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2.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(3): 271-275, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856276

ABSTRACT

Pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax are recognised complications encountered in COVID-19 before or during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The clinical course of patients developing pneumomediastinum before IMV is yet to be evaluated.Four-thousand, one-hundred and thirty-one patients hospitalised with COVID-19 over a 12-month period were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate for incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes. A subgroup analysis was done to identify any clinical traits between survivors and non-survivors. The overall incidence of pneumomediastinum prior to IMV was 0.92% (n=38) and was seen at admission or during non-invasive respiratory support. Thirty-seven per cent had associated pneumothorax most commonly unilateral (right side). The median (interquartile range (IQR)) duration from admission to developing pneumomediastinum was 7 days (3-11) and complete resolution was seen in 53% of patients; median (IQR) duration to resolution was 8 days (4-17). The in-hospital mortality associated with pneumomediastinum in patients with SARS-CoV-2 (PneumoCoV) was 55%. Increasing age (68 ± 12 years vs 56 ± 14 years; p=0.01), higher body mass index (31 ± 5 kg/m2 vs 28 ± 5 kg/m2; p=0.04), lack of resolution of pneumomediastinum (67% vs 24%; p=0.01; odds ratio (OR) 6.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-27.5), presence of concurrent pneumothorax (65% vs 14%; p=0.002; OR 11; 95% CI 2.2-53.1) and elevated procalcitonin levels (>0.5 ng/mL; 81% vs 41%; p=0.01; OR 6; 95% CI 1.4-26) were significant features in those who did not survive.The incidence of PneumoCoV, despite being low, is associated with increased mortality. It is a hallmark of moderate to severe disease with multifaceted contributory factors. Both demographic and clinical factors predict survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(2): 366-368, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1848220

ABSTRACT

An unusual case of a 35-year-old woman with COVID-19 pneumonia who suddenly desaturated while on continuous positive airway pressure leading to pneumomediastinum and surgical emphysema thereby requiring ventilatory support in intensive therapy unit. It is unclear from history and clinical assessment; whether this complication was directly related to COVID-19 pneumonia and it worsened with the initiation of CPAP, OR it was a direct complication of CPAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Postoperative Complications , Subcutaneous Emphysema/complications , Subcutaneous Emphysema/therapy
4.
Respir Med ; 197: 106853, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796148

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To validate the role of Macklin effect on chest CT imaging in predicting subsequent occurrence of pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax (PMD/PNX) in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, case-control study. Consecutive COVID-19 patients who underwent chest CT scan at hospital admission during the study time period (October 1st, 2020-April 31st, 2021) were identified. Macklin effect accuracy for prediction of spontaneous barotrauma was measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). RESULTS: Overall, 981 COVID-19 patients underwent chest CT scan at hospital arrival during the study time period; 698 patients had radiological signs of interstitial pneumonia and were considered for further evaluation. Among these, Macklin effect was found in 33 (4.7%), including all 32 patients who suffered from barotrauma lately during hospital stay (true positive rate: 96.9%); only 1/33 with Macklin effect did not develop barotrauma (false positive rate: 3.1%). No barotrauma event was recorded in patients without Macklin effect on baseline chest CT scan. Macklin effect yielded a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 89.1-100), a specificity of 99.85% (95% CI: 99.2-100), a PPV of 96.7% (95% CI: 80.8-99.5), a NPV of 100% and an accuracy of 99.8% (95% CI: 99.2-100) in predicting PMD/PNX, with a mean advance of 3.2 ± 2.5 days. Moreover, all Macklin-positive patients developed ARDS requiring ICU admission and, in 90.1% of cases, invasive mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Macklin effect has high accuracy in predicting PMD/PNX in COVID-19 patients; it is also an excellent predictor of disease severity.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma , COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Barotrauma/complications , Barotrauma/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 305-307, 20220316. fig
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1786587

ABSTRACT

Se han descrito diversas técnicas para el tratamiento del enfisema subcutáneo y del neumomediastino. Algunos pacientes con pequeñas perforaciones traqueales pueden ser manejados de forma expectante, salvo que requieran ventilación mecánica. Se presentan las imágenes de un paciente con enfisema subcutáneo y neumomediastino no candidato a cirugía y quien fue tratado exitosamente con terapia de presión negativa.


Different techniques have been described for the treatment of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediatinum. Some patients with small tracheal perforations can be managed expectantly, unless they require mechanical ventilation. Images of a patient with subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum not a candidate for surgery and who was successfully treated with negative pressure therapy are presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Subcutaneous Emphysema , COVID-19 , Trachea , Ventilators, Negative-Pressure , Mediastinal Emphysema
7.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 256(2): 127-130, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765585

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sometimes causes severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old man with obesity who showed severe respiratory failure from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immediate high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest after endotracheal intubation revealed a significant pneumomediastinum with diffuse ground-glass opacity and consolidation. Ventilator management was difficult with low tidal volume and low positive end expiratory pressure. Therefore, we administered extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to allow lung rest and prevent further progression of the pneumomediastinum and maintain oxygenation. Since implementing ECMO, the patient's oxygenation has stabilized and follow-up HRCT of the chest revealed dramatic improvement of the pneumomediastinum. We gradually tapered off ECMO and employed a pressure-control mode. He was extubated on day 11. To our knowledge, this is the first reported patient who showed complete pneumomediastinum recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia with ECMO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Mediastinal Emphysema , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Lung , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(3): 460-466, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumomediastinum, an uncommon entity, has been on the rise with increasing cases of COVID-Acute respiratory distress syndrome. It has been unclear whether this entity represents an indicator of poor clinical outcome or not. The aims of this study were to find out the incidence of pneumomediastinum in COVID-Acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, describe their clinical characteristics and try to explain its plausible mechanisms.. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in the ICU of our hospital among 280 patients admitted with COVID-Acute respiratory distress syndrome over a period of 6 months. Demographics along with various clinical, laboratory, and radiological parameters were analyzed. Relevant statistical analyses were done to summarize our findings. RESULTS: The incidence of pneumomediastinum in COVID-ARDS patients was 2.8%. All patients were male, none had pulmonary co-morbidities and six of them (60%) were on invasive mechanical ventilation. All intubated patients were on lung protective mechanical ventilation. The median PEEP, peak airway pressure and plateau pressure were 10 (IQR: 4), 29 (IQR: 8) and 28 (IQR: 4) respectively. The mean CT severity score was 22.7 (SD: 1.64). Five patients died after 6.8 days (SD: 4.8) of diagnosis. The average hospital stay was of 34 days. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumomediastinum is a possible complication of COVID-Acute respiratory distress syndrome which could signify the disease severity and vice versa. Furthermore, it could be an indicator of relatively poor prognosis and therefore requires larger studies to establish the association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Nepal/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(2): 230-232, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675597

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum with COVID pneumonia is a rare occurrence with or without accompanying subcutaneous emphysema or pneumothorax. The aim of this study was to establish relation of this complication to severity of lung disease and its clinical outcome. The study was conducted for a period of seven months from April to October 2020 in the CT Department of Armed Forces Institute of Radiology and Imaging (AFIRI), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. All COVID positive patients having spontaneous pneumomediastinum on high resolution CT (HRCT) chest were included (n=14). These patients were assessed for severity of lung disease as per CT severity score (CTSS), and were followed up for their clinical outcome. All patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum had moderate to severe degree of COVID pneumonia; mortality in patients with pneumomediastinum was 50%; and was seen in those patients who had greater severity of lung disease as per the CTSS. Key Words: Spontaneous, Pneumomediastinum, COVID, Pneumothorax, Subcutaneous, Emphysema.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1283, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new ribonucleic acid (RNA) beta-coronavirus, responsible for a worldwide pandemic. Very few cases of SARS-COV-2-related emphysema have been described, except among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The thoracic CT scan is the key examination for the diagnosis and allows to evaluate the severity of the pulmonary involvement. The prognosis of the patient with giant emphysema (GE) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in critical or severe form remains poor. We report an original case of COVID-19 pneumonia, critical form, complicated by a giant compressive left emphysema of 22.4 cm in a young subject without respiratory comorbidities. CASE PRESENTATION: A 34-year-old man was hospitalized for left laterothoracic pain. He had no prior medical history. The physical examination revealed tympany on percussion of the left lung. The CT scan confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia with 95% lung involvement. Also, the presence of a voluminous left sub pleural emphysema of 22.4 cm with compression of the ipsilateral pulmonary parenchyma as well as the mediastinal structures towards the right side. The diagnosis COVID-19 pneumonia, critical form, complicated by a compressive left giant emphysema was made. He was put on oxygen, a dual antibiotic therapy, a corticotherapy, and curative doses of enoxaparin. A thoracic drainage surgery was performed at 24th day of hospitalization, which confirmed the giant emphysema. The patient remains on long-term oxygen therapy. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 has polymorphic manifestations, pneumonia is the most important one. There are relatively few reports associating COVID-19 and emphysema; furthermore, reports associating COVID-19 and giant emphysema are extremely scarce. CT scans can confirm the diagnosis and differentiate it from a pneumothorax. The pulmonary prognosis of the association of COVID-19 in its severe or critical form with giant emphysema remains poor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Adult , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(6): 310-316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622789

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with rarer extra-parenchymal manifestations, namely pneumothorax (PTX) and pneumomediastinum (PM) leading to complications and increased mortality. The study aims to describe the prevalence, risk factors for mortality, radiological characteristics and outcome of PTX/PM in patients admitted with COVID-19. This was a retrospective, single-centre, observational study in patients with confirmed COVID-19 presenting with non-iatrogenic PTX/PM from April 2020 to May 2021. Details pertaining to demographics, presentation, radiological characteristics, management and outcome were collected. Cases were classified into spontaneous and barotraumatic PTX/PM and a between-group comparison was performed using Chi-square and t-test. A total of 45 cases (mean age: 53.2 years, 82% males) out of 8,294 confirmed COVID-19 patients developed PTX/PM, the calculated incidence being 0.54%. 29 cases had spontaneous PTX/PM and the remaining 17 cases were attributed to barotrauma. The most common comorbidities were diabetes-mellitus (65.3%) and hypertension (42.3%). The majority of the cases had large PTX (62.1%) with tension in 8 cases (27.5%). There were predominant right-sided pneumothoraces and five were diagnosed with bronchopleural fistula. 37.7% of cases had associated subcutaneous emphysema. The median duration of PTX/PM from symptom onset was delayed at 22.5 and 17.6 days respectively. The mean CT severity score (CTSS) was 20.5 (± 4.9) with fibrosis (53.8%), bronchiectatic changes (50%) and cystic-cavitary changes (23%). There was no statistically significant difference between the spontaneous and barotrauma cohort. 71% of cases died and the majority belonged to the barotrauma cohort. It is imperative to consider the possibility of PTX/PM in patients having COVID-19, especially in those with deterioration in the disease course, both in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients. These patients may also have a high incidence of death, reflecting the gravity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Healthcare
13.
JAAPA ; 34(11): 31-33, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596763

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since its discovery, COVID-19 has infected nearly 112 million people and caused about 2.5 millions deaths worldwide. Our understanding of the clinical presentation and complications of COVID-19 is still evolving. Bilateral pulmonary ground-glass opacities on imaging have become characteristic in the diagnosis of COVID-19, but pneumomediastinum has now also been reported in some patients with COVID-19. Reports on the overall prognosis for these patients are conflicting and little information exists regarding long-term complications. This article describes the clinical course of a patient who did not need mechanical ventilation but developed spontaneous pneumomediastinum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/chemically induced , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(6): 2822-2826, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580296

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: As the number of case reports related to the new type of coronavirus (COVID-19) increases, knowledge of and experience with the virus and its complications also increase. Pleural complications are one relevant issue. We aimed in this study to analyze pleural complications, such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and empyema, in patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and methods: The files of patients who have pleural complications of COVID-19 pneumonia and were consulted about thoracic surgery between March 2020 and December 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The data of the patients were analyzed according to age, sex, length of stay, treatment method for pleural complications, mortality, severity of COVID-19 pneumonia, tube thoracostomy duration, and presence of a mechanical ventilator. Results: A total of 31 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. There were 11 female (35.5%) and 20 male (65.5%) patients. The most common complication was pneumothorax in 20 patients (65%). The median duration of hospitalization was 22 days and the mortality rate was 71%. Mortality was significantly higher in patients on mechanical ventilation (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The mortality rate is very high in patients with pleural complications of COVID-19 pneumonia. Pneumothorax is a fatal complication in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pneumothorax/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Zentralbl Chir ; 146(6): 612-616, 2021 Dec.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556002

ABSTRACT

The most common cause of pneumomediastinum is trauma. However, in the context of COVID-19 pneumonia, this clinical picture is more often found in patients without underlying exogenous injury. Pathophysiologically, a cause analogous to the Macklin effect is suspected here, in which tears at the alveolar level lead to emphysema along the tracheobronchial tree with concentrating in the mediastinum. Here we present a case series of eight patients who were treated in our intensive care unit. In all patients, mediastinal emphysema could already be seen in the chest X-ray. Five patients also received a computed tomography scan of the thorax. Six patients had invasive ventilation. All patients received corticosteroids, anticoagulation and antibiotics. Pleural drainage was applied only in patients with an additional pneumothorax (n = 5). Bronchoscopy was performed only if there was a suspicion of iatrogenic injury to the tracheobronchial tree in relation to the appearance of the pneumomediastinum (n = 2). Three patients died during intensive care as part of the COVID-19 disease. A prognostic relationship between the occurrence of a pneumomediastinum and a fatal course of the disease is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Thoracic Injuries , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(6): e615-e619, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding the incidence of pneumothorax in COVID-19 patients as well as the impact of the same on patient outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records at three large tertiary care hospitals in Mumbai was performed to identify patients hospitalised with COVID-19 from March 2020 to October 2020. The presence of pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum was noted when chest radiographs or CT scans were performed. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who developed air leak were recorded. RESULTS: 4,906 patients with COVID-19 were admitted, with 1,324 (27%) having severe COVID-19 disease. The overall incidence of pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum in patients with severe disease was 3.2% (42/1,324). Eighteen patients had pneumothorax, 16 had pneumomediastinum and 8 patients had both. Fourteen patients (33.3%) developed this complication breathing spontaneously, 28 patients (66.6%) developed it during mechanical ventilation. Overall mortality in this cohort was 74%, compared with 17% in the COVID-19 patients without pneumothorax (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that air leaks occur with a higher frequency in patients with COVID-19 than in other ICU patients. When present, such air leaks contributed to poor outcomes with almost 74% mortality rates in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 68(9): 552, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540930
19.
Crit Care Med ; 50(3): 491-500, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There are concerns of a high barotrauma rate in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. However, a few studies were published, and reported rates were highly variable. We performed a systematic literature review to identify rates of barotrauma, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum in coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. DATA SOURCE: PubMed and Scopus were searched for studies reporting barotrauma event rate in adult coronavirus disease 2019 patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. STUDY SELECTION: We included all studies investigating adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation. Case reports, studies performed outside ICU setting, and pediatric studies were excluded. Two investigators independently screened and selected studies for inclusion. DATA EXTRACTION: Two investigators abstracted data on study characteristics, rate of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and overall barotrauma events, and mortality. When available, data from noncoronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients were also collected. Pooled estimates for barotrauma, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum were calculated. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 13 studies with 1,814 invasively ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 patients and 493 noncoronavirus disease 2019 patients were included. A total of 266/1,814 patients (14.7%) had at least one barotrauma event (pooled estimates, 16.1% [95% CI, 11.8-20.4%]). Pneumothorax occurred in 132/1,435 patients (pooled estimates, 10.7%; 95% CI, 6.7-14.7%), whereas pneumomediastinum occurred in 162/1,432 patients (pooled estimates, 11.2%; 95% CI, 8.0-14.3%). Mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 patients who developed barotrauma was 111/198 patients (pooled estimates, 61.6%; 95% CI, 50.2-73.0%). In noncoronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, barotrauma occurred in 31/493 patients (6.3%; pooled estimates, 5.7%; 95% CI, -2.1% to 13.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Barotrauma occurs in one out of six coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and is associated with a mortality rate of about 60%. Barotrauma rate may be higher than noncoronavirus disease 2019 controls.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Barotrauma/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/mortality , Pneumothorax/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
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