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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0186222, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019795

ABSTRACT

In 2020 and 2021, many meat processing plants faced temporary closures due to outbreaks of COVID-19 cases among the workers. There are several factors that could potentially contribute to the increased numbers of COVID-19 cases in meat processing plants: the survival of viable SARS-CoV-2 on meat and meat packaging materials, difficulties in maintaining workplace physical distancing, personal hygiene, and crowded living and transportation conditions. In this study, we used murine hepatitis virus (MHV) as a biosafety level 2 (BSL2) surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 to determine viral survival on the surface of meat, namely, stew-cut beef and ground beef, and commonly used meat packaging materials, such as plastic wrap, meat-absorbent material, and Styrofoam. From our studies, we observed the infectivity of MHV inoculated on ground beef and stew-cut beef for 48 h and saw no significant loss in infectivity for MHV from 0 to 6 h postinoculation (hpi) (unpaired t test). However, beginning at 9 hpi, viral infectivity steadily decreased, resulting in a 1.12-log reduction for ground beef and a 0.46-log reduction for stew-cut beef by 48 hpi. We also observed a significant persistence of MHV on meat packaging materials, with Styrofoam supporting the highest viability (3.25 × 103 ± 9.57 × 102 PFU/mL, a 0.91-log reduction after 48 hpi), followed by meat-absorbent material (75 ± 50 PFU/mL, a 1.10-log reduction after 48 hpi), and lastly, plastic wrap (no detectable PFU after 3 hpi, a 3.12-log reduction). Despite a notable reduction in infectivity, the virus was able to survive and remain infectious for up to 48 h at 7°C on four of the five test surfaces. Our results provide evidence that coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, could potentially survive on meat, meat-absorbent materials. and Styrofoam for up to 2 days, and potentially longer. IMPORTANCE The meat industry has been faced with astronomical challenges with the rampant spread of COVID-19 among meat processing plant workers. This has resulted in meat processing and packaging plant closures, creating bottlenecks everywhere in the chain, from farms to consumers, subsequently leading to much smaller production outputs and higher prices for all parties involved. This study tested the viability of meat and meat packaging materials as potential reservoirs for SARS-CoV-2, allowing the virus to survive and potentially spread among the workers. We used murine hepatitis virus (MHV) as a biosafety level 2 (BSL2) surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. Our results suggest that ground beef, stew-cut beef, meat-absorbent material, and Styrofoam can harbor coronavirus particles, which can remain viable for at least 48 h. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that the environmental and physical conditions within meat processing facilities can facilitate the survival of viable virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Viruses , Mice , Cattle , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Containment of Biohazards , Polystyrenes , Meat
2.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270146, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933358

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence beef meat exports in Tanzania, with a particular focus on the years 1985 to 2020, in enhancing the development of beef meat export-oriented policy in Tanzania, thereby enhancing beef exports in Tanzania. A time-series panel dataset was analyzed using both descriptive statistics and ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression analyses models. As per the descriptive analyses, beef meat exports reached the highest pick of 4,300 tons per year in 1990, whereas from 1991 to date, beef meat exportation in Tanzania has been in declining trends despite an increase in beef meat output and trade openness from 162,500 to 486,736 tons and 7.6 to 98.7%, respectively. Nevertheless, while the prospect of Tanzanian beef meat exports appears bright and promising, the industry will continue to encounter trade barriers and must stay competitive to produce enough volume and quality beef meat to meet the needs of its existing and expanding markets. This is because, Tanzanian beef meat competes for market share with beef meat from other countries in the global markets, where customers pay a premium for lines of beef meat that meet quality standards while discarding those that do not. This indicates that the quantity of beef meat produced has no relevance to its world market share, but its quality standards do. Furthermore, the econometric results revealed that the coefficients of the terms of trade, Tanzania GDP per capita, global beef meat consumption, trade openness, and beef meat outputs were found to be significantly positive (P < 0.05) influencing beef meat exports in Tanzania, whereas the trading partners' GDP per capita and exchange rate were not. The findings have varying implications as to what factors need to be addressed to further improve beef meat exports. From the farmer's perspective, better access to adequate funds as a result of increased income benefit from export will assist in improving beef cattle productivity and quality to compete effectively in the global markets. From the government's perspective, because trade openness promotes economic growth through export benefits, the Tanzania government and policymakers need to establish balanced policies to strengthen bilateral trade relationships to generate more opportunities in global markets.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , Meat , Animals , Cattle , Industry , Meat/analysis , Policy , Tanzania
3.
J Bioeth Inq ; 19(2): 301-314, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906500

ABSTRACT

Meat is a multi-billion-dollar industry that relies on people performing risky physical work inside meat-processing facilities over long shifts in close proximity. These workers are socially disempowered, and many are members of groups beset by historic and ongoing structural discrimination. The combination of working conditions and worker characteristics facilitate the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Workers have been expected to put their health and lives at risk during the pandemic because of government and industry pressures to keep this "essential industry" producing. Numerous interventions can significantly reduce the risks to workers and their communities; however, the industry's implementation has been sporadic and inconsistent. With a focus on the U.S. context, this paper offers an ethical framework for infection prevention and control recommendations grounded in public health values of health and safety, interdependence and solidarity, and health equity and justice, with particular attention to considerations of reciprocity, equitable burden sharing, harm reduction, and health promotion. Meat-processing workers are owed an approach that protects their health relative to the risks of harms to them, their families, and their communities. Sacrifices from businesses benefitting financially from essential industry status are ethically warranted and should acknowledge the risks assumed by workers in the context of existing structural inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Meat , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
4.
Poult Sci ; 101(6): 101849, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900091

ABSTRACT

Influence of marine mineral complex (CeltiCal) as a partial substitute for limestone on growth efficiency, carcass traits, meat quality, bone strength, calcium (Ca) retention, and immune response was investigated in broilers fed low-Ca diets with or without phytase (PHY) addition for a 35-d trial period. A total of 300 one-day-old Ross 308 straight-run broilers were randomly allocated to: T1 (positive control), recommended Ca levels + PHY; T2 (negative control), 0.2% below the recommended Ca levels + PHY; T3, 0.1% below the recommended Ca levels + 0.2% CeltiCal + PHY; T4, 0.2% below the recommended Ca levels + 0.4% CeltiCal + PHY; T5, 0.2% below the recommended Ca levels + 0.4% CeltiCal. PHY was added at 500 phytase units/kg diets. Each dietary treatment had 10 replications of 6 chicks each. Results revealed that production efficiency factor was greater for T4 compared to T2 and T5 during 22-35 d and for T1, T3, and T4 compared to T2 during 0 to 35 d (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio was lower for T3 and T4 compared to T2 and T5 during 0 to 35 d (P < 0.05). T4 had a greater (P < 0.05) dressing percentage than T2, which had a lighter (P < 0.01) small intestinal relative weight than all other treatments. Breast meat temperature at 15 min postmortem was highest for T1 and lowest for T3 (P < 0.001). Breast meat pH was greater for T1 compared to T5 at 15 min postmortem and for T3 compared to T4 at 24 h postmortem (P < 0.05). T5 had a lower breast meat redness than all other treatments at 15 min postmortem and then T1 and T3 at 24 h postmortem (P < 0.01). Tibia and femur weights were greater (P < 0.05) for T3, T4, and T5 compared to T2, which had the lowest tibia ash content (P < 0.05) and femur geometric properties (P < 0.001). Greater antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus (P < 0.01) and Ca retention (P < 0.001) were observed for T3 and T4 in comparison to T2. Based on the findings of this research, CeltiCal can adequately replace a considerable portion of limestone in broiler reduced-Ca diets containing PHY.


Subject(s)
6-Phytase , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Calcium , Calcium Carbonate , Calcium, Dietary , Chickens , Diet/veterinary , Dietary Supplements , Immunity , Meat , Minerals
5.
Meat Sci ; 192: 108894, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895323

ABSTRACT

Against the backdrop of meat production and consumption being increasingly contested, this paper presents a narrative descriptive review of (reductions in) meat consumption in the Netherlands and Belgium with a focus on trends during the period 2010-2020. Based on household panel purchasing data and supply balance sheet data as proxies, our analysis shows that meat consumption in the Netherlands is relatively stable, based on supply balance sheet data, despite an estimated annual decrease of around 250 g per capita per year based on household panel purchasing data. Meanwhile, household purchasing panel data for Belgium show a more steady and stronger decline with an annual decrease of slightly >1 kg per capita per year over the past decade, as well as more fluctuations based on supply balance sheet data. The 'Covid-year' 2020 displays a distinct pattern in both countries which deserves further exploration. Both countries face growing shares of (self-declared) flexitarians (ranging from around or above 30% in Belgium to 40% or more in the Netherlands depending on the data source and its definition of flexitarians) and consumers who claim to intend reducing their meat consumption in the future. The analysis reveals important differences in research methodologies, sample compositions, and analytical techniques. Such differences raise caveats for direct comparison between countries and impose challenges for the (European) monitoring of the so-called 'protein transition'. Although some change is occurring, the data suggest that meat reduction calls resonate still more in terms of people's attitudes, awareness, and intentions than in overt dietary behavioral change. Overall, our findings provide reason to conclude that the established meat-centered food system and its dominant meat-eating culture are still prevailing in the Low Countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Attitude , Consumer Behavior , Diet , Humans , Meat
6.
Meat Sci ; 192: 108879, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882356

ABSTRACT

Among Asian countries, Japan has the shortest history of eating meat in its food culture. It was only after 2007 that household fresh meat consumption surpassed fresh fish consumption in Japan. Although it was forecast that slowing population and economic growth would limit the demand for meat, household meat consumption in 2020 increased remarkably from that in 2019, perhaps due to COVID-19. Meat consumption has regional variations within Japan attributable to historical background. Japanese consumers prefer domestically produced meat and focus on the visual characteristics of meat, in particular marbling. Extrinsic factors such as information also contribute to Japanese consumers' meat choices more than the quality of the meat. Although Japanese consumers are concerned about the safety of meat, reassurance from appropriate inspection will restore their purchasing intention. Novel factors such as animal welfare and environment-friendly production are also recognized in Japan. Also notable is that wild animal meat consumption is beginning to increase in recent years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Attitude , Consumer Behavior , Japan , Meat/analysis
7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(12): e0050422, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879112

ABSTRACT

Multiple pathways of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission have been examined, and the role of contaminated foods as a source of SARS-CoV-2 exposure has been suggested. As many cases of SARS-CoV-2 have been linked to meat processing plants, it may be that conditions in live animal markets and slaughterhouses or meat processing plant procedures transfer viral particles to meat, poultry, and seafood during animal slaughter, processing, storage, or transport. Because of the potential for contamination of foods such as beef, chicken, pork, or fish, the goal of this study was to evaluate the survival of a lipid enveloped RNA bacteriophage, phi 6, as well as two animal coronaviruses, murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), as SARS-CoV-2 surrogates for their survival under various meat and fish cold-storage conditions over 30 days. Viral surrogates differed in survival, depending on food product and temperature, but overall, viruses survived for extended periods of time at high concentrations at both refrigerated and frozen temperatures. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 viral surrogates like Phi 6 and animal coronaviruses to survive for varying extents on some meat and fish products when stored refrigerated or frozen is a significant and concerning finding. Continued efforts are needed to prevent contamination of foods and food processing surfaces, worker hands, and food processing utensils such as knives, and there is a need to better address the lack of or inadequate disinfection of these foods prior to meat packaging. IMPORTANCE The ability of SARS-CoV-2 viral surrogates like Phi 6 and animal coronaviruses to survive for long periods on meat and fish products at cold temperatures emphasizes the need for rigorous and sustained food sanitation and hygiene in the harvest, transport, processing, and distribution of these foods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , Cattle , Fish Products , Meat , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(5)2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875531

ABSTRACT

The growing demand for and supply of meat and meat products has led to a proportional increase in cases of meat adulteration. Adulterated meat poses serious economic and health consequences globally. Current laboratory methods for meat species identification require specialized equipment with limited field applications. This study developed an inexpensive, point-of-care Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)-CRISPR/Cas12a colorimetric assay to detect meat species using a Texas Red-labelled single-strand (ssDNA) reporter. As low as 1.0 pg/µL of the porcine NADH4, the chicken NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) and the duck D-loop genes was detectable under white, blue and ultraviolet light. The test turnaround time from DNA extraction to visualization was approximately 40 min. The assay accurately detected pure and mixed-meat products in the laboratory (n = 15) and during a pilot point-of-care test (n = 8) in a food processing factory. The results are 100% reproducible using lateral flow detection strips and the real-time PCR detection instrument. This technology is fully deployable and usable in any standard room. Thus, our study demonstrates that this method is a straightforward, specific, sensitive, point-of-care test (POCT) adaptable to various outlets such as customs, quarantine units and meat import/export departments.


Subject(s)
Meat Products , Animals , Chickens/genetics , Ducks , Meat/analysis , Point-of-Care Testing , Swine
9.
Biomolecules ; 12(5)2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855504

ABSTRACT

Global food systems are under significant pressure to provide enough food, particularly protein-rich foods whose demand is on the rise in times of crisis and inflation, as presently existing due to post-COVID-19 pandemic effects and ongoing conflict in Ukraine and resulting in looming food insecurity, according to FAO. Cultivated meat (CM) and cultivated seafood (CS) are protein-rich alternatives for traditional meat and fish that are obtained via cellular agriculture (CA) i.e., tissue engineering for food applications. Stem and progenitor cells are the building blocks and starting point for any CA bioprocess. This review presents CA-relevant vertebrate cell types and procedures needed for their myogenic and adipogenic differentiation since muscle and fat tissue are the primary target tissues for CM/CS production. The review also describes existing challenges, such as a need for immortalized cell lines, or physical and biochemical parameters needed for enhanced meat/fat culture efficiency and ways to address them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Agriculture , Animals , Fishes , Humans , Meat , Stem Cells
10.
Vet Q ; 42(1): 48-67, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815728

ABSTRACT

Natural antioxidants applied as feed additives can improve not only animals' health and overall performance but also increase their resistance to environmental stress such as heat stress, bad housing conditions, diseases, etc. Marine organisms, for example seaweeds - red, brown, and green macroalgae contain a plethora of biologically active substances, including phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, pigments, vitamins, micro- and macroelements, and proteins known for their antioxidant activity, which can help in the maintenance of appropriate redox status in animals and show pleiotropic effects for enhancing good health, and productivity. The dysregulated production of free radicals is a marked characteristic of several clinical conditions, and antioxidant machinery plays a pivotal role in scavenging the excessive free radicals, thereby preventing and treating infections in animals. Supplementation of seaweeds to animal diet can boost antioxidant activity, immunity, and the gut environment. Dietary supplementation of seaweeds can also enhance meat quality due to the deposition of marine-derived antioxidant components in muscles. The use of natural antioxidants in the meat industry is a practical approach to minimize or prevent lipid oxidation. However, overconsumption of seaweeds, especially brown macroalgae, should be avoided because of their high iodine content. An important point to consider when including seaweeds in animal feed is their variable composition which depends on the species, habitat, location, harvest time, growing conditions such as nutrient concentration in water, light intensity, temperature, etc. This review highlights the beneficial applications of seaweeds and their extracted compounds, which have antioxidant properties as feed additives and impact animal health and production.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Seaweed , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Meat
11.
Euro Surveill ; 27(13)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775603

ABSTRACT

Meat processing plants have been prominent hotspots for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreaks around the world. We describe infection prevention measures and risk factors for infection spread at a meat processing plant in Germany with a COVID-19 outbreak from April to June 2020. We analysed a cohort of all employees and defined cases as employees with either a PCR or ELISA positive result. Of 1,270 employees, 453 (36%) had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The highest attack rates were observed in meat processing and slaughtering areas. Multivariable analysis revealed that being a subcontracted employee (adjusted risk ratio (aRR)): 1.43, 95% CI: 1.06-1.96), working in the meat cutting area (aRR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.45-4.48), working in the slaughtering area (aRR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.32-4.45) and being a veterinary inspector (aRR: 4.77, 95% CI: 1.16-23.68) increased infection risk. Sharing accommodation or transportation were not identified as risk factors for infection. Our results suggest that workplace was the main risk factor for infection spread. These results highlight the importance of implementing preventive measures targeting meat processing plants. Face masks, distancing, staggering breaks, increased hygiene and regular testing for SARS-CoV2 helped limit this outbreak, as the plant remained open throughout the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Meat , RNA, Viral , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Environ Manage ; 313: 115001, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768301

ABSTRACT

The material flow cost accounting (MFCA) is one of the most broadly standardized tools accepted in environmental, social and economic research, which traces and quantifies material flows and stock in physical and economic units. Although its application has been recently developed in the field of resource and waste management, few academic articles have investigated its value towards food waste management, which represents a topical concern on a global scale. The present research applies the MFCA to investigate the material, energetic and economic costs associated with the Italian beef, pork and poultry production, exploring related challenges and opportunities towards the enhancement of the environmental entrepreneurship in the meat sector. The present countryside analysis is based on literature and empirical data collected during the Covid-19 pandemic. It highlights the need to improve knowledge on food waste issue under the economic perspective and its dual impact: when it is generated, in terms of income losses due to by-products and finished products sales failure, and when it is disposed, in terms of disposal costs sustained by farms, processing plants and distribution and sales centers. It is estimated that more than 0.45-0.50 Mt of fresh meat is wasted along the entire Italian agri-food chain, equal to more than 242-268 million euros, to which additional energy and water losses should be added (435-481 million euros). MFCA results are useful for business decisions, highlighting quantities, qualities and costs otherwise not considered in common financial reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refuse Disposal , Animals , Cattle , Entrepreneurship , Humans , Meat , Pandemics
13.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(4): 904-912, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe meat consumption rationalisation and relationships with meat consumption patterns and food choice motivations in New Zealand adolescents. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of adolescents from high schools across New Zealand. Demographics, dietary habits, and motivations and attitudes towards food were assessed by online questionnaire and anthropometric measurements taken by researchers. The 4Ns questionnaire assessed meat consumption rationalisation with four subscales: 'Nice', 'Normal', 'Necessary' and 'Natural'. SETTING: Nineteen secondary schools from eight regions in New Zealand, with some purposive sampling of adolescent vegetarians in Otago, New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: Questionnaires were completed by 385 non-vegetarian and vegetarian (self-identified) adolescents. RESULTS: A majority of non-vegetarian adolescents agreed that consuming meat was 'nice' (65 %), but fewer agreed that meat consumption was 'necessary' (51 %). Males agreed more strongly than females with all 4N subscales. High meat consumers were more likely to agree than to disagree that meat consumption was nice, normal, necessary and natural, and vegetarians tended to disagree with all rationalisations. Adolescent non-vegetarians whose food choice was motivated more by convenience, sensory appeal, price and familiarity tended to agree more with all 4N subscales, whereas adolescents motivated by animal welfare and environmental concerns were less likely to agree. CONCLUSIONS: To promote a reduction in meat consumption in adolescents, approaches will need to overcome beliefs that meat consumption is nice, normal, necessary and natural.


Subject(s)
Diet, Vegetarian , Meat , Adolescent , Animals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Food Preferences , Humans , Male , New Zealand
14.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742566

ABSTRACT

Background: Based on our recently reported associations between specific dietary behaviors and the risk of COVID-19 infection in the UK Biobank (UKB) cohort, we further investigate whether these associations are specific to COVID-19 or extend to other respiratory infections. Methods: Pneumonia and influenza diagnoses were retrieved from hospital and death record data linked to the UKB. Baseline, self-reported (2006-2010) dietary behaviors included being breastfed as a baby and intakes of coffee, tea, oily fish, processed meat, red meat (unprocessed), fruit, and vegetables. Logistic regression estimated the odds of pneumonia/influenza from baseline to 31 December 2019 with each dietary component, adjusting for baseline socio-demographic factors, medical history, and other lifestyle behaviors. We considered effect modification by sex and genetic factors related to pneumonia, COVID-19, and caffeine metabolism. Results: Of 470,853 UKB participants, 4.0% had pneumonia and 0.2% had influenza during follow up. Increased consumption of coffee, tea, oily fish, and fruit at baseline were significantly and independently associated with a lower risk of future pneumonia events. Increased consumption of red meat was associated with a significantly higher risk. After multivariable adjustment, the odds of pneumonia (p ≤ 0.001 for all) were lower by 6-9% when consuming 1-3 cups of coffee/day (vs. <1 cup/day), 8-11% when consuming 1+ cups of tea/day (vs. <1 cup/day), 10-12% when consuming oily fish in higher quartiles (vs. the lowest quartile-Q1), and 9-14% when consuming fruit in higher quartiles (vs. Q1); it was 9% higher when consuming red meat in the fourth quartile (vs. Q1). Similar patterns of associations were observed for influenza but only associations with tea and oily fish met statistical significance. The association between fruit and pneumonia risk was stronger in women than in men (p = 0.001 for interaction). Conclusions: In the UKB, consumption of coffee, tea, oily fish, and fruit were favorably associated with incident pneumonia/influenza and red meat was adversely associated. Findings for coffee parallel those we reported previously for COVID-19 infection, while other findings are specific to these more common respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coffee , Diet/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Meat , Seafood
15.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(3): 578-590, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740385

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diets high in red and processed meat (RPM) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, greenhouse gas emissions and the global burden of chronic disease. High-profile reports have called for significant global RPM reduction, especially in high-income settings. Despite this, policy attention and political priority for the issue are low. DESIGN: The study used a theoretically guided framing analysis to identify frames used by various interest groups in relation to reducing RPM in online news media articles published in the months around the release of four high-profile reports by authoritative organisations that included a focus on the impacts of high RPM production and/or consumption. SETTING: Four major RPM producing and consuming countries - USA, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: None. RESULTS: Hundred and fifty news media articles were included. Articles reported the views of academics, policymakers, industry representatives and the article authors themselves. RPM reduction was remarkably polarising. Industry frequently framed RPM reduction as part of a 'Vegan Agenda' or as advocated by an elite minority. Reducing RPM was also depicted as an infringement on personal choice and traditional values. Many interest groups attempted to discredit the reports by citing a lack of consensus on the evidence, or that only certain forms of farming and processing were harmful. Academics and nutrition experts were more likely to be cited in articles that were aligned with the findings of the reports. CONCLUSIONS: The polarisation of RPM reduction has led to a binary conflict between pro- and anti-meat reduction actors. This division may diminish the extent to which political leaders will prioritise this in policy agendas. Using nuanced and context-dependent messaging could ensure the narratives around meat are less conflicting and more effective in addressing health and environmental harms associated with RPM.


Subject(s)
Greenhouse Gases , Red Meat , Animals , Cattle , Diet , Humans , Mass Media , Meat
16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(6): 773-778, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Migrant populations in high-income countries have faced myriad health and social inequities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Migrants often work in frontline essential services that expose them to COVID-19. Migrant workers in meat processing plants have endured large COVID-19 outbreaks across multiple countries. OBJECTIVES: We examine current scientific evidence around COVID-19 transmission, outcomes, and prevention for migrant workers and highlight meat processing plants as an example. SOURCES: We performed a series of PubMed searches between January 1, 2020 and January 12, 2022. CONTENT: Migrant workers in high-income countries often work in occupations at high risk for COVID-19 transmission, contract COVID-19 at higher rates, and experience worse outcomes than native-born counterparts. For example, meat processing plants represent almost ideal environments for rapid and large-scale SARS-CoV-2 viral transmission; often, large migrant workforces confined to small workspaces perform physically demanding work in noisy environments that require shouting to communicate, increasing workers' respiratory rates and the quantity of aerosolized droplets expelled and thus increasing viral transmission risk. Although enhanced vaccination outreach programs remain an important equity approach for migrant worker safety, they alone are insufficient. The emergence and rapid spread of multiple increasingly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern with variable vaccine escape properties, including Omicron in November 2021, highlight the importance of improved infection prevention and control strategies to protect migrant workers. Across countries, strategies such as improving ventilation and mask quality in many high-risk occupational settings are already required by employment law. Universal mandatory vaccination program should also be considered. IMPLICATIONS: COVID-19 transmission prevention for migrant workers requires an aggressive multicomponent plan that includes (a) improved on-site ventilation and infection prevention and control strategies; (b) improved social supports such as paid sick leave; (c) mobile vaccination clinics and community engagement to overcome vaccine hesitancy and barriers; and (d) consideration of universal mandatory vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Meat , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Meat Sci ; 187: 108748, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683423

ABSTRACT

Stated levels of concerns regarding different aspects of beef and its supply chain in the U.S. were studied for a representative sample of 1275 U.S. residents. In addition to top concerns, frequency of general beef consumption and different beef subprimal cuts were collected. Sixty-two percent of respondents indicated eating beef at least twice per week; ground beef was the most frequently purchased beef item. We find that price and food safety prevailed as the most prominent considerations for U.S. residents regarding beef and it's supply chain, though employee welfare, supply chain issues and beef availability have gained prominence in light of the severe disruptions to the industry induced by COVID-19. Concerns regarding cattle emissions, cattle welfare, beef availability and food safety were more prevalent amongst younger consumers. Marketing campaigns highlighting the industry's efforts on improving such matters may be particularly meaningful to younger age groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meat , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cattle , Consumer Behavior , Food Safety , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 60-69, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify potential strategies to mitigate COVID-19 transmission in a Utah meat-processing facility and surrounding community. DESIGN/SETTING: During March-June 2020, 502 workers at a Utah meat-processing facility (facility A) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Using merged data from the state disease surveillance system and facility A, we analyzed the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 positivity and worker demographics, work section, and geospatial data on worker residence. We analyzed worker survey responses to questions regarding COVID-19 knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors at work and home. PARTICIPANTS: (1) Facility A workers (n = 1373) with specimen collection dates and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results; (2) residential addresses of all persons (workers and nonworkers) with a SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test (n = 1036), living within the 3 counties included in the health department catchment area; and (3) facility A workers (n = 64) who agreed to participate in the knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: New cases over time, COVID-19 attack rates, worker characteristics by SARS-CoV-2 test results, geospatially clustered cases, space-time proximity of cases among workers and nonworkers; frequency of quantitative responses, crude prevalence ratios, and counts and frequency of coded responses to open-ended questions from the COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in race (P = .01), linguistic group (P < .001), and work section (P < .001) were found between workers with positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Geographically, only 6% of cases were within statistically significant spatiotemporal case clusters. Workers reported using handwashing (57%) and social distancing (21%) as mitigation strategies outside work but reported apprehension with taking COVID-19-associated sick leave. CONCLUSIONS: Mitigating COVID-19 outbreaks among workers in congregate settings requires a multifaceted public health response that is tailored to the workforce. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE: Tailored, multifaceted mitigation strategies are crucial for reducing COVID-19-associated health disparities among disproportionately affected populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Meat , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Utah/epidemiology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544055

ABSTRACT

The work of public safety personnel (PSP) is inherently moral; however, the ability of PSP to do what is good and right can be impeded and frustrated, leading to moral suffering. Left unresolved, moral suffering may develop into moral injury (MI) and potential psychological harm. The current study was designed to examine if MI is relevant to frontline public safety communicators, firefighters, and paramedics. Semi-structured interviews (n = 3) and focus groups (n = 3) were conducted with 19 participants (public safety communicators (n = 2); paramedics (n = 7); and firefighters (n = 10)). Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and constantly compared in accordance with the grounded theory method. A conceptual theory of "frustrating moral expectations" emerged, with participants identifying three interrelated properties as being potentially morally injurious: chronic societal problems, impaired systems, and organizational quagmires. Participants navigated their moral frustrations through both integrative and disintegrative pathways, resulting in either needing to escape their moral suffering or transforming ontologically. The current study results support MI as a relevant concept for frontline PSP. Given the seriousness of PSP leaving their profession or committing suicide to escape moral suffering, the importance of the impact of MI on PSP and public safety organizations cannot be ignored or underestimated. Understanding the similarities and differences of morally injurious exposures of frontline PSP may be critical for determining mental health and resilience strategies that effectively protect PSP.


Subject(s)
Firefighters , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Allied Health Personnel , Canada , Grounded Theory , Humans , Meat
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22902, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541249

ABSTRACT

Surveillance of notified Campylobacter enteritis in Germany revealed a recurrent annual increase of cases with disease onset several days after the Christmas and New Year holidays ("winter peak"). We suspected that handling and consumption of chicken meat during fondue and raclette grill meals on the holidays were associated with winter peak Campylobacter infections. The hypothesis was investigated in a case-control study with a case-case design where notified Campylobacter enteritis cases served as case-patients as well as control-patients, depending on their date of disease onset (case-patients: 25/12/2018 to 08/01/2019; control-patients: any other date between 30/11/2018 and 28/02/2019). The study was conducted as an online survey from 21/01/2019 to 18/03/2019. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were determined in single-variable logistic regression analyses adjusted for age group and sex. We analysed 182 data sets from case-patients and 260 from control-patients and found associations of Campylobacter infections after the holidays with meat fondue (aOR 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.8) and raclette grill meals with meat (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.4) consumed on the holidays. The associations were stronger when chicken meat was served at these meals (fondue with chicken meat: aOR 2.7; 95% CI 1.4-5.5; raclette grill meal with chicken meat: aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.3-4.1). The results confirmed our initial hypothesis. To prevent Campylobacter winter peak cases in the future, consumers should be made more aware of the risks of a Campylobacter infection when handling raw meat, in particular chicken, during fondue or raclette grill meals on the holidays.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter Infections/epidemiology , Enteritis/epidemiology , Food Microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Meat/microbiology , Seasons , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Campylobacter Infections/diagnosis , Campylobacter Infections/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cooking , Enteritis/diagnosis , Enteritis/microbiology , Female , Foodborne Diseases/diagnosis , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Germany/epidemiology , Holidays , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Poultry/microbiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
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