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1.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 47-53, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incidence and severity of SARS-CoV2 infection are significantly lower in children and teenagers proposing that certain vaccines, routinely administered to neonates and children may provide cross-protection against this emerging infection. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cross-protection induced by prior measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccinations against COVID-19. METHODS: The antibody responses to MMR and tetanus vaccines were determined in 53 patients affected with SARS-CoV2 infection and 52 age-matched healthy subjects. Serum levels of antibodies specific for NP and RBD of SARS-CoV2 were also determined in both groups of subjects with ELISA. RESULTS: Our results revealed significant differences in anti-NP (P<0.0001) and anti-RBD (P<0.0001) IgG levels between patients and healthy controls. While the levels of rubella- and mumps specific IgG were not different in the two groups of subjects, measles-specific IgG was significantly higher in patients (P<0.01). The serum titer of anti-tetanus antibody, however, was significantly lower in patients compared to healthy individuals (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that measles vaccination triggers those B cells cross-reactive with SARS-CoV2 antigens leading to the production of increased levels of measles-specific antibody.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Middle Aged , Tetanus Toxoid/immunology , Tetanus Toxoid/therapeutic use
2.
Sci Prog ; 105(2): 368504221105172, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909995

ABSTRACT

Despite the development and deployment of effective COVID-19 vaccines, many regions remain poorly covered. Seeking alternative tools for achieving immunity against COVID-19 remains to be of high importance. "Trained immunity" is the nonspecific immune response usually established through administering live attenuated vaccines and is a potential preventive tool against unrelated infections. Evidence regarding a possible protective role for certain live attenuated vaccines against COVID-19 has emerged mainly for those administered as part of childhood vaccination protocols. This review summarizes the relevant literature about the potential impact of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccines on COVID-19. Existing available data suggest a potential role for BCG and MMR in reducing COVID-19 casualties and burden. However, more investigation and comparative studies are required for a better understanding of their impact on COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mumps , Rubella , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use , Mumps/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Rubella/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated/therapeutic use
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4741, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104539

ABSTRACT

Clinical studies are ongoing to assess whether existing vaccines may afford protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection through trained immunity. In this exploratory study, we analyze immunization records from 137,037 individuals who received SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests. We find that polio, Haemophilus influenzae type-B (HIB), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), Varicella, pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13), Geriatric Flu, and hepatitis A/hepatitis B (HepA-HepB) vaccines administered in the past 1, 2, and 5 years are associated with decreased SARS-CoV-2 infection rates, even after adjusting for geographic SARS-CoV-2 incidence and testing rates, demographics, comorbidities, and number of other vaccinations. Furthermore, age, race/ethnicity, and blood group stratified analyses reveal significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 rate among black individuals who have taken the PCV13 vaccine, with relative risk of 0.45 at the 5 year time horizon (n: 653, 95% CI (0.32, 0.64), p-value: 6.9e-05). Overall, this study identifies existing approved vaccines which can be promising candidates for pre-clinical research and Randomized Clinical Trials towards combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Haemophilus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization , Infant , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Male , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Poliovirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccines, Conjugate/therapeutic use , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/therapeutic use , Young Adult
7.
ACS Infect Dis ; 6(7): 1624-1634, 2020 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-506087

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. This novel coronavirus disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has resulted in severe and unprecedented social and economic disruptions globally. Since the discovery of COVID-19 in December 2019, numerous antivirals have been tested for efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and also clinically to treat this disease. This review article discusses the main antiviral strategies currently employed and summarizes reported in vitro and in vivo efficacies of key antiviral compounds in use.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Repositioning , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use , Mice , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Virus Replication/drug effects
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