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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(16): 561-568, 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811603

ABSTRACT

State and local school vaccination requirements serve to protect students against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report summarizes data collected for the 2020-21 school year by state and local immunization programs* on vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten in 47 states and the District of Columbia (DC), exemptions for kindergartners in 48 states and DC, and provisional enrollment or grace period status for kindergartners in 28 states. Vaccination coverage† nationally was 93.9% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); 93.6% for the state-required number of doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); and 93.6% for the state-required doses of varicella vaccine. Compared with the 2019-20 school year, vaccination coverage decreased by approximately one percentage point for all vaccines. Although 2.2% of kindergartners had an exemption from at least one vaccine,§ an additional 3.9% who did not have a vaccine exemption were not up to date for MMR. The COVID-19 pandemic affected schools' vaccination requirement and provisional enrollment policies, documentation, and assessment activities. As schools continue to return to in-person learning, enforcement of vaccination policies and follow-up with undervaccinated students are important to improve vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Child , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Pandemics , Schools , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 689458, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775809

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This analysis examines governorate-level disease incidence as well as the relationship between incidence and the number of persons of concern for three vaccine-preventable diseases-measles, mumps, and rubella-between 2001 and 2016. METHODS: Using Iraqi Ministry of Health and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) data, we performed descriptive analyses of disease incidence and conducted a pooled statistical analysis with a linear mixed effects regression model to examine the role of vaccine coverage and migration of persons of concern on subnational disease incidence. RESULTS: We found large variability in governorate-level incidence, particularly for measles (on the order of 100x). We identified decreases in incident measles cases per 100,000 persons for each additional percent vaccinated (0.82, 95% CI: [0.64, 1.00], p-value < 0.001) and for every additional 10,000 persons of concern when incorporating displacement into our model (0.26, 95% CI: [0.22, 0.30], p-value < 0.001). These relationships were insignificant for mumps and rubella. CONCLUSIONS: National level summary statistics do not adequately capture the high geospatial disparity in disease incidence between 2001 and 2016. This variability is complicated by MMR vaccine coverage and the migration of "persons of concern" (refugees) during conflict. We found that even when vaccine coverage was constant, measles incidence was higher in locations with more displaced persons, suggesting conflict fueled the epidemic in ways that vaccine coverage could not control.


Subject(s)
Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Humans , Iraq/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Mumps/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/prevention & control , Vaccination
4.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(3): 455-466, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694520

ABSTRACT

We describe a measles outbreak among previously vaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs) and inpatients and the control measures implemented at a tertiary care hospital in 2019. Case-patients were laboratory-confirmed measles with throat swabs tested by quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCR), during April-May 2019. Medical histories and documented immunization records were obtained. We compared attack rates (ARs) among HCWs by occupational subgroup and age and examined the outbreak-associated costs. The index case was not ascertained. Among 26 measles case-patients (22 HCWs, four inpatients) aged 18-28 years, 25 had previously received measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (12/26, 46% (two doses); 13/26, 50% (one dose)), and 16 (62%) had positive results of measles IgG prior to measles diagnosis. ARs were higher among HCWs aged < 30 years (1.88%), especially in the subgroup under 25 years of age (2.22%). Control measures included work restrictions for seronegative HCWs (218/2320, 9.4%) in immunity verification, administration of the MMR vaccine (207 HCWs) or intravenous immunoglobulin (2 HCWs and 11 inpatients), enhanced health surveillance of HCWs, and mandatory assessment of patients with measles-like symptoms at the infectious diseases screening units. The hospital spent 90,417,132 Korean won (US $79,733) in response to the outbreak. Measles outbreaks can occur in healthcare settings despite high population immunity, highlighting the importance of stronger vaccination policies, particularly among young HCWs. Moreover, an effective outbreak response comprising immunization activities and enhanced surveillance of HCWs and patients to rapidly detect measles-like symptoms at a prodromal phase is essential to control nosocomial measles outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Measles , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
5.
Vaccine ; 40(6): 837-840, 2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586278

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted routine vaccinations for children and adolescents. However, it remains unclear whether the impact has been different for children and adolescents from low-income families. To address this, we compared monthly routine vaccination use per 1000 vaccine-eligible children and adolescents enrolled in Louisiana Medicaid in the years before (2017-2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). Compared to the 2017-2019 average vaccination rates, we found a 28% reduction in measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), a 35% reduction in human papillomavirus (HPV), and a 30% reduction in tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap) vaccinations in 2020. Vaccine uptake was lower in April 2020 after the declaration of a state of emergency and in late summer when back-to-school vaccinations ordinarily occur. We found little evidence of recovery in later months. Our findings suggest that a substantial number of disadvantaged children may experience longer periods of vulnerability to preventable infections because of missed vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Immunization , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Medicaid , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1237, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the social isolation measures adopted in an attempt to mitigate the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, there has been a reduction in vaccination coverage of children and adolescents in several countries and regions of the world. OBJECTIVE: Analyze the number of doses of vaccine against Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) applied before and after the beginning of mitigation measures due to COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. METHODS: The data collected refer to the number of doses of the MMR vaccine applied monthly to the target population residing in Brazil: cahildren, aged 12 months (first dose) and children, aged 9 years (second dose), from April 2019 to December 2020. Differences in MMR vaccine doses from April 2019 to March 2020 (before the start of mitigation measures) and April 2020 to September 2020 (after the start of the mitigation measures) were evaluated. Spatial analysis identified clusters with a high percentage of reduction in the median of applied doses no Brazil. RESULTS: There was a reduction in the median of doses applied in the Regions North (- 33.03%), Northeast (- 43.49%) and South (- 39.01%) e nos Estados Acre (- 48.46%), Amazonas (- 28.96%), Roraima (- 61.91%), Paraíba (- 41.58%), Sergipe (- 47.52%), Rio de Janeiro (-59.31%) and Santa Catarina (- 49.32) (p < 0.05). High-high type spatial clusters (reduction between 34.00 and 90.00%) were formed in the five regions of Brazil (Moran's I = 0.055; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: A reduction in the number of MMR vaccine doses was evidenced as a possible effect by the restrictive actions of COVID-19 in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Infant , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Vaccine ; 40(2): 183-186, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537111

ABSTRACT

We retrieved data on 8940 anaphylaxis cases post-COVID-19 vaccination from the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and the European EudraVigilance from week 52/2020 through week 31/2021 and compared them with those of other vaccines. Overall, 837,830,000 COVID-19 vaccine doses were delivered in the US and Europe during the study period, for which the vaccine name was known. The mean anaphylaxis rate was estimated at 10.67 cases per 106 doses of COVID-19 vaccines (range: 7.99-19.39 cases per 106 doses depending on the vaccine). COVID-19 vaccines ranked fifth in reported anaphylaxis rates, behind rabies, tick-borne encephalitis, measles-mumps-rubella-varicella, and human papillomavirus vaccines (70.77, 20, 19.8, and 13.65 cases per 106 vaccine doses, respectively). COVID-19 vaccines are within the range of anaphylaxis rates reported across several common vaccines in these two passive reporting systems. These data should be communicated to reassure the general population about the safety profile of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Infant , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/adverse effects , Mumps Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Health Commun ; 26(9): 608-617, 2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441831

ABSTRACT

YouTube videos have been used to inform and misinform the public about the safety of vaccines related to health threats such as measles and COVID-19. Understanding how such videos can promote the sharing of accurate vaccine safety information is of the utmost importance if health researchers are to combat the spread of misinformation and encourage widespread uptake of vaccines. Through the lens of prospect theory, this study conducted a 2 (framing: loss v. gain) x 2 (evidence type: episodic v. thematic) x 2 (speaker expertise: expert v. non-expert) between-subject factorial experiment in which a sample of N = 400 US adults over the age of 18 recruited through MTurk were asked their intention to share vaccine safety information with others after watching a manipulated YouTube video. The results showed that loss framing was associated with perceived MMR severity which was, in turn, associated with the likelihood that participants would share MMR vaccine information with others, via any means. However, this process varied depending on the type of evidence delivered, and the expertise of the speaker. Results and limitations are discussed in the context of vaccine communication and social media.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Adult , Humans , Information Dissemination , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/adverse effects , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e205, 2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413043

ABSTRACT

On 16-17 January 2020, four suspected mumps cases were reported to the local Public Health Authorities with an epidemiological link to a local school and football club. Of 18 suspected cases identified, 14 were included in this study. Laboratory results confirmed mumps virus as the cause and further sequencing identified genotype G. Our findings highlight that even with a high MMR vaccine coverage, mumps outbreaks in children and young adults can occur. Since most of the cases had documented immunity for mumps, we hypothesise that waning immunity or discordant mumps virus strains are likely explanations for this outbreak.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Mumps virus/immunology , Mumps/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/genetics , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Mumps/prevention & control , Mumps/virology , Mumps virus/genetics , Mumps virus/pathogenicity , Portugal/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
11.
Neurology ; 97(16): 767-775, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394514

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a global effort to rapidly develop and deploy effective and safe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations. Vaccination has been one of the most effective medical interventions in human history, although potential safety risks of novel vaccines must be monitored, identified, and quantified. Adverse events must be carefully assessed to define whether they are causally associated with vaccination or coincidence. Neurologic adverse events following immunizations are overall rare but with significant morbidity and mortality when they occur. Here, we review neurologic conditions seen in the context of prior vaccinations and the current data to date on select COVID-19 vaccines including mRNA vaccines and the adenovirus-vector COVID-19 vaccines, ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S Johnson & Johnson (Janssen/J&J).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccination/trends , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Poliovirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(9): 1059-1063, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348017

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Development of the SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine and its update on an ongoing pandemic is the first subject of the world health agenda. AREAS COVERED: First, we will scrutinize the biological features of the measles virus (MV), variola virus (smallpox virus), influenza virus, and their vaccines to compare them with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and vaccine. Next, we will discuss the statistical details of measuring the effectiveness of an improved vaccine. EXPERT OPINION: Amidst the pandemic, we ought to acknowledge our prior experiences with respiratory viruses and vaccines. In the planning stage of observational Phase-III vaccine effectiveness studies, the sample size, sampling method, statistical model, and selection of variables are crucial in obtaining high-quality and valid results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Mass Vaccination/methods , Measles virus/immunology , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Smallpox Vaccine/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Variola virus/immunology
13.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(9): 1051-1057, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327291

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is a globalized health concern caused by a beta-coronavirus named Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since December 2019, when this outbreak flared in Wuhan, China, COVID-19 cases have been continuously rising all over the world. Due to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 mutants, subsequent waves are flowing in a faster manner as compared to the primary wave, which is more contagious and causing higher mortality. Recently, India has emerged as the new epicenter of the second wave by mutants of SARS-CoV-2. After almost eighteen months of this outbreak, some COVID-19 dedicated therapeutics and vaccines are available, and a few are under trial, but the situation is still uncontrolled. AREA COVERED: This perspective article covers the repurposing of childhood vaccines like Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR), and Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), which are live attenuated vaccines and have been shown the protective effect through 'trained immunity and 'crossreactivity.' EXPERT OPINION: This perspective article has suggested that combinatorial use of these childhood vaccines might exert a better protective effect along with the available COVID-19 therapeutic and vaccines which could be considered as a preventive option against SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as its subsequent waves.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Repositioning/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Yellow Fever Vaccine/immunology
14.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4414-4418, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesised that the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine may afford cross-protection against SARS-CoV-2 which may contribute to the wide variability in disease severity of Covid-19. METHODS: We employed a test negative case-control study, utilising a recent measles outbreak during which many healthcare workers received the MMR vaccine, to investigate the potential protective effect of MMR against SARS-CoV-2 in 5905 subjects (n = 805 males, n = 5100 females). RESULTS: The odds ratio for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, in recently MMR-vaccinated compared to not recently MMR-vaccinated individuals was 0.91 (95% CI 0.76, 1.09). An interaction analysis showed a significant interaction for sex. After sex-stratification, the odds ratio for testing positive for males was 0.43 (95% CI 0.24, 0.79, P = 0.006), and 1.01 (95% CI 0.83, 1.22, P = 0.92) for females. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that there may be a protective effect of the MMR vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in males but not females.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Measles/prevention & control , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
Vaccine ; 39(28): 3696-3716, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the safety of vaccines is critical to inform decisions about vaccination. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of the safety of vaccines recommended for children, adults, and pregnant women in the United States. METHODS: We searched the literature in November 2020 to update a 2014 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality review by integrating newly available data. Studies of vaccines that used a comparator and reported the presence or absence of key adverse events were eligible. Adhering to Evidence-based Practice Center methodology, we assessed the strength of evidence (SoE) for all evidence statements. The systematic review is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020180089). RESULTS: Of 56,603 reviewed citations, 338 studies reported in 518 publications met inclusion criteria. For children, SoE was high for no increased risk of autism following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. SoE was high for increased risk of febrile seizures with MMR. There was no evidence of increased risk of  intussusception with rotavirus vaccine at the latest follow-up (moderate SoE), nor of diabetes (high SoE). There was no evidence of increased risk or insufficient evidence for key adverse events for newer vaccines such as 9-valent human papillomavirus and meningococcal B vaccines. For adults, there was no evidence of increased risk (varied SoE) or insufficient evidence for key adverse events for the new adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccine and recombinant adjuvanted zoster vaccine. We found no evidence of increased risk (varied SoE) for key adverse events among pregnant women following tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine, including stillbirth (moderate SoE). CONCLUSIONS: Across a large body of research we found few associations of vaccines and serious key adverse events; however, rare events are challenging to study. Any adverse events should be weighed against the protective benefits that vaccines provide.


Subject(s)
Diphtheria , Measles , Mumps , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/adverse effects , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
16.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(7): 811-826, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258699

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Measles, mumps, and rubella incidence decreased drastically following vaccination programs' implementation. However, measles and mumps' resurgence was recently reported, outbreaks still occur, and challenges remain to control these diseases. AREAS COVERED: This qualitative narrative review provides an objective appraisal of the literature regarding current challenges in controlling measles, mumps, rubella infections, and interventions to address them. EXPERT OPINION: While vaccines against measles, mumps, and rubella (including trivalent vaccines) are widely used and effective, challenges to control these diseases are mainly related to insufficient immunization coverage and changing vaccination needs owing to new global environment (e.g. traveling, migration, population density). By understanding disease transmission peculiarities by setting, initiatives are needed to optimize vaccination policies and increase vaccination coverage, which was further negatively impacted by COVID-19 pandemic. Also, awareness of the potential severity of infections and the role of vaccines should increase. Reminder systems, vaccination of disadvantaged, high-risk and difficult-to-reach populations, accessibility of vaccination, healthcare infrastructure, and vaccination services management should improve. Outbreak preparedness should be strengthened, including implementation of high-quality surveillance systems to monitor epidemiology. While the main focus should be on these public health initiatives to increase vaccination coverage, slightly more benefits could come from evolution of current vaccines.


PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARYWhat is the context?Measles, mumps, and rubella are highly contagious diseases associated with significant medical and societal burden. Effective vaccines against these diseases are available, and the implementation of vaccination programs drastically reduced disease incidence globally. However, reports of measles and mumps outbreaks in the last few years highlight remaining challenges to eliminate these diseases.What does the review highlight?We conducted a literature review to identify challenges associated with controlling measles, mumps, and rubella infections, and interventions needed to address them. We identified 11 challenges mainly related to low immunization coverage and vaccine characteristics. Societal challenges could be addressed by increasing awareness of disease severity and vaccines impact, targeting high-risk, unvaccinated, and under-vaccinated populations, improving vaccination access, setting up clear outbreak preparedness plans, and implementing country-specific vaccination policies. System weaknesses could be addressed through improving vaccination services and health infrastructure, implementing high-quality surveillance, patient invite, and reminder systems, ensuring vaccine implementation and long-term supply. Interventions related to vaccine characteristic challenges could include adaptation of vaccination schedules (shorter interval between doses, administration of a third dose) and development of vaccines against emerging strains.What is the take-home message?Policymakers should support the following strategies to increase vaccination coverage and reach elimination of measles, mumps, and rubella: strengthening health systems and vaccination access; raising awareness of disease severity and vaccination impact; limiting disease propagation owing to global changing environment and population dynamics (traveling, migration); improving surveillance systems to rapidly address the immunity gaps against disease resurgence.


Subject(s)
Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/prevention & control , Rubella/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage/methods , Vaccination/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/psychology , Mumps/epidemiology , Mumps/psychology , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e114, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209457

ABSTRACT

In November 2017, eight confirmed measles cases were reported to Public Health England from a hospital in the West Midlands. A multidisciplinary Incident Management Team (IMT) was established to determine the extent of the problem and coordinate an outbreak response. Between 1 November 2017 and 4 June 2018, a total of 116 confirmed and 21 likely measles cases were linked to this outbreak; just under half (43%) were aged over 15 years of age. Fifty-five of the confirmed cases were hospitalised (48%) and no deaths were reported. At the start of the outbreak, cases were mostly individuals of Romanian origin; the outbreak subsequently spread to the wider population. Over the 8-month response, the IMT conducted the following control measures: extensive contact tracing, immediate provision of post-exposure prophylaxis, community engagement amongst specific high-risk groups, MMR awareness raising including catch-up campaigns and enhanced vaccination services at selected GP surgeries. Key challenges to the effective control measures included language difficulties limiting community engagement; delays in diagnosis, notification and appropriate isolation of cases; limited resources for contact tracing across multiple high-risk settings (including GPs and hospitals) and lack of timely data on vaccine coverage in sub-groups of the population to guide public health action.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , England/epidemiology , Female , Health Communication , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Male , Measles/transmission , Measles virus , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Young Adult
19.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 47-53, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incidence and severity of SARS-CoV2 infection are significantly lower in children and teenagers proposing that certain vaccines, routinely administered to neonates and children may provide cross-protection against this emerging infection. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cross-protection induced by prior measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccinations against COVID-19. METHODS: The antibody responses to MMR and tetanus vaccines were determined in 53 patients affected with SARS-CoV2 infection and 52 age-matched healthy subjects. Serum levels of antibodies specific for NP and RBD of SARS-CoV2 were also determined in both groups of subjects with ELISA. RESULTS: Our results revealed significant differences in anti-NP (P<0.0001) and anti-RBD (P<0.0001) IgG levels between patients and healthy controls. While the levels of rubella- and mumps specific IgG were not different in the two groups of subjects, measles-specific IgG was significantly higher in patients (P<0.01). The serum titer of anti-tetanus antibody, however, was significantly lower in patients compared to healthy individuals (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that measles vaccination triggers those B cells cross-reactive with SARS-CoV2 antigens leading to the production of increased levels of measles-specific antibody.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Middle Aged , Tetanus Toxoid/immunology , Tetanus Toxoid/therapeutic use
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