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2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263610, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690718

ABSTRACT

Vaccination has emerged as the most cost-effective public health strategy for maintaining population health, with various social and economic benefits. These vaccines, however, cannot be effective without widespread acceptance. The present study examines the effect of media attention on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy by incorporating fear of COVID-19 as a mediator, whereas trust in leadership served as a moderator. An analytical cross-sectional study is performed among rural folks in the Wassa Amenfi Central of Ghana. Using a questionnaire survey, we were able to collect 3079 valid responses. The Smart PLS was used to estimate the relationship among the variables. The results revealed that media attention had a significant influence on vaccine hesitancy. Furthermore, the results showed that fear of COVID-19 played a significant mediating role in the relationship between media and vaccine hesitancy. However, trust in leadership had an insignificant moderating relationship on the fear of COVID-19 and vaccine hesitancy. The study suggests that the health management team can reduce vaccine hesitancy if they focus on lessening the negative impact of media and other antecedents like fear on trust in leadership.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communications Media/statistics & numerical data , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anti-Vaccination Movement/psychology , Anti-Vaccination Movement/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Leadership , Male , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Trust , Young Adult
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24051, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585803

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, different mitigation and management strategies limiting economic and social activities have been implemented across many countries. Despite these strategies, the virus continues to spread and mutate. As a result, vaccinations are now administered to suppress the pandemic. Current COVID-19 epidemic models need to be expanded to account for the change in behaviour of new strains, such as an increased virulence and higher transmission rate. Furthermore, models need to account for an increasingly vaccinated population. We present a network model of COVID-19 transmission accounting for different immunity and vaccination scenarios. We conduct a parameter sensitivity analysis and find the average immunity length after an infection to be one of the most critical parameters that define the spread of the disease. Furthermore, we simulate different vaccination strategies and show that vaccinating highly connected individuals first is the quickest strategy for controlling the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Interaction
4.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2222, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574478

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has engaged considerable awareness and attention around the world. The associated disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), has now involved virtually all 200 countries. The total number of confirmed cases has been much more than in the two previous outbreaks of human coronaviruses, that is, SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. In line with the outbreak escalation, false information about SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease disseminated globally, particularly through online and social media. Believers in conspiracy theories promote misinformation that the virus is not contagious, is the result of laboratory manipulation or is created to gain profit by distributing new vaccines. The most dangerous effect of this widely disseminated misinformation is it will negatively influence the attitudes and behaviours for preventive measures to contain the outbreak. In this review, I discuss common conspiracy theories associated with SARS-CoV-2 and Covid-19 and consider how we can address and counterbalance these issues based on scientific information and studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Politics , Prejudice/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Scientific Misconduct/ethics , Social Media/ethics
5.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2200-2207, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526354

ABSTRACT

Understanding and minimizing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy is critical to population health and minimizing health inequities, which continue to be brought into stark relief by the pandemic. We investigate questions regarding vaccine hesitancy in a sample (n = 1205) of Arkansas adults surveyed online in July/August of 2020. We examine relationships among sociodemographics, COVID-19 health literacy, fear of COVID-19 infection, general trust in vaccines, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy using bivariate analysis and a full information maximum likelihood (FIML) logistic regression model. One in five people (21,21.86%) reported hesitancy to take a COVID-19 vaccine. Prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was highest among Black/African Americans (50.00%), respondents with household income less than $25K (30.68%), some college (32.17%), little to no fear of infection from COVID-19 (62.50%), and low trust in vaccines in general (55.84%). Odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were 2.42 greater for Black/African American respondents compared to White respondents (p < 0.001), 1.67 greater for respondents with some college/technical degree compared to respondents with a 4-year degree (p < 0.05), 5.48 greater for respondents with no fear of COVID-19 infection compared to those who fear infection to a great extent (p < 0.001), and 11.32 greater for respondents with low trust in vaccines (p < 0.001). Sociodemographic differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy raise concerns about the potential of vaccine implementation to widen existing health disparities in COVID-19 related infections, particularly among Black/African Americans. Fear of infection and general mistrust in vaccines are significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Female , /statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Trust , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366852

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence suggests that vaccination hesitancy is too high in many countries to sustainably contain COVID-19. Using a factorial survey experiment administered to 20,500 online respondents in Germany, we assess the effectiveness of three strategies to increase vaccine uptake, namely, providing freedoms, financial remuneration, and vaccination at local doctors. Our results suggest that all three strategies can increase vaccination uptake on the order of two to three percentage points (PP) overall and five PP among the undecided. The combined effects could be as high as 13 PP for this group. The returns from different strategies vary across age groups, however, with older cohorts more responsive to local access and younger cohorts most responsive to enhanced freedoms for vaccinated citizens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Motivation/ethics , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mass Vaccination/economics , Middle Aged , Models, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(9): 1185-1193, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As countries ramp up their COVID-19 vaccination programs, attitudes of the population remain a determining player in the success of these plans. This study analyses the factors associated with intent to vaccinate against COVID-19 in the Pakistani population. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional, anonymous, online survey was carried out in April 2021. Participants' demographic details, experiences relating to COVID-19 and its vaccination, and their health beliefs were inquired and divided across Health Belief Model constructs. Multivariable regression was used to determine factors associated with a No/Not sure vs Yes response for vaccination intention. RESULTS: Of the 655 respondents, 62.0% were willing to get vaccinated. Significant predictors of a less likelihood of resisting vaccination included advanced age (AOR 0.25; 95% CI 0.07-0.88), fear of contracting COVID-19 (AOR 0.47; 95% CI 0.27-0.82), hope of preventing its spread (AOR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19-0.49), and community pressure (AOR 0.22; 95% CI 0.13-0.37). Concerns about vaccine reliability (AOR 2.75; 95% CI 1.67-4.53) and religious inhibitions (AOR 2.45; 95% CI 1.34-4.48) swayed people away from vaccination. CONCLUSION: Despite a reasonably good response of Pakistanis to vaccination, factors negatively influencing their intention need to be timely addressed to control this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
Am J Med ; 134(11): 1424-1426, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A decrease in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination rates has led some states to consider various incentives to boost demand for vaccines. On May 13, 2021, Ohio announced a free weekly lottery for individuals who received at least 1 COVID-19 vaccination. This study seeks to rigorously quantify the impact of Ohio's vaccination lottery. METHODS: A synthetic control consisting of a weighted combination of other states was used to approximate the demographic characteristics, new cases, and vaccination rates in Ohio prior to the lottery announcement. The difference in vaccination rates in Ohio and the synthetic control following the lottery announcement was then used to estimate the lottery's impact. RESULTS: Prior to the lottery announcement, Ohio and synthetic Ohio had similar demographic characteristics and new case rates. Ohio and synthetic Ohio also had identical first vaccination rates. By the final lottery enrollment date of June 20, the percentage of the population with first vaccinations increased to 47.41% in Ohio and 46.43% in synthetic Ohio for a difference of 0.98% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-1.54). CONCLUSION: An additional 114,553 Ohioans received vaccinations as a result of the Vax-a-Million program (95% CI 49,094-180,012) at a cost of approximately $49 per Ohioan vaccinated (95% CI $31-$114). However, a majority of Ohioans remained unvaccinated by the end of the lottery, indicating that additional efforts are needed to address barriers to vaccination. This synthetic control approach may also be useful to evaluate other COVID-19 incentive programs.


Subject(s)
Behavior Control/methods , COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Mass Vaccination , Motivation , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Ohio/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage/methods , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/psychology
12.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2200-2207, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294987

ABSTRACT

Understanding and minimizing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy is critical to population health and minimizing health inequities, which continue to be brought into stark relief by the pandemic. We investigate questions regarding vaccine hesitancy in a sample (n = 1205) of Arkansas adults surveyed online in July/August of 2020. We examine relationships among sociodemographics, COVID-19 health literacy, fear of COVID-19 infection, general trust in vaccines, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy using bivariate analysis and a full information maximum likelihood (FIML) logistic regression model. One in five people (21,21.86%) reported hesitancy to take a COVID-19 vaccine. Prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was highest among Black/African Americans (50.00%), respondents with household income less than $25K (30.68%), some college (32.17%), little to no fear of infection from COVID-19 (62.50%), and low trust in vaccines in general (55.84%). Odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were 2.42 greater for Black/African American respondents compared to White respondents (p < 0.001), 1.67 greater for respondents with some college/technical degree compared to respondents with a 4-year degree (p < 0.05), 5.48 greater for respondents with no fear of COVID-19 infection compared to those who fear infection to a great extent (p < 0.001), and 11.32 greater for respondents with low trust in vaccines (p < 0.001). Sociodemographic differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy raise concerns about the potential of vaccine implementation to widen existing health disparities in COVID-19 related infections, particularly among Black/African Americans. Fear of infection and general mistrust in vaccines are significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Female , /statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Trust , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4280-4291, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy poses serious challenges for achieving coverage for population immunity. It is necessary to achieve high COVID-19 vaccination acceptance rates and medical students' coverage as future health care providers. The study aimed to explore the level of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and determine the factors and barriers that may affect vaccination decision-making. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among medical students in Tanta and Kafrelsheikh Universities, Egypt. Data collection was done via an online questionnaire during January 2021 from 2133 students. RESULTS: The majority of the participant students (90.5%) perceived the importance of the COVID-19 vaccine, 46% had vaccination hesitancy, and an equal percentage (6%) either definitely accepted or refused the vaccine. Most of the students had concerns regarding the vaccine's adverse effects (96.8%) and ineffectiveness (93.2%). The most confirmed barriers of COVID-19 vaccination were deficient data regarding the vaccine's adverse effects (potential 74.17% and unknown 56.31%) and insufficient information regarding the vaccine itself (72.76%). CONCLUSION: The government, health authority decision-makers, medical experts, and universities in Egypt need to work together and make efforts to reduce hesitancy and raise awareness about vaccinations, consequently improving the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Students, Medical/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251963, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The success of vaccination efforts to curb the COVID-19 pandemic will require broad public uptake of immunization and highlights the importance of understanding factors associated with willingness to receive a vaccine. METHODS: U.S. adults aged 65 and older enrolled in the HeartlineTM clinical study were invited to complete a COVID-19 vaccine assessment through the HeartlineTM mobile application between November 6-20, 2020. Factors associated with willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression as well as a Random Forest classification algorithm. RESULTS: Among 9,106 study participants, 81.3% (n = 7402) responded and had available demographic data. The majority (91.3%) reported a willingness to be vaccinated. Factors most strongly associated with vaccine willingness were beliefs about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines and vaccines in general. Women and Black or African American respondents reported lower willingness to vaccinate. Among those less willing to get vaccinated, 66.2% said that they would talk with their health provider before making a decision. During the study, positive results from the first COVID-19 vaccine outcome study were released; vaccine willingness increased after this report. CONCLUSIONS: Even among older adults at high-risk for COVID-19 complications who are participating in a longitudinal clinical study, 1 in 11 reported lack of willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine in November 2020. Variability in vaccine willingness by gender, race, education, and income suggests the potential for uneven vaccine uptake. Education by health providers directed toward assuaging concerns about vaccine safety and efficacy can help improve vaccine acceptance among those less willing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04276441.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Patient Participation/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(18): 685-688, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218746

ABSTRACT

On April 7, 2021, after 5 weeks' use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), CDC received reports of clusters of anxiety-related events after administration of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine from five mass vaccination sites, all in different states. To further investigate these cases, CDC interviewed vaccination site staff members to gather additional information about the reported events and vaccination site practices. Four of the five sites temporarily closed while an investigation took place. Overall, 64 anxiety-related events, including 17 reports of syncope (fainting), an anxiety-related event, among 8,624 Janssen COVID-19 vaccine recipients, were reported from these sites for vaccines administered during April 7-9. As a follow-up to these interviews, CDC analyzed reports of syncope shortly after receipt of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), the vaccine safety monitoring program managed by CDC and FDA. To compare the occurrence of these events with those reported after receipt of other vaccines, reports of syncopal events after influenza vaccine administered in the 2019-20 influenza season were also reviewed. Syncope after Janssen COVID-19 vaccination was reported to VAERS (8.2 episodes per 100,000 doses). By comparison, after influenza vaccination, the reporting rate of syncope was 0.05 episodes per 100,000 doses. Anxiety-related events can occur after any vaccination. It is important that vaccination providers are aware that anxiety-related adverse events might be reported more frequently after receipt of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine than after influenza vaccination and observe all COVID-19 vaccine recipients for any adverse reactions for at least 15 minutes after vaccine administration.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Syncope/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 84, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza is a major public health issue, with the primary preventive measure being an annual influenza vaccination. Nevertheless, vaccination coverage among the at-risk population is low. Our understanding of the behaviour of the influenza virus during the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic is limited, meaning influenza vaccination is still recommended for individuals at risk for severe complications due to influenza infection. The aim of the study is to determine the intention to vaccinate against seasonal influenza among the at-risk population in the 2020-21 campaign during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and to analyse the factors which influence such intention. METHODS: Cross-sectional telephone survey of adults (aged over 18) with risk factors in central Catalonia where the need for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine (SIV) was recommended. RESULTS: A total of 434 participants responded to the survey, 43.3% of whom intended to be vaccinated against influenza for the 2020-2021 influenza season, 40.8% had no intention to be vaccinated and 15.9% were uncertain or did not express their opinion. The intention to get vaccinated against influenza is associated with having dependents, the individual's perception of the risk of being infected with influenza and the perceived risk of transmission to dependents. It is also associated with age, whether the individual had received influenza vaccine the previous season or any other season before. The best predictors of the intention to vaccinate are the individual's perception of the risk of catching influenza and whether the individual had been vaccinated in the previous season. CONCLUSIONS: Intention to vaccinate can be a good predictor of individual behaviour in relation to vaccination. During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic many individuals are hesitant to influenza vaccination. In order to improve influenza vaccination coverage in people included in risk groups, it is necessary to promote educational actions, especially among those who express doubts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human , Intention , Mass Vaccination , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Perception , Spain/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data
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