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1.
Lancet ; 399(10325): 678-690, 2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721141

ABSTRACT

Measles is a highly contagious, potentially fatal, but vaccine-preventable disease caused by measles virus. Symptoms include fever, maculopapular rash, and at least one of cough, coryza, or conjunctivitis, although vaccinated individuals can have milder or even no symptoms. Laboratory diagnosis relies largely on the detection of specific IgM antibodies in serum, dried blood spots, or oral fluid, or the detection of viral RNA in throat or nasopharyngeal swabs, urine, or oral fluid. Complications can affect many organs and often include otitis media, laryngotracheobronchitis, pneumonia, stomatitis, and diarrhoea. Neurological complications are uncommon but serious, and can occur during or soon after the acute disease (eg, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) or months or even years later (eg, measles inclusion body encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis). Patient management mainly involves supportive therapy, such as vitamin A supplementation, monitoring for and treatment of secondary bacterial infections with antibiotics, and rehydration in the case of severe diarrhoea. There is no specific antiviral therapy for the treatment of measles, and disease control largely depends on prevention. However, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine, measles is still endemic in many countries and causes considerable morbidity and mortality, especially among children in resource-poor settings. The low case numbers reported in 2020, after a worldwide resurgence of measles between 2017 and 2019, have to be interpreted cautiously, owing to the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on disease surveillance. Disrupted vaccination activities during the pandemic increase the potential for another resurgence of measles in the near future, and effective, timely catch-up vaccination campaigns, strong commitment and leadership, and sufficient resources will be required to mitigate this threat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mass Vaccination/standards , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/immunology , Measles/virology , Measles virus/immunology , Measles virus/pathogenicity , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
S Afr Med J ; 112(2): 13501, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In South Africa (SA), >2.4 million cases of COVID­19 and >72 000 deaths were recorded between March 2020 and 1 August 2021, affecting the country's 52 districts to various extents. SA has committed to a COVID­19 vaccine roll-out in three phases, prioritising frontline workers, the elderly, people with comorbidities and essential workers. However, additional actions will be necessary to support efficient allocation and equitable access for vulnerable, access-constrained communities. OBJECTIVES: To explore various determinants of disease severity, resurgence risk and accessibility in order to aid an equitable, effective vaccine roll-out for SA that would maximise COVID­19 epidemic control by reducing the number of COVID­19 transmissions and resultant deaths, while at the same time reducing the risk of vaccine wastage. METHODS: For the 52 districts of SA, 26 COVID­19 indicators such as hospital admissions, deaths in hospital and mobility were ranked and hierarchically clustered with cases to identify which indicators can be used as indicators for severity or resurgence risk. Districts were then ranked using the estimated COVID­19 severity and resurgence risk to assist with prioritisation of vaccine roll-out. Urban and rural accessibility were also explored as factors that could limit vaccine roll-out in hard-to-reach communities. RESULTS: Highly populated urban districts showed the most cases. Districts such as Buffalo City, City of Cape Town and Nelson Mandela Bay experienced very severe first and second waves of the pandemic. Districts with high mobility, population size and density were found to be at highest risk of resurgence. In terms of accessibility, we found that 47.2% of the population are within 5 km of a hospital with ≥50 beds, and this percentage ranged from 87.0% in City of Cape Town to 0% in Namakwa district. CONCLUSIONS: The end goal is to provide equal distribution of vaccines proportional to district populations, which will provide fair protection. Districts with a high risk of resurgence and severity should be prioritised for vaccine roll-out, particularly the major metropolitan areas. We provide recommendations for allocations of different vaccine types for each district that consider levels of access, numbers of doses and cold-chain storage capability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility , Hospitalization , Humans , Patient Acuity , South Africa , Vulnerable Populations
10.
Am J Public Health ; 111(10): 1780-1783, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416983

ABSTRACT

Individuals with serious mental illness are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19. The New York State (NYS) Office of Mental Health implemented patient and staff rapid testing, quarantining, and vaccination to limit COVID-19 spread in 23 state-operated psychiatric hospitals between November 2020 and February 2021. COVID-19 infection rates in inpatients and staff decreased by 96% and 71%, respectively, and the NYS population case rate decreased by 6%. Repeated COVID-19 testing and vaccination should be priority interventions for state-operated psychiatric hospitals. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1780-1783. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306444).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals, Psychiatric/statistics & numerical data , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , New York/epidemiology , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations
11.
Am J Public Health ; 111(10): 1776-1779, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403353

ABSTRACT

We describe a large-scale collaborative intervention of practice measures and COVID-19 vaccine administration to college students in the priority 1b group, which included Black or Indigenous persons and other persons of color. In February 2021, at this decentralized vaccine distribution site at Montana State University in Bozeman, we administered 806 first doses and 776 second doses by implementing an interprofessional effort with personnel from relevant university units, including facilities management, student health, communications, administration, and academic units (e.g., nursing, medicine, medical assistant program, and engineering). (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 9, 2021:1776-1779. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306435).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Universities/organization & administration , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , Faculty , Humans , Middle Aged , Montana/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Young Adult
12.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 46, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403246

ABSTRACT

On January 2020, the WHO Director General declared that the outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The world has faced a worldwide spread crisis and is still dealing with it. The present paper represents a white paper concerning the tough lessons we have learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, an international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making. With the present paper, international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Pandemics , Biomedical Research , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , International Cooperation , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Politics , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration
13.
Med J Aust ; 215(9): 427-432, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the outcomes of COVID-19 vaccination by vaccine type, age group eligibility, vaccination strategy, and population coverage. DESIGN: Epidemiologic modelling to assess the final size of a COVID-19 epidemic in Australia, with vaccination program (Pfizer, AstraZeneca, mixed), vaccination strategy (vulnerable first, transmitters first, untargeted), age group eligibility threshold (5 or 15 years), population coverage, and pre-vaccination effective reproduction number ( R eff v ¯ ) for the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant as factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of SARS-CoV-2 infections; cumulative hospitalisations, deaths, and years of life lost. RESULTS: Assuming R eff v ¯ = 5, the current mixed vaccination program (vaccinating people aged 60 or more with the AstraZeneca vaccine and people under 60 with the Pfizer vaccine) will not achieve herd protection unless population vaccination coverage reaches 85% by lowering the vaccination eligibility age to 5 years. At R eff v ¯ = 3, the mixed program could achieve herd protection at 60-70% population coverage and without vaccinating 5-15-year-old children. At R eff v ¯ = 7, herd protection is unlikely to be achieved with currently available vaccines, but they would still reduce the number of COVID-19-related deaths by 85%. CONCLUSION: Vaccinating vulnerable people first is the optimal policy when population vaccination coverage is low, but vaccinating more socially active people becomes more important as the R eff v ¯ declines and vaccination coverage increases. Assuming the most plausible R eff v ¯ of 5, vaccinating more than 85% of the population, including children, would be needed to achieve herd protection. Even without herd protection, vaccines are highly effective in reducing the number of deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Herd , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Computer Simulation , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Models, Immunological , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination Coverage/organization & administration , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
17.
Ann Ig ; 33(5): 513-517, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317344

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Starting from the minimum requirements indicated by Lombardy Region, a validation checklist has been developed by experts in design, healthcare layout planning, hygiene and public health, planning and compliance, in order to provide managers of COVID-19 massive vaccination centers with a useful and easy-to-use tool to ensure quality, safety and efficiency of the different activities performed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Health Centers/organization & administration , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Validation Studies as Topic , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Checklist , Community Health Centers/standards , Efficiency, Organizational , Facility Design and Construction , Humans , Hygiene , Italy , Patient Safety , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Quality Indicators, Health Care
18.
Ann Ig ; 33(5): 499-512, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317343

ABSTRACT

Abstract: After SARS-CoV-2 vaccines development came at an unprecedented speed, ensuring safe and efficient mass immunization, vaccine delivery be-came the major public health mandate. Although mass-vaccination sites have been identified as essential to curb COVID-19, their organization and functioning is challenging. In this paper we present the planning, implementation and evalua-tion of a massive vaccination center in Lombardy - the largest Region in Italy and the most heavily hit by the pandemic. The massive hub of Novegro (Milan), managed by the Gruppo Ospedaliero San Donato, opened in April 2021. The Novegro mass-immunization model was developed building a la-yout based on the available scientific evidence, on comparative analysis with other existing models and on the experience of COVID-19 immunization delivery of Gruppo Ospedaliero San Donato. We propose a "vaccine islands" mass-immunization model, where 4 physicians and 2 nurses operate in each island, with up to 10 islands functioning at the same time, with the capacity of providing up to 6,000 vaccinations per day. During the first week of activity a total of 37,900 doses were administered (2,700/day), most of them with Pfizer vaccine (85.8%) and first doses (70.9%). The productivity was 10.5 vaccines/hour/vaccine station. Quality, efficiency and safety were boosted by ad-hoc personnel training, quality technical infrastructure and the presence of a shock room. Constant process monitoring allowed to identify and promptly tackle process pitfalls, including vaccine refusals (0.36%, below expectations) and post-vaccinations adverse reactions (0.4%). Our innovative "vaccine islands" mass-immunization model might be scaled-up or adapted to other settings. The Authors consider that sharing best practices in immunization delivery is fundamen-tal to achieve population health during health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Health Centers/organization & administration , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Community Health Centers/statistics & numerical data , Efficiency, Organizational , Facilities and Services Utilization , Facility Design and Construction , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Quality Improvement
19.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(3)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304236

ABSTRACT

The globe is gripped by the COVID-19 pandemic. Mass population vaccination is seen as the solution. As vaccines become available, governments aim to deploy them as rapidly as possible. It is important, therefore, that the efficiency of vaccination processes is optimal.Operations management is concerned with improving processes and comprises systematic approaches such as Lean. Lean focuses explicitly on process efficiency through the elimination of non-value adding steps to optimise processes for those who use and depend on them.Technology-enhanced learning can be a strategy to build improvement capability at scale. A massive online programme to build capability in Lean has been developed by the regulator of England's National Health Service. Beta testing of this programme has been used by some test sites to refine their COVID-19 vaccination processes. The paper presents a case example of massive online learning supporting the use of Lean in the day-to-day operations management of COVID-19 vaccine processes.The case example illustrates the challenges that vaccination processes may present and the need for responsive and effective operations management. Building capability to respond rapidly and systematically in dynamic situations to optimise flow, safety and patient experience may be beneficial.Given the national imperative to achieve mass vaccination as rapidly as possible, systematic improvement methods such as Lean may have a contribution to make. Massive online programmes, such as that described here, may help with this effort by achieving timely knowledge transfer at large scale.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Technology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Capacity Building/methods , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , England , Humans , Organizational Case Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
20.
S Afr Med J ; 111(7): 610-614, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302749

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination has been globally accepted as a critical public health response measure to prevent severe disease and death, alleviate strain on healthcare systems, and prevent onward transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The South African Department of Health's plan to vaccinate 1.25 million healthcare workers through the Sisonke Early Access Vaccine Rollout for Healthcare Workers presented both opportunities and challenges in terms of designing and implementing a mass vaccination roll-out in the resource-limited state sector. We present our experiences and challenges from the largest hospital in Africa, and hope that this will assist other institutions with planning successful COVID-19 mass vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Humans , Public Health , South Africa
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