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1.
Nutr Diabetes ; 12(1): 16, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is increasing attention on association between eating patterns and diabetes control following global changes in eating patterns. There had been very limited research on the eating patterns of diabetic patients with employment, although working age population has seen the highest increase in diabetes incidence. This study aimed to identify workplace eating patterns in relation to glycaemic control among type 2 diabetic patients with employment. METHODS: This is a sequential mixed-methods study. The exploratory qualitative study involved focus group interviews with 31 type 2 diabetic patients with employment, which guided the design of a subsequent cross-sectional investigation involving 185 patients with employment. Thematic analysis was conducted on the qualitative data to identify workplace eating patterns most relevant to glycaemic control. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was performed to examine association between workplace eating pattern and glycaemic control, proxied by HbA1c. RESULTS: The focus group interviews identified frequency in the consumption of home-prepared meals (HPM) and meal hours as the major workplace eating patterns that affected glycaemic control. The cross-sectional study confirmed that regular consumption of HPM at workplace could explain variance of HbA1c, independent of socio-demographic factors, lifestyle factors and disease condition, with R2 = 0.146, F(14, 170) = 2.075, p = 0.015; adjusted R2 = 0.076. Patients who were female, in non-skilled occupation, on shift, with fixed work location and had break during work were more likely to consume HPM. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of HPM at workplace should be promoted to facilitate better glycaemic control by type 2 diabetic patients with employment, possibly through more practical dietary advice, and workplace accommodation in terms of space and facilities. In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, consumption of HPM also meant additional protection for diabetic patients through reducing close contact exposures in restaurants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Hong Kong , Humans , Meals , Pandemics , Workplace
2.
Vet Rec ; 190(7): 295, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767393

ABSTRACT

After the Covid hiatus we were delighted to once again connect with friends and colleagues at the BVA London dinner, an event that is always a calendar highlight. Helena Cotton, BVA public affairs manager, sums up proceedings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , London , Meals
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2291, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first UK-wide lockdown to prevent the spread of COVID-19 had a serious financial impact on low-income households, a population already in higher risk of food insecurity and poor dietary choices. Qualitative data on the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on food decisions of UK families are scarce. This study aimed to explore how the measures to control the spread of COVID-19 influenced the food-related decisions of socioeconomically deprived families in Northern Ireland. METHODS: A qualitative study captured data from online individual interviews. Participation was open for parents of children 2-17 years old living on a tight budget in urban and rural areas of Northern Ireland. A sampling matrix enabled equal representation of single- and two-parent households, as well as parents of younger children (<12y) and adolescents (≥12y). Data were collected by using the methods of Photovoice and mapping exercise. Data were analysed through a thematic approach. RESULTS: Twelve online interviews were conducted and five distinct themes were identified reflecting families' food-related decisions that were affected by the COVID-19 lockdown: 1) food planning; 2) food purchasing; 3) meal preparation; 4) eating and feeding behaviours and 5) eating food prepared outside the house. CONCLUSIONS: The restrictions put in place to inhibit the spread of COVID-19 influenced all aspects of dietary decisions of low-income families. Changes observed during this period included frequent consumption of homemade meals, but also increased unhealthy snacking. Infrequent food shopping encouraged good meal planning, but was also a barrier to securing adequate fresh food. Food-related support including school meal assistance contributed to families' food security, particularly those of single parents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Meals , Northern Ireland , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732048

ABSTRACT

The USDA summer food programs provide meals for children when school is not in session. Although the COVID-19 pandemic has created challenges for food distribution programs, many regulations have been waived, providing opportunities for new approaches to meal distribution. The aim of this study was to identify practices designed to increase program participation during the summer of 2021. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with food service directors (N = 16) in a northeastern state. Questions addressed meal distribution methods; perceptions about facilitators and barriers to family participation; communication strategies used to reach families; and engagement with community partners. The responses were analyzed using an immersion-crystallization approach and four themes emerged: new opportunities for innovation due to the waivers; the importance of collaboration with community partners to increase reach; ongoing logistical challenges due to the pandemic; and the challenge and importance of reducing the stigma of participation. These findings underscore how the USDA waivers increased food service directors' ability to flexibly and creatively solve problems related to summer meal delivery. The FSDs believed that several of the waivers helped them increase participation in the summer meal program, suggesting that permanent changes to the summer meal regulations may be appropriate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Services , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Meals , Pandemics , Schools
5.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725891

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort (United Kingdom, N = 21,318, 1993-1998), we studied how associations between meal patterns and non-fasting triglyceride and glucose concentrations were influenced by the hour of day at which the blood sample was collected to ascertain face validity of reported meal patterns, as well as the influence of reporting bias (assessed using formula of energy expenditure) on this association. Meal size (i.e., reported energy content), mealtime and meal frequency were reported using pre-structured 7-day diet diaries. In ANCOVA, sex-specific means of biomarker concentrations were calculated by hour of blood sample collection for quartiles of reported energy intake at breakfast, lunch and dinner (meal size). Significant interactions were observed between breakfast size, sampling time and triglyceride concentrations and between lunch size, sampling time and triglyceride, as well as glucose concentrations. Those skipping breakfast had the lowest triglyceride concentrations in the morning and those skipping lunch had the lowest triglyceride and glucose concentrations in the afternoon, especially among acceptable energy reporters. Eating and drinking occasion frequency was weakly associated with glucose concentrations in women and positively associated with triglyceride concentrations in both sexes; stronger associations were observed for larger vs. smaller meals and among acceptable energy reporters. Associations between meal patterns and concentration biomarkers can be observed when accounting for diurnal variation and underreporting. These findings support the use of 7-day diet diaries for studying associations between meal patterns and health.


Subject(s)
Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Diet Records , Eating/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Meals/physiology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Triglycerides/blood , United Kingdom
7.
J Food Prot ; 85(2): 188-195, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726506

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Federally funded school meals, such as the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program, can help alleviate food insecurity. Meals served as part of these programs are required by law to be modified when medically necessary, such as food allergies and special diets. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused many schools across the United States to close, but schools quickly modified meal-serving models. The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of school nutrition professionals relative to food safety and providing special diets through modified serving models. A survey was distributed to a convenience sample of child nutrition professionals via social media recruitment and e-mails (n = 504). The survey had both closed-ended questions and one open-ended question exploring food safety and special diet accommodations. At the time of the survey, most respondents (68.3%) had been involved in COVID-19 emergency feeding for 3 to 4 weeks. Results indicated that although most child nutrition professionals did not find food safety easier or more difficult during the initial onset of COVID-19, 34.8% of respondents were not taking food temperatures for hot and cold meals during meal service and were not able to obtain (or did not have enough) equipment necessary for holding hot foods (53.0%). Most respondents (60.2%) also indicated that they were not accommodating children with special diets. Themes from the qualitative analysis indicated participants had challenges obtaining specialty items, had little time to make accommodations, or had a limited supply from vendors to accommodate these diets. To prevent food insecurity and to maintain health during the pandemic, specific solutions for at-risk populations, such as those who experience food allergies, must be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Services , Child , Diet , Food Safety , Humans , Meals , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , United States
8.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e32, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683881

ABSTRACT

Gatherings where people are eating and drinking can increase the risk of getting and spreading SARS-CoV-2 among people who are not fully vaccinated; prevention strategies like wearing masks and physical distancing continue to be important for some groups. We conducted an online survey to characterise fall/winter 2020-2021 holiday gatherings, decisions to attend and prevention strategies employed during and before gatherings. We determined associations between practicing prevention strategies, demographics and COVID-19 experience. Among 502 respondents, one-third attended in person holiday gatherings; 73% wore masks and 84% practiced physical distancing, but less did so always (29% and 23%, respectively). Younger adults were 44% more likely to attend gatherings than adults ≥35 years. Younger adults (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 1.53, 95% CI 1.19-1.97), persons who did not experience COVID-19 themselves or have relatives/close friends experience severe COVID-19 (aPR 1.56, 95% CI 1.18-2.07), and non-Hispanic White persons (aPR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.18) were more likely to not always wear masks in public during the 2 weeks before gatherings. Public health messaging emphasizing consistent application of COVID-19 prevention strategies is important to slow the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Social Participation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Family , Female , Holidays/psychology , Humans , Male , Meals , Middle Aged , Social Participation/psychology , United States , Young Adult
9.
Biocontrol Sci ; 26(4): 207-210, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620036

ABSTRACT

Influenza outbreaks at geriatric long-term care facilities (g-LTCFs) can be deadly and their prevention is important. However, the factors influencing disease transmission in g-LTCFs remain controversial. In this descriptive study, we tried to identify the potential risk factors influencing influenza outbreaks that occurred in different influenza seasons within a single g-LTCF with 100 residents in Gunma Prefecture. We reviewed the detailed facility records for all influenza cases in both residents and staff between January 2012 and June 2020. Facility preventive measures were also reviewed. We found that community meals may have been a potential source of transmission leading to the outbreaks. When influenza infection is noted, implementation of strict preventive measures and restriction of meal provision to resident rooms may help to prevent disease transmission and the development of an outbreak. Such measures may also be useful to prevent the transmission of other serious droplet-borne diseases within g-LTCFs.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Aged , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Japan , Long-Term Care , Meals , Nursing Homes
10.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263016, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Substance use among adolescents in the U.S. is associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes in the long-term. Universal youth-focused substance use prevention programs have demonstrated effectiveness but are often not sustainable due to the significant amount of time, effort, and resources required. We describe a trial protocol for a brief, low-participant-burden intervention to improve substance use-specific parent-child communication through the promotion of family meals and increased parental engagement. METHODS: This study is a parallel-group randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of a 13-week intervention. A total of 500 dyads of parents and their 5th-7th grade children are recruited from across Massachusetts. Dyads are randomized to the intervention or attention-control condition using block urn randomization, based on child grade, gender, and school. Parents/guardians in the substance use preventive intervention arm receive a short handbook, attend two meetings with an interventionist, and receive two SMS messages per week. Parents/guardians in the control arm receive the same dose but with content focused on nutrition, physical activity, and weight stigma. Participant dyads submit videos of family meals, audio recordings of prompted conversations, and quantitative surveys over an 18-month period (baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18 months post-intervention). The primary outcomes measure the quantity and quality of parent-child substance use conversations and proximal child indicators (i.e., substance use attitudes and expectancies, affiliation with substance-using peers, and intentions and willingness to use substances). The secondary outcome is child substance use initiation. DISCUSSION: This is a novel, brief, communication-focused intervention for parents/guardians that was designed to reduce participant burden. The intervention has the potential to improve parent-child engagement and communication and conversations about substance use specifically and decrease child substance use risk factors and substance use initiation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03925220. Registered on 24 April 2019.


Subject(s)
Communication , Health Promotion/methods , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Adolescent , Case-Control Studies , Crisis Intervention , Humans , Meals , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
11.
Acad Med ; 96(12): 1683, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672270
12.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 42(1): 109-113, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664429

ABSTRACT

AIM: While accumulating evidence suggests a protective role of healthy diet against depression, evidence on this issue is limited among healthcare workers combating COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to determine the cross-sectional association between frequency of balanced meal consumption and depressive symptoms among Japanese hospital workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants were 2,457 workers of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine who responded to a questionnaire survey in October or December 2020. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The number of days per week of eating two or more balanced meals was categorized into four from ≤1 day/week to daily. The association between frequency of balanced meal consumption and depressive symptoms was assessed using logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for lifestyle and COVID-19-related factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 14.8%. The odds of depressive symptoms increased with decreasing frequency of balanced meal consumption. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of depressive symptoms were 1.00 (reference), 1.09 (0.75-1.58), 1.62 (1.17-2.24), and 2.21 (1.54-3.17) for balanced meal consumption categories of daily, 4-5 days/week, 2-3 days/week, and ≤1 day/week, respectively (P for trend<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that infrequent consumption of well-balanced meal is associated with increased depressive symptoms among hospital workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Meals , Pandemics
13.
Appetite ; 172: 105951, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654055

ABSTRACT

The emerging field of chrononutrition provides useful information on how we manage food intake across the day. The COVID-19 emergency, and the corresponding restrictive measures, produced an unprecedented change in individual daily rhythms, possibly including the distribution of mealtimes. Designed as a cross-sectional study based on an online survey, this study aims to assess the chrononutrition profiles (Chrononutrition Profile Questionnaire, CP-Q) in a sample of 1298 Italian participants, during the first COVID-19 lockdown, and to explore the relationship with chronotype (reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, rMEQ), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI) and socio-demographics. Our findings confirm a change in eating habits for 58% of participants, in terms of mealtimes or content of meals. Being an evening chronotype and experiencing poor sleep imply a higher likelihood of changing eating habits, including a delay in the timing of meals. Also, under these unprecedented circumstances, we report that the timing of breakfast is a valuable proxy capable of estimating the chronotype. From a public health perspective, the adoption of this straightforward and low-cost proxy of chronotype might help in the early detection of vulnerable subgroups in the general population, eventually useful during prolonged stressful conditions, as the one caused by COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Circadian Rhythm , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Meals , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Appetite ; 172: 105948, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650978

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 and its associated regulatory measures including lockdowns, curfews, and physical distancing norms have significantly affected individual's dietary and culinary behaviours. Although there is ample empirical evidence available on dietary changes within the Indian context, very limited evidence exists about the factors influencing these dietary modifications and changes in culinary behaviours during COVID-19 lockdown. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was to explore the views of Indian household food gatekeepers towards meal planning, food purchasing, and meal preparation during the pandemic and its associated lockdowns. A convenience sample of 34 female gatekeepers from the Mumbai metropolis participated in online interviews. Interviews were conducted in English and Hindi (then translated in English), audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Underpinned by Template Analysis technique, transcribed data were analysed manually and using the NVivo software program. The interview structure guided the development of themes. The emerging themes included were: Increased household cooking; Involvement of children and male members in food-related activities; Experimentation in the kitchen; Adoption of meal planning skills; Increase in online food shopping; Bulk buying; Shortage of food items; Reduced consumption of outside home food; Increased variety of home-cooked meals; Increase in snacking and overall food intake; Determinants of food choices; and Family meals-a new norm. In the light of these findings, developing family-focussed, web-based nutrition programs to enhance gatekeepers' and their families' food literacy including declarative and procedural nutritional knowledge would be beneficial. The importance of organisational culinary behaviours such as planning meals in advance, shopping with a food list should be promoted to prevent hoarding and subsequently reduce strain on the food supply system. With a surge in domestic cooking, low cost nutritious recipes with the use of local and seasonal produce should be emphasized promoting healthy eating among the gatekeepers and their family members. The inclusion of food studies in the school curriculum will facilitate the development of culinary skills among children and youth. Also, there is a need for further research and surveillance to strengthen understanding of sustainability of healthy culinary behaviours practiced during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cooking , Female , Humans , Male , Meals , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Food Res Int ; 150(Pt A): 110752, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492022

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and especially the lockdowns coming with it have been a disruptive event also for food consumption. In order to study the impact of the pandemic on eating habits, self-reported changes in food-related behaviours were investigated in ten European countries by means of an online survey. A latent class cluster analysis distinguished five clusters and showed that different types of consumers can be distinguished based on how they react to the pandemic as regards their eating habits. While food-related behaviours were resilient for 60% of the sample, another 35% reported more enjoyment in cooking and eating, more time in the kitchen and more family meals. Among those, a slight majority also showed signs of more mindful eating, as indicated by more deliberate choices and increased consumption of healthy food, whereas a slight minority reported more consumption of indulgence food. Only 5% indicated less involvement with food. As the COVID-19 pandemic is a disruptive event, some of these changes may have habit-breaking properties and open up new opportunities and challenges for food policy and food industry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Food Preferences , Humans , Meals , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488571

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) resulted in school closures and contingencies across the U.S. that limited access to school meals for students. While some schools attempted to provide alternative meal access points where students or parents could pick up meals, many students-especially those in low-income households-lacked adequate transportation to these access points. Thus, physical proximity to meal access points was particularly important during the pandemic. In this study, we explore how school meal access changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially as it relates to race/ethnicity and socio-economic status. Taking into account both the "supply" (meal access points) and the "demand" (low-income students) for free meals, we employed a two-step floating catchment area analysis to compare meal accessibility in St. Louis, Missouri before and during the pandemic in the spring and summer of 2019 and 2020. Overall, while school meal access decreased during the spring of 2020 during the early months of the pandemic, it increased during the summer of 2020. Moreover, increased access was greatest in low-income areas and areas with a higher proportion of Black residents. Thus, continuing new policies that expanded access to school meals-especially for summer meal programs-could lead to positive long-term impacts on children's health and well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Humans , Meals , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480752

ABSTRACT

College students represent a unique population of adults, who may be more likely to experience food insecurity due to their transient circumstances, limited access to resources, and increased educational expenses. But little is known about how college students and their households mitigate food insecurity, particularly during a crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic. The Household Observations of Meals and Environments (HOME) Study described how college students in the US utilized multilevel resources, including an on-campus food pantry, to maintain food security during the pandemic. A convenience sample of college students (n = 18) were recruited from an on-campus food pantry and provided quantitative and qualitative data through online surveys and in-depth Zoom interviews. Survey data were analyzed to describe sociodemographic characteristics. In-depth interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically to identify emergent themes. Social support and the use of an on-campus food pantry were primary factors in maintaining a food security safety net. Students faced barriers when trying to access federal and state food assistance programs and identified multilevel resources, their food security, and the role of social support as facilitators in their perceptions of food insecurity status and experiences. Findings highlight practical implications for research related to on-campus food insecurity interventions and policies to support food security among college students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Meals , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Students , Universities
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470843

ABSTRACT

Following rising unemployment rates and consequent loss of income due to COVID-19, many people have been seeking meal assistance. This study examines the impact of a community-based free meal distribution program during the pandemic in Kentucky, reviewing characteristics of recipients of the program. Demographics, health behaviors, food insecure classification, and rating of importance of the meal program were collected. Qualitative feedback on the impact of the program was collected via open response. Of the 92 participants using the meal service, the cohort was female, Black, 43 years of age (43.5 ± 15.0 years), with a household income under 30,000 USD before COVID, decreased income since COVID, and were food insecure. Recipients rated the importance of the service as 8.7 ± 1.8 (of 10), and those with children indicated the importance as 4.2 ± 1.1 (of 5). Qualitative data on program importance highlighted four response categories including "changed habits", "mental wellbeing", "provided resources", and "other". In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many individuals have struggled. Meal assistance programs are a fundamental asset in the community that have seen marketed demand since COVID-19. Collaboration with, and evaluation of, meal assistance programs can be valuable for continued programmatic funding support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Adult , Child , Female , Food Supply , Humans , Income , Meals , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12281, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, telecommuting has become a new way of working that has not only changed individuals' work, but also their health and lifestyle. We examined the relationship between telecommuting frequency and unhealthy dietary habits among Japanese workers. METHODS: A total of 33,302 workers completed an Internet survey about telecommuting and dietary habits. Data from 13,468 office workers who telecommuted were analyzed. Telecommuting frequency during the COVID-19 pandemic was extracted from a questionnaire. The odds ratios (ORs) of four types of dietary habits, namely, skipping breakfast, solitary eating, lower meal frequency, and meal substitution associated with telecommuting frequency were estimated using multilevel logistic regression nested in the prefecture of residence to control for differences in residential area. RESULTS: The multivariate OR of skipping breakfast was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.03-1.29, p = .013) for participants who telecommuted in excess of four days per week compared to those who rarely telecommuted. Similarly, the OR of solitary eating, lower meal frequency and meal substitution were 1.44 (95% CI: 1.28-1.63, p < .001), 2.39 (95% CI: 1.66-3.44, p < .001), and 1.26 (95% CI: 1.04-1.51, p = .015) for those who telecommuted in excess of four days per week compared to those who rarely telecommuted. There was a statistically significant increase in the dose-response trend in ORs of solitary eating (p for trend <.001), lower meal frequency (p for trend <.001), and meal substitution (p for trend = .001) with increasing telecommuting frequency. CONCLUSION: Telecommuters may develop unhealthy dietary habits, indicating the need for strategies to help telecommuters manage their nutrition and diet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Feeding Behavior , Meals , Teleworking/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio
20.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0248925, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406748

ABSTRACT

Pre-emptive school closures are frontline community mitigation measures recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for implementation during severe pandemics. This study describes the spatiotemporal patterns of publicly announced school closures implemented in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and assesses how public K-12 districts adjusted their methods of education delivery and provision of subsidized meals. During February 18-June 30, 2020, we used daily systematic media searches to identify publicly announced COVID-19-related school closures lasting ≥1 day in the United States (US). We also collected statewide school closure policies from state government websites. Data on distance learning and subsidized meal programs were collected from a stratified sample of 600 school districts. The first COVID-19-associated school closure occurred on February 27, 2020 in Washington state. By March 30, 2020, all but one US public school districts were closed, representing the first-ever nearly synchronous nationwide closure of public K-12 schools in the US. Approximately 100,000 public schools were closed for ≥8 weeks because of COVID-19, affecting >50 million K-12 students. Of 600 districts sampled, the vast majority offered distance learning (91.0%) and continued provision of subsidized meal programs (78.8%) during the closures. Despite the sudden and prolonged nature of COVID-19-associated school closures, schools demonstrated flexibility by implementing distance learning and alternate methods to continue subsidized meal programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Food Assistance , Schools , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Meals , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
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