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1.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(4): 614-622, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710998

ABSTRACT

HYPOTHESIS: Aerosols are generated during mastoidectomy and mitigation strategies may effectively reduce aerosol spread. BACKGROUND: An objective understanding of aerosol generation and the effectiveness of mitigation strategies can inform interventions to reduce aerosol risk from mastoidectomy and other open surgeries involving drilling. METHODS: Cadaveric and fluorescent three-dimensional printed temporal bone models were drilled under variable conditions and mitigation methods. Aerosol production was measured with a cascade impactor set to detect particle sizes under 14.1 µm. Field contamination was determined with examination under UV light. RESULTS: Drilling of cadaveric bones and three-dimensional models resulted in strongly positive aerosol production, measuring positive in all eight impactor stages for the cadaver trials. This occurred regardless of using coarse or cutting burs, irrigation, a handheld suction, or an additional parked suction. The only mitigation factor that led to a completely negative aerosol result in all eight stages was placing an additional microscope drape to surround the field. Bone dust was scattered in all directions from the drill, including on the microscope, the surgeon, and visually suspended in the air for all but the drape trial. CONCLUSIONS: Aerosols are generated with drilling the mastoid. Using an additional microscope drape to cover the surgical field was an effective mitigation strategy to prevent fine aerosol dispersion while drilling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mastoidectomy/adverse effects , Aerosols , COVID-19/transmission , Cadaver , Humans , Mastoidectomy/instrumentation , Mastoidectomy/methods , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Otolaryngol Clin North Am ; 54(1): 11-23, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243372

ABSTRACT

A new era of surgical visualization and magnification is poised to disrupt the field of otology and neurotology. The once revolutionary benefits of the binocular microscope now are shared with rigid endoscopes and exoscopes. These 2 modalities are complementary. The endoscope improves visualization of the hidden recesses through the external auditory canal or canal-up mastoidectomy. The exoscope provides an immersive visual experience and superior ergonomics compared with binocular microscopy. Endoscopes and exoscopes are poised to disrupt the standard of care for surgical visualization and magnification in otology and neurotology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endoscopes/standards , Endoscopy/instrumentation , Neurotology/instrumentation , Otolaryngology/instrumentation , Pandemics , Ear Canal/surgery , Endoscopy/standards , Equipment Design/standards , Humans , Mastoidectomy/instrumentation , Microsurgery/instrumentation , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/instrumentation , Neurosurgical Procedures/instrumentation , Neurotology/standards , Otolaryngology/standards , Standard of Care/standards , United States
3.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(3): e378-e379, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122504

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The recent COVID-19 pandemic has required careful reconsideration of safe operating room practices. We describe our initial experiences performing otologic surgery with the exoscope during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: The exoscope was used for several semiurgent otologic surgeries in combination with complete eye protection, a "tent" drape, a smoke evacuator with ultra-low particulate air filter, and betadine irrigation. These techniques are demonstrated in the accompanying video. This was compared with our experiences using the microscope. RESULTS: The described modified goggles allowed complete eye protection while providing a fully three-dimensional view of the surgical site. The other safety measures described are simple and efficient techniques which can easily be adopted for otologic surgery using the microscope. CONCLUSION: Use of the exoscope for otologic surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic allows full three-dimensional visualization of the surgical field while simultaneously providing complete eye protection. Use of the "tent" drape, ultra-low particulate air filter, and betadine irrigation are also options that otologic surgeons may consider for additional safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Microscopy/instrumentation , Microscopy/methods , Otologic Surgical Procedures/instrumentation , Otologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mastoidectomy/instrumentation , Mastoidectomy/methods , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(8): 739-743, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718359

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mastoidectomy is considered an aerosol-generating procedure. This study examined the effect of wearing personal protective equipment on the view achieved using the operating microscope. METHODS: ENT surgeons assessed the area of a calibrated target visible through an operating microscope whilst wearing a range of personal protective equipment, with prescription glasses when required. The distance between the surgeon's eye and the microscope was measured in each personal protective equipment condition. RESULTS: Eleven surgeons participated. The distance from the eye to the microscope inversely correlated with the diameter and area visible (p < 0.001). The median area visible while wearing the filtering facepiece code 3 mask and full-face visor was 4 per cent (range, 4-16 per cent). CONCLUSION: The full-face visor is incompatible with the operating microscope. Solutions offering adequate eye protection for aerosol-generating procedures that require the microscope, including mastoidectomy, are urgently needed. Low-profile safety goggles should have a working distance of less than 20 mm and be compatible with prescription lenses.


Subject(s)
Mastoidectomy/instrumentation , Microsurgery/instrumentation , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/instrumentation , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Aerosols , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Body Fluids/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Mastoidectomy/trends , Microscopy/instrumentation , Microsurgery/trends , Otolaryngologists/statistics & numerical data , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgeons/statistics & numerical data
6.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(1): 9-17, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166660

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to develop a novel surgery classification for an endoscopic approach to middle ear cholesteatoma. We retrospectively analyzed the surgical approaches and outcomes of patients with middle ear cholesteatoma. Middle ear cholesteatoma surgeries were divided into four types and two special types as follows: type I, attic retraction pocket, which only requires tympanostomy tube placement or retraction pocket resection and cartilage reconstruction; type II, cholesteatoma which is limited to the attic or in which endoscopy can confirm complete removal of mastoid cholesteatoma lesions, including type II a, requiring only use of a curette, and type II b, requiring use of an electric drill or chisel; type III, cholesteatoma not limited to the attic, in which endoscopy cannot confirm complete removal of mastoid cholesteatoma lesions, requiring the combined use of endoscope and microscope to perform endoscopic tympanoplasty and "Canal Wall Up" mastoidectomy; type IV, extensive involvement of mastoid cavity cholesteatoma lesions and/or cases with a potential risk of complications, removal of which can only be performed under a microscope for "Canal Wall Down" mastoidectomy. In addition, there were two special types: "difficult external auditory canal" and congenital cholesteatoma in children. In our system, type I and type II middle ear cholesteatoma surgery was completely performed under an endoscope alone. However, estimating the extent of the lesions, determining the choice of mastoid opening and reestablishing ventilation are the key points for an endoscopic approach to middle ear cholesteatoma. The classification of endoscopic middle ear cholesteatoma surgery may benefit the selection of surgical indications.


Subject(s)
Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/surgery , Otologic Surgical Procedures/classification , Child , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/pathology , Ear Canal/surgery , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , Male , Mastoidectomy/instrumentation , Otologic Surgical Procedures/instrumentation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tympanoplasty/instrumentation
7.
J Int Adv Otol ; 15(3): 400-404, 2019 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846919

ABSTRACT

Canal wall down mastoidectomy is a surgical technique used for the eradication of middle ear disease. The remaining large mastoid bowl is associated with a number of issues; one of the main techniques that have been developed in order to avoid such problems is the obliteration of the mastoid cavity. The materials used for this reason are either biological or synthetic. The purpose of this survey is to review the published literature related to the therapeutic value of mastoid obliteration with synthetic materials. We searched Web of Science, PubMed, and MEDLINE from 2008 to 2018 using the criteria mastoid obliteration, canal wall down mastoidectomy, chronic otitis media, and cholesteatoma. The search focused on papers concerning the mastoid obliteration with synthetic material, as we focused on looking for outcomes and reported complications. Out of a total of 244 citations, 15 articles were identified, where patients underwent mastoid obliteration with synthetic materials. Most authors used bioactive glass as a filler material. Mastoid obliteration resulted in a decrease in the complications associated with the open mastoid cavity. On the basis of the available limited literature, it seems that mastoid obliteration with synthetic materials is a valuable and safe surgical technique for patients who undergo canal wall down mastoidectomy. The bioactive glass appears to be the most reliable synthetic material.


Subject(s)
Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/surgery , Mastoid/surgery , Mastoidectomy/instrumentation , Otitis Media/surgery , Surgical Flaps , Chronic Disease , Ear Canal/surgery , Humans , Mastoidectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome
8.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 161(5): 852-855, 2019 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331246

ABSTRACT

Mastoidectomy is a common surgical procedure within otology. Despite being inherently well suited for implementation of robotic assistance, there are no commercially available robotic systems that have demonstrated utility in aiding with this procedure. This article describes a robotic technique for image-guided mastoidectomy with an experimental cooperatively controlled robotic system developed for use within otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. It has the ability to facilitate enhanced operative precision with dampening of tremor in simulated surgical tasks. Its kinematic design is such that the location of the attached surgical instrument is known with a high degree of fidelity at all times. This facilitates image registration and subsequent definition of virtual fixtures, which demarcate surgical workspace boundaries and prevent motion into undesired areas. In this preliminary feasibility study, we demonstrate the clinical utility of this system to facilitate performance of a cortical mastoidectomy by a novice surgeon in 5 identical temporal bone models with a mean time of 221 ± 35 seconds.


Subject(s)
Mastoidectomy/instrumentation , Microsurgery/instrumentation , Robotic Surgical Procedures/instrumentation , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/instrumentation , Humans , Mastoidectomy/methods , Microsurgery/methods , Models, Anatomic , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/methods
9.
J Laryngol Otol ; 133(3): 248-250, 2019 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In order to remove a cholesteatoma in the mastoid under transcanal endoscopic ear surgery, it is necessary to perform transcanal endoscopic mastoidectomy. Bone dust and blood, however, obscure the surgical field. A novel endoscopic hydro-mastoidectomy technique was developed, in which the operator performs the mastoidectomy 'underwater' using a lens cleaning system that provides saline perfusion in the surgical space. METHODS: A curved round coarse diamond bur is attached to an otological drill. A lens cleaning sheath is fitted to the endoscope. The surgeon controls the infusion of saline solution by stepping on a footswitch of the power console. RESULTS: Endoscopic hydro-mastoidectomy washes out bone dust and blood from the surgical field, improving the surgical view during mastoidectomy. Additionally, the operator can easily control the flow of saline perfusion. CONCLUSION: This technique provides a clear surgical view by washing out bone dust and blood from the surgical area. The setup for endoscopic hydro-mastoidectomy technique is easy and the operator needs only to buy sheaths if they already own the power console, as many otological and rhinological surgeons do.


Subject(s)
Mastoidectomy/methods , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/surgery , Humans , Male , Mastoidectomy/instrumentation , Middle Aged , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/instrumentation , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/methods
10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17432, 2018 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479360

ABSTRACT

Significant technical and optical advances are required for intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) to be utilized during otological surgeries. Integrating OCT with surgical microscopy makes it possible to evaluate soft tissue in real-time and at a high resolution. Herein, we describe an augmented-reality, intraoperative OCT/microscope system with an extended working distance of 280 mm, providing more space for surgical manipulation than conventional techniques. We initially performed ex vivo experiments to evaluate system performance. In addition, we validated the system by performing preliminary clinical assessments of tympanomastoidectomy outcomes in six patients with chronic otitis media. The system evaluated residual inflammation in the region-of-interest of the mastoid bone. Most importantly, the system intraoperatively revealed the connection between the graft and the remnant tympanic membrane. The extended working distance allows otological surgeons to evaluate the status of both the mastoid bone and tympanic membrane during manipulation, affording full intraoperative imaging.


Subject(s)
Mastoidectomy/methods , Microsurgery/methods , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Otitis/surgery , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Tympanoplasty/methods , Animals , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Male , Mastoid/surgery , Mastoidectomy/instrumentation , Microsurgery/instrumentation , Monitoring, Intraoperative/instrumentation , Tomography, Optical Coherence/instrumentation , Tympanic Membrane/surgery , Tympanoplasty/instrumentation
11.
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 53(11): 838-841, 2018 Nov 07.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453403

ABSTRACT

Objective: To introduce a self-developed bone dust collector designed by the authors and evaluate its efficiency in mastoid obliteration following mastoidectomy. Methods: Consecutive patients, from April 2017 to March 2018, who prepared to receive mastoidectomy were randomly divided into two groups, and in each group the bone dust was harvested by self-developed bone dust collector or by conventional used method respectively in mastoidectomy. The amount of the harvested bone dust and the time consumed in the collecting procedure were compared between two groups. The infection of the bone dust after mastoid obliteration was also evaluated during follow up. Results: 33 patients were recruited in bone dust collector group, and 31 patients in conventional method group.There is no significance of difference between two groups in sex ratio, age and pneumatization of mastoid cells (P>0.05 for all). The median amount of bone dust harvested by bone dust collector was significantly larger than that collected by conventional method (1.8 g vs 1.1 g, P<0.05). The median time spent in bone dust collector group was significantly shorter than that spent in conventional method group (4 minutes vs 6 minutes, P<0.05). No bone dust infection was found in the follow-up in all patients. Conclusion: The present self-developed bone dust collector is a easy and useful apparatus which can significantly improve the efficiency of collecting bone dust in mastoidectomy.


Subject(s)
Dust , Mastoid/surgery , Mastoidectomy/instrumentation , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Female , Humans , Male
12.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 56(211): 650-653, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381757

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Poor access to the difficult areas in the middle ear and mastoid cavity is considered as the major reason for failure in mastoid surgery. Wide field visibility, visualization of nooks and corners by an endoscope could contribute to better clinical control of the disease in these patients that cannot be accessed by the operating microscope. The study was done to assess and clean postoperative canal wall down mastoidectomy cavities with endoscope and compare with oto-microscopy. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, done in Kathmandu Medical College from January to June 2017. Thirty two patients were included in the study. Data collection was done by convenient sampling. Statistical analysis was done by Chi square test and Fisher Exact test, P value of <0.005 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The study revealed that exposure benefit with an endoscope in canal wall down mastoid surgery was significantly better than with a microscope (P value of 0.034). The level of complete clearance and level of difficulty in cleaning with the help of a microscope compared to endoscope did not show a significant difference with P value of 0.288 and 0.652 obtained by Fisher extract test respectively. After microscopic removal of materials from the mastoid cavity, 22 (68.8%) which is more than half of cases had remaining materials in the cavity which was removed by endoscope completely. CONCLUSIONS: Outcome will make the ENT surgeons aware of use of endoscopy in post mastoid follow up cases to give better results and make the surgeon much more successful in his/her endeavor to eradicate the disease.


Subject(s)
Endoscopy , Mastoid/surgery , Mastoidectomy , Postoperative Complications , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ear Diseases/diagnosis , Ear Diseases/surgery , Endoscopy/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Mastoidectomy/adverse effects , Mastoidectomy/instrumentation , Mastoidectomy/methods , Microscopy/methods , Middle Aged , Nepal , Otologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Otoscopy/methods , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome
13.
World Neurosurg ; 116: 347-351, 2018 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870847

ABSTRACT

Over the past 30 years, the application of robotics in the field of neurotology has grown. Robots are able to perform increasingly complex tasks with ever improving accuracy, allowing them to be used in a broad array of applications. A mastoidectomy, in which a drill is used to remove a portion of the mastoid part of the temporal bone at the base of the skull, is one such application. To determine the current state of neurotologic robotics in the specific context of mastoidectomy, a review of the literature was carried out. This qualitative review explores what has been done in this field to date, as well as what has yet to be done. Although the research suggests that robotics can be and has been successfully used to assist with mastoidectomy, it also suggests the incompleteness of robotic development in the field. At present, only 2 robotic systems have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for neurosurgical use and the literature lacks evidence of meaningful clinical testing of new systems to change that. The cost of robotics also remains prohibitive. However, strides have been made, with at least 1 robot for mastoidectomy having reached the point of cadaveric trials. In addition, the research suggests some of the characteristics that should be considered when designing robots for mastoidectomy, such as burr size and the type of forces that should be applied. Overall, the outlook for robots in neurotology, particularly mastoidectomy, is bright but some hurdles still remain to be overcome.


Subject(s)
Mastoid/surgery , Mastoidectomy/instrumentation , Robotics , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/instrumentation , Surgical Instruments , Humans , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/methods , Temporal Bone
14.
World Neurosurg ; 109: e217-e228, 2018 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28966150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel audiovisual feedback methods were developed to improve image guidance during skull base surgery by providing audiovisual warnings when the drill tip enters a protective perimeter set at a distance around anatomic structures ("distance control") and visualizing bone drilling ("virtual drilling"). OBJECTIVE: To benchmark the drill damage risk reduction provided by distance control, to quantify the accuracy of virtual drilling, and to investigate whether the proposed feedback methods are clinically feasible. METHODS: In a simulated surgical scenario using human cadavers, 12 unexperienced users (medical students) drilled 12 mastoidectomies. Users were divided into a control group using standard image guidance and 3 groups using distance control with protective perimeters of 1, 2, or 3 mm. Damage to critical structures (sigmoid sinus, semicircular canals, facial nerve) was assessed. Neurosurgeons performed another 6 mastoidectomy/trans-labyrinthine and retro-labyrinthine approaches. Virtual errors as compared with real postoperative drill cavities were calculated. In a clinical setting, 3 patients received lateral skull base surgery with the proposed feedback methods. RESULTS: Users drilling with distance control protective perimeters of 3 mm did not damage structures, whereas the groups using smaller protective perimeters and the control group injured structures. Virtual drilling maximum cavity underestimations and overestimations were 2.8 ± 0.1 and 3.3 ± 0.4 mm, respectively. Feedback methods functioned properly in the clinical setting. CONCLUSION: Distance control reduced the risks of drill damage proportional to the protective perimeter distance. Errors in virtual drilling reflect spatial errors of the image guidance system. These feedback methods are clinically feasible.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Feedback, Sensory , Risk Reduction Behavior , Skull Base/surgery , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/instrumentation , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/methods , User-Computer Interface , Adult , Equipment Design , Female , Humans , Intraoperative Complications/diagnostic imaging , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control , Male , Mastoidectomy/instrumentation , Mastoidectomy/methods , Neurosurgery/education , Skull Base/diagnostic imaging , Students, Medical , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation
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