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J Occup Environ Hyg ; 18(6): 265-275, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228372


The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a high demand for respiratory protection among health care workers in hospitals, especially surgical N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). To aid in alleviating that demand, a survey of commercially available filter media was conducted to determine whether any could serve as a substitute for an N95 FFR while held in a 3D-printed mask (Stopgap Surgical Face Mask from the NIH 3D Print Exchange). Fourteen filter media types and eight combinations were evaluated for filtration efficiency, breathing resistance (pressure drop), and liquid penetration. Additional testing was conducted to evaluate two filter media disinfection methods in the event that the filters were reused in a hospital setting. Efficiency testing was conducted in accordance with the procedures established for approving an N95 FFR. One apparatus used a filter-holding device and another apparatus employed a manikin head to which the 3D-printed mask could be sealed. The filter media and combinations exhibited collection efficiencies varied between 3.9% and 98.8% when tested with a face velocity comparable to that of a standard N95 FFR at the 85 L min-1 used in the approval procedure. Breathing resistance varied between 10.8 to >637 Pa (1.1 to > 65 mm H2O). When applied to the 3D-printed mask efficiency decreased by an average of 13% and breathing resistance increased 4-fold as a result of the smaller surface area of the filter media when held in that mask compared to that of an N95 FFR. Disinfection by dry heat, even after 25 cycles, did not significantly affect filter efficiency and reduced viral infectivity by > 99.9%. However, 10 cycles of 59% vaporized H2O2 significantly (p < 0.001) reduced filter efficiency of the media tested. Several commercially available filter media were found to be potential replacements for the media used to construct the typical cup-like N95 FFR. However, their use in the 3D-printed mask demonstrated reduced efficiency and increased breathing resistance at 85 L min-1.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/standards , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Materials Testing/standards , N95 Respirators/virology , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Equipment Failure Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Inhalation Exposure/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(11): 114101, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951299


The SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic has produced widespread shortages of certified air-filtering personal protection equipment and an acute need for rapid evaluation of breathability and filtration efficiency of proposed alternative solutions. Here, we describe experimental efforts to nondestructively quantify three vital characteristics of mask approaches: breathability, material filtration effectiveness, and sensitivity to fit. We focus on protection against aqueous aerosols >0.3 µm using off-the-shelf particle, flow, and pressure sensors, permitting rapid comparative evaluation of these three properties. We present and discuss both the pressure drop and the particle penetration as a function of flow to permit comparison of relative protection for a set of proposed filter and mask designs. The design considerations of the testing apparatus can be reproduced by university laboratories and medical facilities and used for rapid local quality control of respirator masks that are of uncertified origin, monitoring the long-term effects of various disinfection schemes and evaluating improvised products not designed or marketed for filtration.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Protective Devices , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Air Movements , Air Pressure , COVID-19/transmission , Equipment Design/standards , Face , Filtration/instrumentation , Humans , Masks/standards , Materials Testing/instrumentation , Materials Testing/standards , N95 Respirators/standards , Particle Size , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards