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Front Immunol ; 12: 680506, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325529


It has been proven that post-vaccination immunity to measles virus after two doses of vaccine is not able to persistently protect against infection throughout life. The goal of this research was to determine the immune layer to the measles virus among women in labor and maternity ward personnel in the same medical institution. The levels of IgG antibodies to measles virus in the umbilical cord blood of 594 women in labor and 88 workers of the maternity ward were studied by ELISA. It was revealed that 22.7% of umbilical cord blood serum samples from parturient women and 21.4% of blood serum samples from maternity ward personnel were seronegative (<0.18 IU/ml). Levels of IgG antibodies to measles virus in low values (<1.0 IU/ml) were detected in 67% of blood serum samples among women in labor and 68.9% among employees of the maternity ward. Among women in labor, women under 35 years of age are at the highest risk of contracting measles; the proportion of women with low levels of protective antibodies in this age group was almost 70%, and the proportion of women without protective levels of antibodies was 23%. Compared with the age group 36-43, the age of women in labor under 35 was associated with a higher chance of not having immune protection against infection with measles virus OR [95% CI] = 2.2 [1.1-4.5] (p = 0.02) or had a low level of protection OR [95% CI] = 1.9 [1.2-3.0] (p = 0.001). It was also found that among women over 35 years of age, the proportion of persons with a high level of antibodies in women in labor was statistically significantly higher than among members of the maternity ward staff (13 and 0%, respectively, p = 0.007). Thus, maternity ward employees and women in labor constitute a risk group for measles due to the presence of a high proportion of seronegative persons among women of childbearing age (both maternity ward employees and women in labor). These conditions create the need to revise current approaches to present vaccination procedures, especially in the current epidemiological situation with COVID-19.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , Measles virus/immunology , Measles/prevention & control , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Distribution , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Measles/blood , Measles Vaccine/immunology , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult
BMC Med ; 19(1): 35, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061076


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine measles immunisation and supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) in most countries including Kenya. We assessed the risk of measles outbreaks during the pandemic in Kenya as a case study for the African Region. METHODS: Combining measles serological data, local contact patterns, and vaccination coverage into a cohort model, we predicted the age-adjusted population immunity in Kenya and estimated the probability of outbreaks when contact-reducing COVID-19 interventions are lifted. We considered various scenarios for reduced measles vaccination coverage from April 2020. RESULTS: In February 2020, when a scheduled SIA was postponed, population immunity was close to the herd immunity threshold and the probability of a large outbreak was 34% (8-54). As the COVID-19 contact restrictions are nearly fully eased, from December 2020, the probability of a large measles outbreak will increase to 38% (19-54), 46% (30-59), and 54% (43-64) assuming a 15%, 50%, and 100% reduction in measles vaccination coverage. By December 2021, this risk increases further to 43% (25-56), 54% (43-63), and 67% (59-72) for the same coverage scenarios respectively. However, the increased risk of a measles outbreak following the lifting of all restrictions can be overcome by conducting a SIA with ≥ 95% coverage in under-fives. CONCLUSION: While contact restrictions sufficient for SAR-CoV-2 control temporarily reduce measles transmissibility and the risk of an outbreak from a measles immunity gap, this risk rises rapidly once these restrictions are lifted. Implementing delayed SIAs will be critical for prevention of measles outbreaks given the roll-back of contact restrictions in Kenya.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine/supply & distribution , Measles/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Measles/blood , Measles/complications , Vaccination Coverage