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3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 744326, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775910

ABSTRACT

The women's healthcare in North Korea is in poor condition. The present study explored the current state of women's healthcare, especially in the field of obstetrics, in the region with a number of considerations in regards to establishing a better healthcare system. Peer-reviewed journal articles and reports from intergovernmental organizations were reviewed. Data show that many healthcare facilities suffer from shortages of basic amenities. The maternal mortality ratio was 82 deaths per 100,000 live births. The leading cause of maternal death was postpartum hemorrhage. It was also found that many hospitals were unable to provide adequate obstetrical emergency care such as anticonvulsants, antibiotics, and blood products. A long-term roadmap that is sustainable with clear principles and that is not disturbed by political tensions should be established.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Obstetrics , Democratic People's Republic of Korea , Female , Humans , Maternal Mortality , Pregnancy
4.
Glob Health Action ; 14(sup1): 1974677, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is having significant direct and associated effects on many health outcomes, including maternal mortality. As a useful marker of healthcare system functionality, trends in maternal mortality provide a lens to gauge impact and inform mitigation strategies. OBJECTIVE: To report the findings of a rapid systematic review of studies on levels of maternal mortality before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We systematically searched for studies on the 1st March 2021 in MEDLINE and Embase, with additional studies identified through MedRxiv and searches of key websites. We included studies that reported levels of mortality in pregnant and postpartum women in time-periods pre- and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The maternal mortality ratio was calculated for each study as well as the excess mortality. RESULTS: The search yielded 3411 references, of which five studies were included in the review alongside two studies identified from grey literature searches. Five studies used data from national health information systems or death registries (Mexico, Peru, Uganda, South Africa, and Kenya), and two studies from India were record reviews from health facilities. There were increased levels of maternal mortality documented in all studies; however, there was only statistical evidence for a difference in maternal mortality in the COVID-19 era for four of these. Excess maternal mortality ranged from 8.5% in Kenya to 61.5% in Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: Measuring maternal mortality in pandemics presents many challenges, but also essential opportunities to understand and ameliorate adverse impact both for women and their newborns. Our systematic review shows a dearth of studies giving reliable information on levels of maternal mortality, and we call for increased and more systematic reporting of this largely preventable outcome. The findings help to highlight four measurement-related issues which are priorities for continuing research and development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family , Female , Health Facilities , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Mortality , Pandemics , Pregnancy
5.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(6): 599-603, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761583

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, there is a syndemic in pregnant women, where the epidemic of obesity and chronic diseases coexists with that of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has been associated with a higher risk of maternal mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of comorbidities during pregnancy with maternal mortality from COVID-19 in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: SISVER COVID-19 databases and epidemiological surveillance reports on maternal mortality were used. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of comorbidities with maternal deaths from COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 29,416 pregnant women were evaluated, out of which 39% were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); the risk of maternal mortality was 3.24 times higher (p < 0.01) for positive in comparison with negative women. COVID-19 is the leading cause of maternal death since July 2020 and explains more than 50% of total deaths in 2021. Chronic kidney disease (odds ratio [OR]: 4.11; p < 0.01) and diabetes (OR: 2.53; p < 0.01) were the two main comorbidities that were positively associated with maternal death from COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Comorbidities during pregnancy that are possibly associated with an increase in the inflammatory response and an alteration of the immune response increase the risk of maternal death from COVID-19 in Mexican pregnant women.


INTRODUCCIÓN: En México existe una sindemia en las mujeres gestantes, donde coexiste la epidemia de obesidad y enfermedades crónicas con la de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), lo que se ha asociado con un mayor riesgo de mortalidad. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación de las comorbilidades en la mortalidad materna por COVID-19 en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron las bases de datos de COVID-19 del SISVER y los reportes de vigilancia epidemiológica de muertes maternas. Se utilizaron modelos de regresión logística multivariante para evaluar la asociación de las comorbilidades durante la gestación con mortalidad materna por COVID-19. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 29,416 mujeres embarazadas, el 39% fueron positivas para coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave, el riesgo de mortalidad materna fue 3.24 veces mayor (p < 0.01) para las mujeres positivas en comparación con las negativas. La COVID-19 es la primera causa de muerte materna desde julio del 2020 y explica más del 50% del total de muertes en el 2021. La enfermedad renal crónica (razón de momios [RM]: 4.11; p < 0.01) y la diabetes (RM: 2.53; p < 0.01) fueron las dos principales comorbilidades asociadas positivamente a la mortalidad materna por COVID-19. CONCLUSIÓN: Las comorbilidades durante el embarazo posiblemente asociadas con un incremento de la respuesta inflamatoria y alteración de la respuesta inmunitaria incrementan el riesgo de muerte materna por COVID-19 en mujeres gestantes mexicanas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications , Female , Humans , Maternal Mortality , Mexico/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
JAMA ; 327(8): 748-759, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739090

ABSTRACT

Importance: It remains unknown whether SARS-CoV-2 infection specifically increases the risk of serious obstetric morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with serious maternal morbidity or mortality from common obstetric complications. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 14 104 pregnant and postpartum patients delivered between March 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020 (with final follow-up to February 11, 2021), at 17 US hospitals participating in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Gestational Research Assessments of COVID-19 (GRAVID) Study. All patients with SARS-CoV-2 were included and compared with those without a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result who delivered on randomly selected dates over the same period. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection was based on a positive nucleic acid or antigen test result. Secondary analyses further stratified those with SARS-CoV-2 infection by disease severity. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of maternal death or serious morbidity related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage, or infection other than SARS-CoV-2. The main secondary outcome was cesarean birth. Results: Of the 14 104 included patients (mean age, 29.7 years), 2352 patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection and 11 752 did not have a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. Compared with those without a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly associated with the primary outcome (13.4% vs 9.2%; difference, 4.2% [95% CI, 2.8%-5.6%]; adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.41 [95% CI, 1.23-1.61]). All 5 maternal deaths were in the SARS-CoV-2 group. SARS-CoV-2 infection was not significantly associated with cesarean birth (34.7% vs 32.4%; aRR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.99-1.11]). Compared with those without a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, moderate or higher COVID-19 severity (n = 586) was significantly associated with the primary outcome (26.1% vs 9.2%; difference, 16.9% [95% CI, 13.3%-20.4%]; aRR, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.73-2.46]) and the major secondary outcome of cesarean birth (45.4% vs 32.4%; difference, 12.8% [95% CI, 8.7%-16.8%]; aRR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.07-1.28]), but mild or asymptomatic infection (n = 1766) was not significantly associated with the primary outcome (9.2% vs 9.2%; difference, 0% [95% CI, -1.4% to 1.4%]; aRR, 1.11 [95% CI, 0.94-1.32]) or cesarean birth (31.2% vs 32.4%; difference, -1.4% [95% CI, -3.6% to 0.8%]; aRR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.93-1.07]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among pregnant and postpartum individuals at 17 US hospitals, SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with an increased risk for a composite outcome of maternal mortality or serious morbidity from obstetric complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Maternal Mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Postpartum Hemorrhage/mortality , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
7.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667343

ABSTRACT

Cardiomyocyte injury and troponin T elevation has been reported within COVID-19 patients and are associated with a worse prognosis. Limited data report this association among COVID-19 pregnant patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the association between troponin T levels in severe COVID-19 pregnant women and risk of viral sepsis, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or maternal death. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort of all obstetrics emergency admissions from a Mexican National Institute. All pregnant women diagnosed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for SARS-CoV-2 infection between October 2020 and May 2021 were included. Clinical data were collected, and routine blood samples were obtained at hospital admission. Seric troponin T was measured at admission. RESULTS: From 87 included patients, 31 (35.63%) had severe COVID-19 pneumonia, and 6 (6.89%) maternal deaths. ROC showed a significant relationship between troponin T and maternal death (AUC 0.979, CI 0.500-1.000). At a cutoff point of 7 ng/mL the detection rate for severe pneumonia was 83.3% (95%CI: 0.500-0.100) at 10% false-positive rate. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pregnant women with elevated levels of troponin T present a higher risk of death and severe pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Maternal Mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Troponin T/blood , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Trials ; 23(1): 95, 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Child mortality remains unacceptably high, with Northern Nigeria reporting some of the highest rates globally (e.g. 192/1000 live births in Jigawa State). Coverage of key protect and prevent interventions, such as vaccination and clean cooking fuel use, is low. Additionally, knowledge, care-seeking and health system factors are poor. Therefore, a whole systems approach is needed for sustainable reductions in child mortality. METHODS: This is a cluster randomised controlled trial, with integrated process and economic evaluations, conducted from January 2021 to September 2022. The trial will be conducted in Kiyawa Local Government Area, Jigawa State, Nigeria, with an estimated population of 230,000. Clusters are defined as primary government health facility catchment areas (n = 33). The 33 clusters will be randomly allocated (1:1) in a public ceremony, and 32 clusters included in the impact evaluation. The trial will evaluate a locally adapted 'whole systems strengthening' package of three evidence-based methods: community men's and women's groups, Partnership Defined Quality Scorecard and healthcare worker training, mentorship and provision of basic essential equipment and commodities. The primary outcome is mortality of children aged 7 days to 59 months. Mortality will be recorded prospectively using a cohort design, and secondary outcomes measured through baseline and endline cross-sectional surveys. Assuming the following, we will have a minimum detectable effect size of 30%: (a) baseline mortality of 100 per 1000 livebirths, (b) 4480 compounds with 3 eligible children per compound, (c) 80% power, (d) 5% significance, (e) intra-cluster correlation of 0.007 and (f) coefficient of variance of cluster size of 0.74. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat, comparing intervention and control clusters, adjusting for compound and trial clustering. DISCUSSION: This study will provide robust evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based participatory learning and action, with integrated health system strengthening and accountability mechanisms, to reduce child mortality. The ethnographic process evaluation will allow for a rich understanding of how the intervention works in this context. However, we encountered a key challenge in calculating the sample size, given the lack of timely and reliable mortality data and the uncertain impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 39213655 . Registered on 11 December 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant Mortality , Male , Maternal Mortality , Nigeria , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(1): e114-e123, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630866

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sierra Leone's child and maternal mortality rates are among the highest in the world. However, little is known about the causes of premature mortality in the country. To rectify this, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone launched the Sierra Leone Sample Registration System (SL-SRS) of births and deaths. Here, we report cause-specific mortality from the first SL-SRS round, representing deaths from 2018 to 2020. METHODS: The Countrywide Mortality Surveillance for Action platform established the SL-SRS, which involved conducting electronic verbal autopsies in 678 randomly selected villages and urban blocks throughout the country. 61 surveyors, in teams of four or five, enrolled people and ascertained deaths of individuals younger than 70 years in 2019-20, capturing verbal autopsies on deaths from 2018 to 2020. Centrally, two trained physicians independently assigned causes of death according to the International Classification of Diseases (tenth edition). SL-SRS death proportions were applied to 5-year mortality averages from the UN World Population Prospects (2019) to derive cause-specific death totals and risks of death nationally and in four Sierra Leone regions, with comparisons made with the Western region where Freetown, the capital, is located. We compared SL-SRS results with the cause-specific mortality estimates for Sierra Leone in the 2019 WHO Global Health Estimates. FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2019, and Dec 15, 2020, we enrolled 343 000 people and ascertained 8374 deaths of individuals younger than 70 years. Malaria was the leading cause of death in children and adults, nationally and in each region, representing 22% of deaths under age 70 years in 2020. Other infectious diseases accounted for an additional 16% of deaths. Overall maternal mortality ratio was 510 deaths per 100 000 livebirths (95% CI 483-538), and neonatal mortality rate was 31·1 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% CI 30·4-31·8), both among the highest rates in the world. Haemorrhage was the major cause of maternal mortality and birth asphyxia or trauma was the major cause of neonatal mortality. Excess deaths were not detected in the months of 2020 corresponding to the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Half of the deaths occurred in rural areas and at home. If the Northern, Eastern, and Southern regions of Sierra Leone had the lower death rates observed in the Western region, about 20 000 deaths (just over a quarter of national total deaths in people younger than 70 years) would have been avoided. WHO model-based data vastly underestimated malaria deaths and some specific causes of injury deaths, and substantially overestimated maternal mortality. INTERPRETATION: Over 60% of individuals in Sierra Leone die prematurely, before age 70 years, most from preventable or treatable causes. Nationally representative mortality surveys such as the SL-SRS are of high value in providing reliable cause-of-death information to set public health priorities and target interventions in low-income countries. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Queen Elizabeth Scholarship Program.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Mortality, Premature , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child Mortality , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Malaria/mortality , Male , Maternal Mortality , Middle Aged , Sierra Leone/epidemiology
11.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(1): 119-121, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591380

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study was to investigate the maternal death rate among admitted pregnant patients with SARS-COV-2 during its 4th wave in Pakistan. It was a cross-sectional analytical study, carried on pregnant patients admitted due to COVID-19, in Sadiq Abbasi Hospital from 15th August to 15th September, 2021. Thirty-three PCR confirmed and HRCT suggestive patients were included with mean age of 28 ± 4.5 years and mean gestational age of 28.5 ± 6 weeks. Twenty-seven (81%) were non-vaccinated, 22 (66%) were admitted with severe disease, 13 (39.4%) and 11 (33.3%) were on non-invasive and invasive ventilator support, respectively. Only nine (27%) patients could continue their pregnancy. Fifteen (45%) patients had severe oligohydramnios. Twenty-two (66.7%) patients were died, all were unvaccinated. Regression analysis for maternal mortality predicted by severity and vaccination status was significant with R2=.68, F (1, 31) =66.6, p <.001 CI (-.69, -.42) and R2=.44, F (1, 31) = 24.8, p <.001 CI (-1.14, -.48), respectively. There was substantial mortality in the admitted and non-vaccinated pregnant patients with COVID-19. Key Words: Pregnancy, Vaccination, Severe COVID, Maternal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Vaccines , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Maternal Mortality , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261492, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581740

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mortality rates of pregnant and postpartum women grew in the second COVID-19 pandemic year. Our objective is to understand this phenomenon to avoid further deaths. METHODS: We collected data from SIVEP-Gripe, a nationwide Brazilian database containing surveillance data on all severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by COVID-19, between the first notified case (February 2020) until the 17th epidemiological week of 2021. We stratified patients into maternal women (which includes pregnant and postpartum women), non-maternal women and men and divided them by time of diagnosis in two periods: first period (February to December 2020) and second period (the first 17 epidemiological weeks of 2021 before pregnant and postpartum women were vaccinated). RESULTS: During the second period, all patients had higher risk of presenting severe COVID-19 cases, but the maternal population was at a higher risk of death (OR of 2.60 CI 95%: 2.28-2.97)-almost double the risk of the two other groups. Maternal women also had a higher risk of needing intensive care, intubation and of presenting desaturation in the second period. Importantly, maternal women presented fewer comorbidities than other patient groups, suggesting that pregnancy and postpartum can be an important risk factor associated with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the Gama variant, which has been related to greater virulence, transmissibility and mortality rates leads to more severe cases of COVID-19 for pregnant and postpartum women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Maternal Mortality/trends , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 59(1): 76-82, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588871

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mortality in pregnancy due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current health priority in developing countries. Identification of clinical and sociodemographic risk factors related to mortality in pregnant women with COVID-19 could guide public policy and encourage such women to accept vaccination. We aimed to evaluate the association of comorbidities and socioeconomic determinants with COVID-19-related mortality and severe disease in pregnant women in Mexico. METHODS: This is an ongoing nationwide prospective cohort study that includes all pregnant women with a positive reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from the Mexican National Registry of Coronavirus. The primary outcome was maternal death due to COVID-19. The association of comorbidities and socioeconomic characteristics with maternal death was explored using a log-binomial regression model adjusted for possible confounders. RESULTS: There were 176 (1.35%) maternal deaths due to COVID-19 among 13 062 consecutive SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women. Maternal age, as a continuous (adjusted relative risk (aRR), 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05-1.10)) or categorical variable, was associated with maternal death due to COVID-19; women aged 35-39 years (aRR, 3.16 (95% CI, 2.34-4.26)) or 40 years or older (aRR, 4.07 (95% CI, 2.65-6.25)) had a higher risk for mortality, as compared with those aged < 35 years. Other clinical risk factors associated with maternal mortality were pre-existing diabetes (aRR, 2.66 (95% CI, 1.65-4.27)), chronic hypertension (aRR, 1.75 (95% CI, 1.02-3.00)) and obesity (aRR, 2.15 (95% CI, 1.46-3.17)). Very high social vulnerability (aRR, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.26-2.80)) and high social vulnerability (aRR, 1.49 (95% CI, 1.04-2.13)) were associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, while very low social vulnerability was associated with a reduced risk (aRR, 0.47 (95% CI, 0.30-0.73)). Being poor or extremely poor were also risk factors for maternal mortality (aRR, 1.53 (95% CI, 1.09-2.15) and aRR, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.32-2.53), respectively). CONCLUSION: This study, which comprises the largest prospective consecutive cohort of pregnant women with COVID-19 to date, has confirmed that advanced maternal age, pre-existing diabetes, chronic hypertension, obesity, high social vulnerability and low socioeconomic status are risk factors for COVID-19-related maternal mortality. © 2021 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Maternal Death/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Social Vulnerability , Adult , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Maternal Mortality , Mexico , Poverty , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
14.
S Afr Med J ; 111(12): 1174-1180, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women living with HIV (PLHIV) has not been described previously. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of a cohort of women with high-risk pregnancies with confirmed COVID-19 to determine whether risk factors for disease severity and adverse outcomes of COVID-19 differed in pregnant women without HIV compared with PLHIV. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled pregnant women with COVID-19 attending the high-risk obstetric service at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from 1 May to 31 July 2020, with follow-up until 31 October 2020. Women were considered high risk if they required specialist care for maternal, neonatal and/or anaesthetic conditions. Common maternal or obstetric conditions included hypertensive disorders, morbid obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kg/m2) and diabetes. Information on demographics, clinical features, and maternal and neonatal outcomes was collected and compared for PLHIV v. pregnant women without HIV. RESULTS: One hundred women (72 without HIV and 28 PLHIV) with high-risk pregnancies had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Among the 28 PLHIV, the median (interquartile range) CD4 count was 441 (317 - 603) cells/µL, and 19/26 (73%) were virologically suppressed. COVID-19 was diagnosed predominantly in the third trimester (81%). Obesity (BMI ≥30 in n=61/81; 75%) and hypertensive disorders were frequent comorbidities. Of the 100 women, 40% developed severe or critical COVID-19, 15% required intensive care unit admission and 6% needed invasive ventilation. Eight women died, 1 from advanced HIV disease complicated by bacteraemia and urosepsis. The crude maternal mortality rate was substantially higher in women with COVID-19 compared with all other deliveries at our institution during this period (8/91 (9%) v. 7/4 058 (0.2%); p<0.001). Neonatal outcomes were favourable. No significant differences in COVID-19 risk factors, disease severity, and maternal/neonatal outcome were noted for PLHIV v. those without HIV. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of high-risk pregnant women, the impact of COVID-19 was severe, significantly increasing maternal mortality risk compared with baseline rates. Virally suppressed HIV infection was not associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Mortality , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Prospective Studies , South Africa
15.
PLoS Med ; 18(11): e1003857, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To the best of our knowledge, no study has exhaustively evaluated the association between maternal morbidities and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the first wave of the pandemic in pregnant women. We investigated, in natural conceptions and assisted reproductive technique (ART) pregnancies, whether maternal morbidities were more frequent in pregnant women with COVID-19 diagnosis compared to pregnant women without COVID-19 diagnosis during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in a national cohort of all hospitalizations for births ≥22 weeks of gestation in France from January to June 2020 using the French national hospitalization database (PMSI). Pregnant women with COVID-19 were identified if they had been recorded in the database using the ICD-10 (International Classification of Disease) code for presence of a hospitalization for COVID-19. A total of 244,645 births were included, of which 874 (0.36%) in the COVID-19 group. Maternal morbidities and adverse obstetrical outcomes among those with or without COVID-19 were analyzed with a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted on patient characteristics. Among pregnant women, older age (31.1 (±5.9) years old versus 30.5 (±5.4) years old, respectively, p < 0.001), obesity (0.7% versus 0.3%, respectively, p < 0.001), multiple pregnancy (0.7% versus 0.4%, respectively, p < 0.001), and history of hypertension (0.9% versus 0.3%, respectively, p < 0.001) were more frequent with COVID-19 diagnosis. Active smoking (0.2% versus 0.4%, respectively, p < 0.001) and primiparity (0.3% versus 0.4%, respectively, p < 0.03) were less frequent with COVID-19 diagnosis. Frequency of ART conception was not different between those with and without COVID-19 diagnosis (p = 0.28). When compared to the non-COVID-19 group, women in the COVID-19 group had a higher frequency of admission to ICU (5.9% versus 0.1%, p < 0.001), mortality (0.2% versus 0.005%, p < 0.001), preeclampsia/eclampsia (4.8% versus 2.2%, p < 0.001), gestational hypertension (2.3% versus 1.3%, p < 0.03), postpartum hemorrhage (10.0% versus 5.7%, p < 0.001), preterm birth at <37 weeks of gestation (16.7% versus 7.1%, p < 0.001), <32 weeks of gestation (2.2% versus 0.8%, p < 0.001), <28 weeks of gestation (2.4% versus 0.8%, p < 0.001), induced preterm birth (5.4% versus 1.4%, p < 0.001), spontaneous preterm birth (11.3% versus 5.7%, p < 0.001), fetal distress (33.0% versus 26.0%, p < 0.001), and cesarean section (33.0% versus 20.2%, p < 0.001). Rates of pregnancy terminations ≥22 weeks of gestation, stillbirths, gestational diabetes, placenta praevia, and placenta abruption were not significantly different between the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups. The number of venous thromboembolic events was too low to perform statistical analysis. A limitation of this study relies in the possibility that asymptomatic infected women were not systematically detected. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an increased frequency of pregnant women with maternal morbidities and diagnosis of COVID-19 compared to pregnant women without COVID-19. It appears essential to be aware of this, notably in populations at known risk of developing a more severe form of infection or obstetrical morbidities and in order for obstetrical units to better inform pregnant women and provide the best care. Although causality cannot be determined from these associations, these results may be in line with recent recommendations in favor of vaccination for pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Fetal Distress/epidemiology , France/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Maternal Mortality , Obesity/epidemiology , Postpartum Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 101(1): 7-24, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Conflicting reports of increases and decreases in rates of preterm birth (PTB) and stillbirth in the general population during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have surfaced. The objective of our study was to conduct a living systematic review and meta-analyses of studies reporting pregnancy and neonatal outcomes by comparing the pandemic and pre-pandemic periods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase databases, reference lists of articles published up until August 14, 2021 and included English language studies that compared outcomes between the COVID-19 pandemic time period and the pre-pandemic time periods. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis using the inverse variance method. RESULTS: Forty-five studies with low-to-moderate risk of bias, reporting on 1 843 665 pregnancies during the pandemic period and 23 564 552 pregnancies during the pre-pandemic period, were included. There was significant reduction in unadjusted estimates of PTB (35 studies, unadjusted odds ratio [uaOR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98), but not in adjusted estimates (six studies, adjusted OR [aOR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.80-1.13). This reduction was noted in studies from single centers/health areas (25 studies, uaOR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.96) but not in regional/national studies (10 studies, uaOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.02). There was reduction in spontaneous PTB (six studies, uaOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.96) and induced PTB (five studies, uaOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97). There was no difference in the odds of stillbirth between the pandemic and pre-pandemic time periods (24 studies, uaOR 1.11, 95% CI 0.97-1.26 and four studies, aOR 1.06, 95% CI 0.81-1.38). There was an increase in mean birthweight during the pandemic period compared with the pre-pandemic period (six studies, mean difference 17 g, 95% CI 7-28 g). The odds of maternal mortality were increased (four studies, uaOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.26); however, only unadjusted estimates were available and the result was mostly influenced by one study from Mexico. There was significant publication bias for the outcome of PTB. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic may be associated with a reduction in PTB; however, referral bias cannot be excluded. There was no statistically significant difference in stillbirth between pandemic and pre-pandemic periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/trends , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality/trends , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Mortality/trends , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Publication Bias , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
19.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(4): 896-915, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the literature on associations between social determinants of health and pregnancy-related mortality and morbidity in the United States and to highlight opportunities for intervention and future research. DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic search using Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Popline, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov (1990-2018) using MeSH terms related to maternal mortality, morbidity, and social determinants of health, and limited to the United States. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Selection criteria included studies examining associations between social determinants and adverse maternal outcomes including pregnancy-related death, severe maternal morbidity, and emergency hospitalizations or readmissions. Using Covidence, three authors screened abstracts and two screened full articles for inclusion. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Two authors extracted data from each article and the data were analyzed using a descriptive approach. A total of 83 studies met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Seventy-eight of 83 studies examined socioeconomic position or individual factors as predictors, demonstrating evidence of associations between minority race and ethnicity (58/67 studies with positive findings), public or no insurance coverage (21/30), and lower education levels (8/12), and increased incidence of maternal death and severe maternal morbidity. Only 2 of 83 studies investigated associations between these outcomes and socioeconomic, political, and cultural context (eg, public policy), and 20 of 83 studies investigated material and physical circumstances (eg, neighborhood environment, segregation), limiting the diversity of social determinants of health studied as well as evaluation of such evidence. CONCLUSION: Empirical studies provide evidence for the role of race and ethnicity, insurance, and education in pregnancy-related mortality and severe maternal morbidity risk, although many other important social determinants, including mechanisms of effect, remain to be studied in greater depth. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42018102415.


Subject(s)
Healthcare Disparities , Maternal Mortality/ethnology , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , United States
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