Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 81
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875808

ABSTRACT

Despite the existence of an effective live-attenuated vaccine, measles can appear in vaccinated individuals. We investigated breakthrough measles cases identified during our surveillance activities within the measles/rubella surveillance network (MoRoNet) in Milan and surrounding areas (Northern Italy). Between 2017 and 2021, we confirmed measles virus (genotypes B3 or D8) infections in 653 patients and 51 of these (7.8%) were vaccinees. Among vaccinated individuals whose serum was available, a secondary failure was evidenced in 69.4% (25/36) of cases while 11 patients (30.6%) were non-responders. Non-responders were more frequently hospitalized and had significantly lower Ct values in both respiratory and urine samples. Median age and time since the last immunization were similar in the two groups. Importantly, we identified onward transmissions from vaccine failure cases. Vaccinees were involved in 20 outbreaks, in 10 of them they were able to transmit the virus, and in 8 of them, they were the index case. Comparing viral hemagglutinin sequences from vaccinated and non-vaccinated subjects did not show a specific mutation pattern. These results suggest that vaccination failure was likely due to the poor immune response of single individuals and highlights the importance of identifying breakthrough cases and characterizing their clinical and virologic profiles.


Subject(s)
Measles , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine , Measles virus/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875702

ABSTRACT

Measles is an RNA virus infectious disease mainly seen in children. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine against measles, it remains a health issue in children. Although it is a self-limiting disease, it becomes severe in undernourished and immune-compromised individuals. Measles infection is associated with secondary infections by opportunistic bacteria due to the immunosuppressive effects of the measles virus. Recent reports highlight that measles infection erases the already existing immune memory of various pathogens. This review covers the incidence, pathogenesis, measles variants, clinical presentations, secondary infections, elimination of measles virus on a global scale, and especially the immune responses related to measles infection.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Measles , Child , Humans , Incidence , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control
3.
Vaccine ; 40(26): 3676-3683, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852210

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles, have been re-emerging in countries with moderate to high vaccine uptake. It is increasingly important to identify and close immunity gaps and increase coverage of routine childhood vaccinations, including two doses of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR). Here, we present a simple cohort model relying on a Bayesian approach to evaluate the evolution of measles seroprevalence in Belgium using the three most recent cross-sectional serological survey data collections (2002, 2006 and 2013) and information regarding vaccine properties. We find measles seroprevalence profiles to be similar for the different regions in Belgium. These profiles exhibit a drop in seroprevalence in birth cohorts that were offered vaccination at suboptimal coverages in the first years after routine vaccination has been started up. This immunity gap is observed across all cross-sectional survey years, although it is more pronounced in survey year 2013. At present, the COVID-19 pandemic could negatively impact the immunization coverage worldwide, thereby increasing the need for additional immunization programs in groups of children that are impacted by this. Therefore, it is now even more important to identify existing immunity gaps and to sustain and reach vaccine-derived measles immunity goals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Bayes Theorem , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Mumps/prevention & control , Pandemics , Rubella/prevention & control , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
4.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 33 Suppl 27: 58-60, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840508

ABSTRACT

Allergic individuals at risk for hypersensitivity reactions to measles vaccine marketed for a long time are well established. On the other hand, risk factors for hypersensitivity reactions to the new mRNA COVID-19 vaccines currently include a history of allergy, allergy to excipient of the vaccine, or hypersensitivity reactions to the first dose of COVID-19 vaccine. In the last two cases, the recipient should be assessed by an allergist before vaccination to share a decision on the choice of vaccination. Studies on skin testing accuracy and desensitization protocols to the COVID-19 vaccines and the efficacy of potential alternatives in patients with confirmed hypersensitivity reactions to the first COVID-19 vaccine are necessary to improve the safety of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Measles , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Measles/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
5.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 48: 102348, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819613

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has promoted stringent public health measures such as hand hygiene, face mask wearing, and physical distancing to contain the spread of the viral infection. In this retrospective study, the secondary outcomes of those public health measures on containing other respiratory infections among the Thai population were investigated. Hospitalization data spanning from 2016 to 2021 of six respiratory infectious diseases, namely influenza, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, scarlet fever, and tuberculosis (TB), were examined. First, the expected respiratory infectious cases where no public health measures are in place are estimated using the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Then the expected number of cases and the observed cases were compared. The results showed a significant drop in the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases by an average of 61%. The reduction in hospitalization is significant for influenza, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, and scarlet fever (p < 0.05), while insignificant for TB (p = 0.54). The notable decrease in the incidence of cases is ascribed to the implementation of public health measures that minimized the opportunity for spread of disease. This decline in cases following relaxation of pandemic countermeasure is contingent on its scope and nature, and it is proof that selective physical distancing, hand hygiene, and use of face masks in public places is a viable route for mitigating respiratory morbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , Measles , Scarlet Fever , Whooping Cough , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Scarlet Fever/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/epidemiology
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 104, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789672

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the COVID-19 outbreak was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the WHO on the 30th January 2020. The occurrence of measles outbreaks in the context of COVID-19, both highly infectious respiratory illnesses, impacts additional challenges to the health system in a state with an ongoing humanitarian crisis. This article documents the implementation of an outbreak response immunization (ORI) during the COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of global guidelines for mass vaccination. Methods: a retrospective review of the response to measles outbreak implemented in Borno state across six local government areas (LGAs) in 2019 was conducted. This review assessed the utilization of the World Health Organization (WHO) decision making framework, measles and COVID-19 epidemiological reports and the measle's vaccination response data. Results: an outbreak response immunization was implemented in six LGAs in Borno State, with a validated post campaign coverage of 96.3% (95% CI: 93.0 - 98.1). In total, 181,634 children aged 9 months-9 years were vaccinated with 27,961 (15.4%) receiving the measles vaccine for the first time. Prior to the interventions, 20 COVID-19 cases were reported in the six LGAs while only seven suspected cases were reported with only two cases confirmed in one of the six LGAs four weeks after the ORI. Conclusion: the WHO decision-making framework for implementing mass vaccinations in the context of the COVID-19 Pandemic was utilized for the outbreak response immunization in Borno State, Nigeria with 181,634 children aged 9 Months-9 years vaccinated with the measles vaccine. The use of the WHO decision-making framework to assess risk benefits of initiating mass vaccination campaigns remains a very important practical tool. These types of responses in Nigeria and other low and middle income countries (LMICs), with hitherto suboptimal immunization coverage and weak health systems and other settings, affected by humanitarian emergencies is essential in the achievement of the regional measle's elimination targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Programs , Infant , Mass Vaccination , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Vaccination
7.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(1): 71-73, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776447

ABSTRACT

India, as a member of the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region, had committed to measles elimination by 2020. Efforts to increase immunization coverage, special immunization activities, and case-based surveillance have been implemented rigorously over the last 7 years, but India has not been able to eliminate measles. Multiple factors led to this namely inadequate vaccination coverage and COVID pandemic and others. The pandemic added its contribution in disruption of vaccine delivery services under Intensified Mission Indradhanush preventing the achievement of the elimination target, in stipulated time. India may need to think beyond strengthening the routine immunization activities and increasing the geographical coverage under Intensified Mission Indradhanush. Promising the future in the measles vaccine delivery system in the form of Measles-Micro-Array-Patches is seen on the horizon may prove to be a game-changer for targeting measles elimination, in the current decade.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Humans , Immunization Programs , India/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine , Population Surveillance , Vaccination
8.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776352

ABSTRACT

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a late complication of measles virus infection that occurs in previously healthy children. This disease has no specific cure and is associated with a high degree of disability and mortality. In recent years, there has been an increase in its incidence in relation to a reduction in vaccination adherence, accentuated by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we take stock of the current evidence on SSPE and report our personal clinical experience. We emphasise that, to date, the only effective protection strategy against this disease is vaccination against the measles virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles virus , Pandemics , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis/epidemiology , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis/etiology , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776196

ABSTRACT

Due to the current burden of COVID-19 on public health institutions, increased migration and seasonal touristic traveling, there is an increased risk of epidemic outbreaks of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR). The aim of the present study was to analyze the epidemiological data on MMR immunization coverage and the number of measles cases in 2001-2019 in Croatia and a number of European countries. Results revealed a decreasing trend in vaccination in 2001-2019 throughout Europe. However, Croatia and Hungary still have the highest primary and revaccination coverage, compared to other analyzed countries. The highest number of measles cases was in 2017 in Romania. There was no significant correlation between the percentage of primary vaccination and the number of measles cases (r = -0.0528, p = 0.672), but there was a significant negative correlation between the percentage of revaccination and the number of measles cases (r = -0.445, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the results of the present study emphasize the necessity to perform a full protocol of vaccination to reach appropriate protection from potential epidemic outbreaks. Furthermore, in the light of present migrations, documenting the migrants' flow and facilitating vaccination as needed is of utmost importance to prevent future epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Croatia/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Europe , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/epidemiology , Vaccination
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 689458, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775809

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This analysis examines governorate-level disease incidence as well as the relationship between incidence and the number of persons of concern for three vaccine-preventable diseases-measles, mumps, and rubella-between 2001 and 2016. METHODS: Using Iraqi Ministry of Health and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) data, we performed descriptive analyses of disease incidence and conducted a pooled statistical analysis with a linear mixed effects regression model to examine the role of vaccine coverage and migration of persons of concern on subnational disease incidence. RESULTS: We found large variability in governorate-level incidence, particularly for measles (on the order of 100x). We identified decreases in incident measles cases per 100,000 persons for each additional percent vaccinated (0.82, 95% CI: [0.64, 1.00], p-value < 0.001) and for every additional 10,000 persons of concern when incorporating displacement into our model (0.26, 95% CI: [0.22, 0.30], p-value < 0.001). These relationships were insignificant for mumps and rubella. CONCLUSIONS: National level summary statistics do not adequately capture the high geospatial disparity in disease incidence between 2001 and 2016. This variability is complicated by MMR vaccine coverage and the migration of "persons of concern" (refugees) during conflict. We found that even when vaccine coverage was constant, measles incidence was higher in locations with more displaced persons, suggesting conflict fueled the epidemic in ways that vaccine coverage could not control.


Subject(s)
Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Humans , Iraq/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Mumps/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/prevention & control , Vaccination
11.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(6): 853-859, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to estimate vaccination and susceptibility rates against vaccine-preventable diseases among healthcare personnel (HCP) in eight hospitals. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: A total of 1284 HCP participated (physicians: 31.3%, nursing personnel: 36.6%, paramedical personnel: 11.1%, administrative personnel: 13.2%, supportive personnel: 7.3%). Vaccination rates were 32.9% against measles and mumps, 38.1% against rubella, 5.7% against varicella, 9.2% against hepatitis A, 65.8% against hepatitis B, 31.8% against tetanus-diphtheria, 7.1% against pertussis, 60.2% against influenza, and 80.1% against COVID-19. Susceptibility rates were as follows: 27.8% for measles, 39.6% for mumps, 33.4% for rubella, 22.2% for varicella, 86.3% for hepatitis A, 34.2% for hepatitis B, 68.2% for tetanus-diphtheria, and 92.9% for pertussis. Older HCP had higher susceptibility rates against mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus-diphtheria, and pertussis (p-values <0.001 for all). Mandatory vaccinations were supported by 81.85% of HCP. CONCLUSIONS: Although most HCPs supported mandatory vaccinations, significant vaccination gaps, and susceptibility rates were recorded. The proportion of susceptible HCP to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella has increased in the past decade, mostly because of reduction in acquired cases of natural illness. Vaccination programs for HCP should be developed. A national registry to follow HCP's vaccination rates is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Diphtheria , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Tetanus , Whooping Cough , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
12.
14.
Lancet ; 399(10325): 678-690, 2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721141

ABSTRACT

Measles is a highly contagious, potentially fatal, but vaccine-preventable disease caused by measles virus. Symptoms include fever, maculopapular rash, and at least one of cough, coryza, or conjunctivitis, although vaccinated individuals can have milder or even no symptoms. Laboratory diagnosis relies largely on the detection of specific IgM antibodies in serum, dried blood spots, or oral fluid, or the detection of viral RNA in throat or nasopharyngeal swabs, urine, or oral fluid. Complications can affect many organs and often include otitis media, laryngotracheobronchitis, pneumonia, stomatitis, and diarrhoea. Neurological complications are uncommon but serious, and can occur during or soon after the acute disease (eg, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) or months or even years later (eg, measles inclusion body encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis). Patient management mainly involves supportive therapy, such as vitamin A supplementation, monitoring for and treatment of secondary bacterial infections with antibiotics, and rehydration in the case of severe diarrhoea. There is no specific antiviral therapy for the treatment of measles, and disease control largely depends on prevention. However, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine, measles is still endemic in many countries and causes considerable morbidity and mortality, especially among children in resource-poor settings. The low case numbers reported in 2020, after a worldwide resurgence of measles between 2017 and 2019, have to be interpreted cautiously, owing to the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on disease surveillance. Disrupted vaccination activities during the pandemic increase the potential for another resurgence of measles in the near future, and effective, timely catch-up vaccination campaigns, strong commitment and leadership, and sufficient resources will be required to mitigate this threat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mass Vaccination/standards , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/immunology , Measles/virology , Measles virus/immunology , Measles virus/pathogenicity , Pandemics/prevention & control
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 221, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the 2015 earthquake, a measles-rubella (MR) supplementary immunization activity (SIA), in four phases, was implemented in Nepal in 2015-2016. A post-campaign coverage survey (PCCS) was then conducted in 2017 to assess SIA performance and explore factors that were associated with vaccine uptake. METHODS: A household survey using stratified multi-stage probability sampling was conducted to assess coverage for a MR dose in the 2015-2016 SIA in Nepal. Logistic regression was then used to identify factors related to vaccine uptake. RESULTS: Eleven thousand two hundred fifty-three households, with 4870 eligible children provided information on vaccination during the 2015-2016 MR SIA. Overall coverage of measles-rubella vaccine was 84.7% (95% CI: 82.0-87.0), but varied between 77.5% (95% CI: 72.0, 82.2) in phase-3, of 21 districts vaccinated in Feb-Mar 2016, to 97.7% (CI: 95.4, 98.9) in phase-4, of the last seven mountainous districts vaccinated in Mar-Apr 2016. Coverage in rural areas was higher at 85.6% (CI: 81.9, 88.8) than in urban areas at 79.0% (CI: 75.5, 82.1). Of the 4223 children whose caregivers knew about the SIA, 96.5% received the MR dose and of the 647 children whose caregivers had not heard about the campaign, only 1.8% received the MR dose. CONCLUSIONS: The coverage in the 2015-2016 MR SIA in Nepal varied by geographical region with rural areas achieving higher coverage than urban areas. The single most important predictor of vaccination was the caregiver being informed in advance about the vaccination campaign. Enhanced efforts on social mobilization for vaccination have been used in Nepal since this survey, notably for the most recent 2020 MR campaign.


Subject(s)
Measles , Rubella , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine , Nepal/epidemiology , Rubella/prevention & control , Rubella Vaccine , Vaccination
16.
Vaccine ; 40(20): 2884-2893, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701291

ABSTRACT

In 2020, National Immunization Programme (NIP) of Nepal implemented a measles outbreak response immunization (ORI) campaign, which was additional to an ongoing preventive measles-rubella SIA campaign. Both campaigns were implemented during ongoing COVID-19 transmission. By April, 220 measles cases and two deaths were confirmed from eight districts of Nepal. The NIP triangulated information from surveillance (measles and COVID-19), measles immunization performance and immunity profile, programme capacities and community engagement and applied a logical decision-making framework to the collated data to inform 'Go/No-Go' decisions for ORI interventions. This was reviewed by the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC) for endorsement. Outbreak response with non-selective immunization (ORI), vitamin-A administration and case management were implemented in affected municipalities of four districts, while in the remaining districts outbreak response without ORI were undertaken. The structure and iterative application of this logical framework has been described. ORI was implemented without interrupting the ongoing measles-rubella vaccination campaign which had targeted children from 9 to 59 months of age. The age group for ORI was same as SIA in one sub-district area, while for the other three sub-district areas it was from 6 months to 15 years of age. More than 32,000 persons (97% coverage) were vaccinated in ORI response. Overall measles incidence decreased by 98% after ORI. The daily incidence rate of measles was 94 times higher (95% confidence interval: 36.11 - 347.62) before the ORI compared to two weeks after ORI until year end. Close attention to surveillance and other data to inform actions and seamless collaboration between NIP and core immunization partners (WHO, UNICEF), with guidance from NIAC were key elements in successful implementation. This was an example of feasible application of the global framework for implementation of a mass vaccination campaign during COVID-19 through application of a simple decision-making logical framework.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Rubella , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Nepal/epidemiology , Rubella/prevention & control
17.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(3): 455-466, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694520

ABSTRACT

We describe a measles outbreak among previously vaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs) and inpatients and the control measures implemented at a tertiary care hospital in 2019. Case-patients were laboratory-confirmed measles with throat swabs tested by quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCR), during April-May 2019. Medical histories and documented immunization records were obtained. We compared attack rates (ARs) among HCWs by occupational subgroup and age and examined the outbreak-associated costs. The index case was not ascertained. Among 26 measles case-patients (22 HCWs, four inpatients) aged 18-28 years, 25 had previously received measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (12/26, 46% (two doses); 13/26, 50% (one dose)), and 16 (62%) had positive results of measles IgG prior to measles diagnosis. ARs were higher among HCWs aged < 30 years (1.88%), especially in the subgroup under 25 years of age (2.22%). Control measures included work restrictions for seronegative HCWs (218/2320, 9.4%) in immunity verification, administration of the MMR vaccine (207 HCWs) or intravenous immunoglobulin (2 HCWs and 11 inpatients), enhanced health surveillance of HCWs, and mandatory assessment of patients with measles-like symptoms at the infectious diseases screening units. The hospital spent 90,417,132 Korean won (US $79,733) in response to the outbreak. Measles outbreaks can occur in healthcare settings despite high population immunity, highlighting the importance of stronger vaccination policies, particularly among young HCWs. Moreover, an effective outbreak response comprising immunization activities and enhanced surveillance of HCWs and patients to rapidly detect measles-like symptoms at a prodromal phase is essential to control nosocomial measles outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Measles , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263871, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686108

ABSTRACT

We use German KiGGS data to add to existing knowledge about trends in vaccination-related attitudes and behavior. Looking at vaccinations against measles, we assess whether a low confidence in vaccination and vaccination complacency is particularly prevalent among parents whose children were born somewhat recently, as compared to parents whose children belong to earlier birth cohorts. We further analyze how these attitudes relate to vaccination rates in the corresponding birth cohorts, and which sociodemographic subgroups are more likely to have vaccination-hesitant attitudes and to act upon them. Results show that the share of parents who report "deliberate" reasons against vaccination has decreased across birth cohorts; at the same time, the children of these parents have become less likely to be vaccinated. This suggests that vaccination-hesitant parents became more willing to act upon their beliefs towards the turn of the millennium. Regarding efforts to convince parents and the public about the benefits of vaccination, the number of parents who think that vaccinations have serious side effects, or that it is better for a child to live through a disease, may have become smaller-but these parents are more determined to follow their convictions. Interestingly, the trend we describe started before the Internet became a widespread source of health-related information.


Subject(s)
Measles/prevention & control , Parents/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Databases, Factual , Female , Germany , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infant , Male , Vaccination/trends
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 87, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667708

ABSTRACT

During January 2018-June 2020, Aweil East confirmed five measles outbreaks. In March 2020, Aweil East reported twenty measles IgM+ cases. Before this outbreak, Aweil East had confirmed an outbreak in late November 2019. Even after conducting outbreak reactive vaccinations (ORV) in December 2019 and February 2020, measles spread was not interrupted. The nationally supported measles follow-up campaign (MFUC) conducted in late February 2020 was deferred in Aweil East because of the February ORV. We reviewed the measles data collected through passive and active surveillance. A matched case-control study was conducted to evaluate potential exposures. Face-to-face interviews with cases and controls using a semi-structured questionnaire were used to collect demographics, disease, and exposures related data. A total of 687 cases with eight deaths; attack and case fatality rate of 123/100,000 population and 1.16%, respectively. Among the cases, 51.8% were male, the median age was four years, and 59% of cases ≥9 months were unvaccinated. Eighty point six percent (80.6%) of cases reported after the February ORV were unvaccinated. The outbreak peaked in late March 2020. Unvaccinated persons had higher odds of getting measles (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=8.569; 95% CI [1.41- 53.4], p=0.02). Non exposed persons had a lower odd of getting measles (AOR=0.114; 95% CI [0.02-0.61], p=0.011). During 2018-2019, the accumulated number of unvaccinated children (18,587) is more than a birth cohort of the county. Persistent low routine vaccination is the most critical driver of the measles outbreaks. Low-quality ORV and the intermediate population density are secondary drivers of the outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Measles , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Male , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , South Sudan
20.
Med Anthropol Q ; 36(1): 119-138, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626709

ABSTRACT

This article contributes to anthropological debates surrounding borderlands and biosecurity by tracing the multiple pursuits of protection that emerge between the state and minorities during infectious disease outbreaks. Drawing on an ethnographic study of child health in Jerusalem following epidemics of measles and COVID-19, the article demonstrates how responses to public health interventions are less about compliance or indiscipline than a competing pursuit of immunity to preserve religious lifeworlds. The voices of Orthodox Jews are situated alongside printed broadsides that circulated anonymous truth-claims in Jerusalem neighborhoods. These broadsides cast state intervention against historical narratives of deception and ethical failures. Borderland tensions, like a virus, mutate and influence responses to authority and biosecurity, and they reconfigure vernacular entanglements of religion, state, and health. The article encourages anthropologists to consider responses to public health interventions and non-vaccination beyond a COVID-19 silo, as part of situated relations between states and minority populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Anthropology, Medical , Child , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Public Health
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL