated with a reduction in COVID-19 risk in areas with high local transmission of Alpha variant shortly after its introduction. Ring vaccination may be considered as an adjunct to mass immunization to control transmission in specific areas, based on local epidemiology.

COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/transmission , Risk Assessment/methods , Vaccination/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/standards , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Population Surveillance/methods , Quebec/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
Front Immunol ; 11: 1817, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703802


There is an urgent need for effective countermeasures against the current emergence and accelerating expansion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Induction of herd immunity by mass vaccination has been a very successful strategy for preventing the spread of many infectious diseases, hence protecting the most vulnerable population groups unable to develop immunity, for example individuals with immunodeficiencies or a weakened immune system due to underlying medical or debilitating conditions. Therefore, vaccination represents one of the most promising counter-pandemic measures to COVID-19. However, to date, no licensed vaccine exists, neither for SARS-CoV-2 nor for the closely related SARS-CoV or Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV. In addition, a few vaccine candidates have only recently entered human clinical trials, which hampers the progress in tackling COVID-19 infection. Here, we discuss potential prophylactic interventions for SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on the challenges existing for vaccine development, and we review pre-clinical progress and ongoing human clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccine candidates. Although COVID-19 vaccine development is currently accelerated via so-called fast-track programs, vaccines may not be timely available to have an impact on the first wave of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, COVID-19 vaccines will be essential in the future for reducing morbidity and mortality and inducing herd immunity, if SARS-CoV-2 becomes established in the population like for example influenza virus.

Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Immunity, Herd/immunology , Mass Vaccination/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(9): 2219-2221, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691015


In the Northern Hemisphere, the persistence or reemergence of coronavirus circulation into the 2020-2021 influenza season threatens to overwhelm health-care resources and systems and increase mortality and morbidity. Data from Australia show that stay-at-home policies have reduced both influenza and coronavirus cases early in the season, thus "flattening the curve." However, influenza vaccination is critical to ensure the reduction in co-infection. Several policies, such as vaccination strategies to accommodate physical distancing measures, change population recommendations, and timing and location of vaccination have been implemented to increase influenza vaccine uptake during the pandemic. This commentary explores those policies.

Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communication , Health Planning , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/supply & distribution , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons