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2.
Immunology ; 164(3): 541-554, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488214

ABSTRACT

IL-33 and ATP are alarmins, which are released upon damage of cellular barriers or are actively secreted upon cell stress. Due to high-density expression of the IL-33 receptor T1/ST2 (IL-33R), and the ATP receptor P2X7, mast cells (MCs) are one of the first highly sensitive sentinels recognizing released IL-33 or ATP in damaged peripheral tissues. Whereas IL-33 induces the MyD88-dependent activation of the TAK1-IKK2-NF-κB signalling, ATP induces the Ca2+ -dependent activation of NFAT. Thereby, each signal alone only induces a moderate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators (LMs). However, MCs, which simultaneously sense (co-sensing) IL-33 and ATP, display an enhanced and prolonged activation of the TAK1-IKK2-NF-κB signalling pathway. This resulted in a massive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and GM-CSF as well as of arachidonic acid-derived cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated pro-inflammatory prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxanes (TXs), hallmarks of strong MC activation. Collectively, these data show that co-sensing of ATP and IL-33 results in hyperactivation of MCs, which resembles to MC activation induced by IgE-mediated crosslinking of the FcεRI. Therefore, the IL-33/IL-33R and/or the ATP/P2X7 signalling axis are attractive targets for therapeutical intervention of diseases associated with the loss of integrity of cellular barriers such as allergic and infectious respiratory reactions.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Interleukin-33/metabolism , Mast Cells/immunology , Animals , Anti-Allergic Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Degranulation/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Eicosanoids/metabolism , Humans , Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/metabolism , Interleukin-33/antagonists & inhibitors , Lipidomics , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , NFATC Transcription Factors/genetics , Primary Cell Culture , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480798

ABSTRACT

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a severe condition characterized by the systemic formation of microthrombi complicated with bleeding tendency and organ dysfunction. In the last years, it represents one of the most frequent consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathogenesis of DIC is complex, with cross-talk between the coagulant and inflammatory pathways. The objective of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DIC model in rats. Experimental DIC was induced by continual infusion of LPS (30 mg/kg) for 4 h through the tail vein. Um-PEA (30 mg/kg) was given orally 30 min before and 1 h after the start of intravenous infusion of LPS. Results showed that um-PEA reduced alteration of coagulation markers, as well as proinflammatory cytokine release in plasma and lung samples, induced by LPS infusion. Furthermore, um-PEA also has the effect of preventing the formation of fibrin deposition and lung damage. Moreover, um-PEA was able to reduce the number of mast cells (MCs) and the release of its serine proteases, which are also necessary for SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results suggest that um-PEA could be considered as a potential therapeutic approach in the management of DIC and in clinical implications associated to coagulopathy and lung dysfunction, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Ethanolamines/therapeutic use , Palmitic Acids/therapeutic use , Sepsis/complications , Amides/chemistry , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Ethanolamines/chemistry , Ethanolamines/pharmacology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Mast Cells/cytology , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Palmitic Acids/chemistry , Palmitic Acids/pharmacology , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/pathology , Serine Proteases/metabolism
4.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308301

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm syndrome is a cascade of escalated immune responses disposing the immune system to exhaustion, which might ultimately result in organ failure and fatal respiratory distress. Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 can result in uncontrolled production of cytokines and eventually the development of cytokine storm syndrome. Mast cells may react to viruses in collaboration with other cells and lung autopsy findings from patients that died from the coronavirus disease that emerged in 2019 (COVID-19) showed accumulation of mast cells in the lungs that was thought to be the cause of pulmonary edema, inflammation, and thrombosis. In this review, we present evidence that a cytokine response by mast cells may initiate inappropriate antiviral immune responses and cause the development of cytokine storm syndrome. We also explore the potential of mast cell activators as adjuvants for COVID-19 vaccines and discuss the medications that target the functions of mast cells and could be of value in the treatment of COVID-19. Recognition of the cytokine storm is crucial for proper treatment of patients and preventing the release of mast cell mediators, as impeding the impacts imposed by these mediators could reduce the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Mast Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Mast Cells/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 141: 111835, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271574

ABSTRACT

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) produced by mast cells is involved in allergic inflammation pathogenesis. Chloroquine (CQ) is known to be an anti-malarial drug; however, additional protective functions of CQ have been discovered. This study aims to clarify an anti-inflammatory effect of CQ through modulating TSLP levels using an in vitro model of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) + A23187-activated human mast cell line (HMC-1) and an in vivo model of PMA-irritated ear edema. CQ treatment reduced the production and mRNA expression levels of TSLP in activated HMC-1 cells. CQ down-regulated caspase-1 (CASP1), MAPKs, and NF-κB levels enhanced by stimulation with PMA + A23187. Moreover, ear thickness in ear edema was suppressed following CQ treatment. CQ decreased CASP1 and NF-κB levels in the ear tissue. TSLP levels in the ear tissue and serum were reduced following CQ treatment. Collectively, the above findings elucidate that CQ inhibits the pro-inflammatory mechanisms of TSLP via the down-regulation of distinct intracellular signaling cascade in mast cells. Therefore, CQ may have protective roles against TSLP-mediated inflammatory disorders.


Subject(s)
Caspase 1/drug effects , Caspase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Mast Cells/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Stromal Cells/metabolism , Thymus Gland/metabolism , Animals , Calcimycin/pharmacology , Cell Line , Ear Diseases/drug therapy , Edema/drug therapy , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , NF-kappa B/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Stromal Cells/drug effects , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology , Thymus Gland/drug effects
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273453

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are common and devastating clinical disorders with high mortality and no specific therapy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is usually used intratracheally to induce ALI in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an ultramicronized preparation of palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) in mice subjected to LPS-induced ALI. Histopathological analysis reveals that um-PEA reduced alteration in lung after LPS intratracheal administration. Besides, um-PEA decreased wet/dry weight ratio and myeloperoxidase, a marker of neutrophils infiltration, macrophages and total immune cells number and mast cells degranulation in lung. Moreover, um-PEA could also decrease cytokines release of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-18. Furthermore, um-PEA significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation in ALI, and at the same time decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38/MAPK) expression, that was increased after LPS administration. Our study suggested that um-PEA contrasted LPS-induced ALI, exerting its potential role as an adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapeutic for treating lung injury, maybe also by p38/NF-κB pathway.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Amides/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Ethanolamines/pharmacology , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Palmitic Acids/pharmacology , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Amides/therapeutic use , Animals , Ethanolamines/therapeutic use , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/administration & dosage , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/pathology , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/immunology , Palmitic Acids/therapeutic use , Peroxidase/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
7.
Biofactors ; 47(2): 232-241, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178977

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 leads to severe respiratory problems, but also to long-COVID syndrome associated primarily with cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. Long-COVID syndrome symptoms, especially brain fog, are similar to those experienced by patients undertaking or following chemotherapy for cancer (chemofog or chemobrain), as well in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). The pathogenesis of brain fog in these illnesses is presently unknown but may involve neuroinflammation via mast cells stimulated by pathogenic and stress stimuli to release mediators that activate microglia and lead to inflammation in the hypothalamus. These processes could be mitigated by phytosomal formulation (in olive pomace oil) of the natural flavonoid luteolin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Fatigue/drug therapy , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Brain/drug effects , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Fatigue/complications , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fatigue/virology , Humans , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 650331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156125

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection represents a global health crisis. Immune cell activation via pattern recognition receptors has been implicated as a driver of the hyperinflammatory response seen in COVID-19. However, our understanding of the specific immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. Mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils are innate immune cells that play pathogenic roles in many inflammatory responses. Here we report MC-derived proteases and eosinophil-associated mediators are elevated in COVID-19 patient sera and lung tissues. Stimulation of viral-sensing toll-like receptors in vitro and administration of synthetic viral RNA in vivo induced features of hyperinflammation, including cytokine elevation, immune cell airway infiltration, and MC-protease production-effects suppressed by an anti-Siglec-8 monoclonal antibody which selectively inhibits MCs and depletes eosinophils. Similarly, anti-Siglec-8 treatment reduced disease severity and airway inflammation in a respiratory viral infection model. These results suggest that MC and eosinophil activation are associated with COVID-19 inflammation and anti-Siglec-8 antibodies are a potential therapeutic approach for attenuating excessive inflammation during viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Lectins/immunology , Mast Cells/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/drug effects , Eosinophils/metabolism , Eosinophils/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lectins/antagonists & inhibitors , Lectins/genetics , Lectins/metabolism , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mast Cells/virology , Mice, Transgenic , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
10.
Biofactors ; 46(6): 927-933, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966303

ABSTRACT

Recent articles report elevated markers of coagulation, endothelial injury, and microthromboses in lungs from deceased COVID-19 patients. However, there has been no discussion of what may induce intravascular coagulation. Platelets are critical in the formation of thrombi and their most potent trigger is platelet activating factor (PAF), first characterized by Demopoulos and colleagues in 1979. PAF is produced by cells involved in host defense and its biological actions bear similarities with COVID-19 disease manifestations. PAF can also stimulate perivascular mast cell activation, leading to inflammation implicated in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Mast cells are plentiful in the lungs and are a rich source of PAF and of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß and IL-6, which may contribute to COVID-19 and especially SARS. The histamine-1 receptor antagonist rupatadine was developed to have anti-PAF activity, and also inhibits activation of human mast cells in response to PAF. Rupatadine could be repurposed for COVID-19 prophylaxis alone or together with other PAF-inhibitors of natural origin such as the flavonoids quercetin and luteolin, which have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-PAF actions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cyproheptadine/analogs & derivatives , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/prevention & control , Platelet Activating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cyproheptadine/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/pathology , Mast Cells/virology , Platelet Activating Factor/genetics , Platelet Activating Factor/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
11.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(5): 259-261, 2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895584

ABSTRACT

Regardless of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a high proportion of patients struggle with persistent respiratory or systemic symptoms after recovery. This is called "postCOVID syndrome", for which pulmonary fibrosis is one of the pathogenesis. Besides T-lymphocytes and macrophages, mast cells also contribute to the development of cytokine storm and thus stimulate the activity of fibroblasts. Additionally, by the exocytotic release of fibroblast-activating factors, mast cells directly facilitate the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. In our previous basic studies, anti-allergic drugs (olopatadine, ketotifen), antibiotics (clarithromycin) and corticosteroids (hydrocortisone, dexamethasone) inhibited the process of exocytosis and showed their potency as highly effective mast cell stabilizers. Given such pharmacological properties of these commonly used drugs, they may be useful in the treatment of post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis and in relieving the symptoms of post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cell Degranulation/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Mast Cells/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Mast Cells/immunology , Mast Cells/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(2): 300-306, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599332

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic has massively distorted our health care systems and caused catastrophic consequences in our affected communities. The number of victims continues to increase, and patients at risk can only be protected to a degree, because the virulent state may be asymptomatic. Risk factors concerning COVID-19-induced morbidity and mortality include advanced age, an impaired immune system, cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cancer treated with chemotherapy. Here, we discuss the risk and impact of COVID-19 in patients with mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes. Because no published data are yet available, expert opinions are, by necessity, based on case experience and reports from patients. Although the overall risk to acquire the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may not be elevated in mast cell disease, certain conditions may increase the risk of infected patients to develop severe COVID-19. These factors include certain comorbidities, mast cell activation-related events affecting the cardiovascular or bronchopulmonary system, and chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, such treatments should be carefully evaluated on a case-by-case basis during a COVID-19 infection. In contrast, other therapies, such as anti-mediator-type drugs, venom immunotherapy, or vitamin D, should be continued. Overall, patients with mast cell disorders should follow the general and local guidelines in the COVID-19 pandemic and advice from their medical provider.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Mastocytosis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Mastocytosis, Systemic/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Expert Testimony , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/immunology , Mast Cells/pathology , Mastocytosis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Mastocytosis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Mastocytosis, Cutaneous/pathology , Mastocytosis, Systemic/diagnosis , Mastocytosis, Systemic/epidemiology , Mastocytosis, Systemic/pathology , Myeloablative Agonists/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Precision Medicine/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
13.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109856, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306177

ABSTRACT

A novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (also referred to as CoV-19) that emerged in late 2019 causes Covid-19 disease a respiratory tract infection which provokes about 4 million deaths per year. Unfortunately, to date, there is no specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19. Mast cells (MCs) are immune cells implicated in the pathogenesis of viral infections, where they mediate inflammation. Microbes, including virus, activate MCs through TLR releasing chemical pro-inflammatory compounds and cytokines. Although, in biomedical literature there are only few reports on MCs activation by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by MC viral activation leads to increase pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Sodium Chromo-Glycate (SCG) described as a MC stabilizer, prevents the release of inflammatory chemical compounds, improve mouse survival and respiratory pathological changes in lung viral infection and suppresses inflammation. Furthermore, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) a nuclear factor agonist, an endogenous fatty acid amide, which exerts a variety of biological effects, related to chronic inflammation and pain, is involved also in MCs homeostasis with an inhibitory and protective effect on the respiratory tract during viral infections. Here, we hypothesize for the first time, that SCG and/or PEA suppress MC activation and pro-inflammatory mediators release, playing an anti-inflammatory therapeutic role in the inflamed lung of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cromolyn Sodium/administration & dosage , Ethanolamines/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Mast Cells/drug effects , Palmitic Acids/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Amides , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Mice , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy
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