Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Filter
1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(2): e288-e292, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586171

ABSTRACT

Measles virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are two important global health pathogens causing substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The current measles vaccination schedule has the first dose given at 9-12 months of age and the second dose given at 15-18 months of age. Measles outbreaks have been associated with an increase in severe RSV infections in children younger than 6 months, probably as a result of measles-induced immunosuppression. A resurgence in measles cases was already occurring before the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected global immunisation programmes, resulting in millions of children, mostly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), missing out on their measles vaccine. This will leave many children living in the most vulnerable of circumstances highly susceptible to measles and RSV infections when current COVID-19 public health control measures are lifted. This Viewpoint discusses these issues and highlights the need for urgent action to address this looming crisis. The use of early measles vaccination at 4 months of age could be an effective strategy to prevent severe morbidity and death from both measles and RSV infections in many LMICs.


Subject(s)
Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Global Health , Humans , Immunocompetence/immunology , Measles/complications , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 177(9): 1059-1068, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, non-treatable and fatal neurological complication of measles, still present due to the return of the epidemic linked to the loosening of vaccination policies. Its mechanism remains unexplained. OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to investigate explanatory variables relating to the risk of developing SSPE and its pathophysiology. METHODS: Literature analysis was focused on different varieties of SSPE: perinatal forms, short-incubation forms similar to acute measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE), rapidly evolving forms, forms occurring in the immunosuppressed, adult forms, and family forms. In addition, several studies on the parameters of innate immunity and interferon responses of patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Two main data were highlighted: a relationship between the so-called fulminant forms and the prescription of corticosteroids was established. In familial SSPE, two groups were individualized according to the duration of the latency period, prompting an analysis of patient exomes. CONCLUSION: Treatment with corticosteroids should be banned. Knowledge of the genes involved and epigenetics should be useful for understanding the pathophysiology of SSPE and other late-onset neurological infections with RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , Measles , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adult , Female , Humans , Measles/complications , Measles/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis/diagnosis , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis/epidemiology , Vaccination
4.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 2, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067273

ABSTRACT

Measles is a highly contagious disease. A 24 years old patient, recently exposed to measles (unvaccinated), presented in the emergency department with severe agitation, compatible with an acute psychotic episode, during the measles epidemic which spread in Israel in 2018-2019. Upon hospital admission, strict isolation was instructed, yet, without compliance, probably due to the patient's status. Measles diagnosis was promptly confirmed. As measles transmission was eminent, public health measures were employed through immediate implementation of the section 15 of the Public Health Ordinance, allowing for compulsory short-term isolation. The patient's condition improved within a few days and the measures were no longer necessary. This measles case occurred in the pre-Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic when use of a Public Health Ordinance was considered an extreme measure. This is in contrast to the current global use of Public Health laws to enforce strict quarantine and isolation on persons infected or potentially exposed to COVID-19. Nevertheless, minimizing infectious diseases transmission is a core function of public health law. Utilizing legal enforcement in circumstances of immediate public health hazard, such as nosocomial measles transmission, necessitates careful consideration. The integrative clinical and public health approach and prompt measures employed in this exceptional case, led to prevention of further infection spread.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control , Patient Isolation/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Acute Disease , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Measles/complications , Measles/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Psychotic Disorders/therapy , Young Adult
5.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 35, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine measles immunisation and supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) in most countries including Kenya. We assessed the risk of measles outbreaks during the pandemic in Kenya as a case study for the African Region. METHODS: Combining measles serological data, local contact patterns, and vaccination coverage into a cohort model, we predicted the age-adjusted population immunity in Kenya and estimated the probability of outbreaks when contact-reducing COVID-19 interventions are lifted. We considered various scenarios for reduced measles vaccination coverage from April 2020. RESULTS: In February 2020, when a scheduled SIA was postponed, population immunity was close to the herd immunity threshold and the probability of a large outbreak was 34% (8-54). As the COVID-19 contact restrictions are nearly fully eased, from December 2020, the probability of a large measles outbreak will increase to 38% (19-54), 46% (30-59), and 54% (43-64) assuming a 15%, 50%, and 100% reduction in measles vaccination coverage. By December 2021, this risk increases further to 43% (25-56), 54% (43-63), and 67% (59-72) for the same coverage scenarios respectively. However, the increased risk of a measles outbreak following the lifting of all restrictions can be overcome by conducting a SIA with ≥ 95% coverage in under-fives. CONCLUSION: While contact restrictions sufficient for SAR-CoV-2 control temporarily reduce measles transmissibility and the risk of an outbreak from a measles immunity gap, this risk rises rapidly once these restrictions are lifted. Implementing delayed SIAs will be critical for prevention of measles outbreaks given the roll-back of contact restrictions in Kenya.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine/supply & distribution , Measles/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Measles/blood , Measles/complications , Vaccination Coverage
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL