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2.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 34(2): 236-244, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of pneumomediastinum (PNMD), its causes of development and its effect on prognosis in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are not clear. METHODS: Between March 2020 and December 2020, 427 patients with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit were analysed retrospectively. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for initial invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) variables such as initial peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), PaO2/FiO2 (P/F ratio), tidal volume, compliance and positive end-expiratory pressure was evaluated regarding PNMD development. RESULTS: The incidence of PNMD was 5.6% (n = 24). PNMD development rate was 2.7% in non-invasive MV and 6.2% in MV [odds ratio (OR) 2.352, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.541-10.232; P = 0.400]. In the multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors affecting the development of PNMD were PIP (OR 1.238, 95% CI 1.091-1.378; P < 0.001) and P/F ratio (OR 0.982, 95% CI 0.971-0.994; P = 0.004). P/F ratio (AUC 0.815, 95% CI 0.771-0.854), PIP (AUC 0.780, 95% CI 0.734-0.822), compliance (AUC 0.735, 95% CI 0.677-0.774) and positive end-expiratory pressure (AUC 0.718, 95% CI 0.668-0.764) were the best predictors for PNMD development. Regarding the multivariate analysis, independent risk factors affecting mortality were detected as age (OR 1.015, 95% CI 0.999-1.031; P = 0.04), comorbidity (OR 1.940, 95% CI 1.100-3.419; P = 0.02), mode of breathing (OR 48.345, 95% CI 14.666-159.360; P < 0.001), PNMD (OR 5.234, 95% CI 1.379-19.857; P = 0.01), positive end-expiratory pressure (OR 1.305, 95% CI 1.062-1.603; P = 0.01) and tidal volume (OR 0.995, 95% CI 0.992-0.998; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: PNMD development was associated with the initial P/F ratio and PIP. Therefore, it was considered to be related to both the patient and barotrauma. PNMD is a poor prognostic factor for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Minerva Med ; 112(6): 779-785, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumomediastinum (PNM) can develop as a severe complication of severe COVID-19 and may be correlated with greater morbidity and mortality. PNM is a rarely reported complication in COVID-19 patients and usually associated with endotracheal intubation. METHODS: Our aim was to describe the characteristics of patients with PNM in twenty-one patients with COVID-19 related pneumonia and acute respiratory failure in a retrospective case series. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were diagnosed, four were treated with high-flow nasal cannula, thirteen with non invasive ventilation and four with invasive mechanical ventilation. In five cases PNM was massive and associated to subcutaneous emphysema; more rarely PNM was associated with pneumothorax. Conservative management was the most used therapeutic strategy. CONCLUSIONS: PNM is a serious and not extremely rare complication of severe forms of pulmonary involvement of COVID-19. The clinician should consider this rare complication; moreover, we suggest being careful when clinicians start mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/complications , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
5.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (5): 20-24, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal management of pneumomediastinum in patients with a novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 14 patients with pneumomediastinum and COVID-19 infection without mechanical ventilation. We discussed the world data on pneumomediastinum in patients with coronavirus infection. RESULTS: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, the annual number of own observations of spontaneous pneumomediastinum did not exceed 1-2 patients. The mechanism of pneumomediastinum is explained by the Macklin effect. COVID-19 pandemic in the Russian Federation was followed by increase of the number of patients with pneumomediastinum up to 2.4% of the total number of patients in the thoracic department. In this sample, pneumomediastinum occurred at all variants of the course of coronavirus infection. The timing of pneumomediastinum ranged from 2 to 18 (median 14) days after clinical manifestation of COVID-19. In 2 out of 14 cases, pneumomediastinum was the main symptom of coronavirus infection at admission. One patient had a combination of pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax. In 6 cases, pneumomediastinum was stable and regressed under conservative therapy. Eight patients underwent Razumovsky suprajugular mediastinotomy. There were no postoperative deaths. Recurrent pneumomediastinum was noted in one patient. CONCLUSION: The causes of pneumomediastinum in some patients with coronavirus infection, peculiarities of diagnosis and treatment and clarification of indications for invasive interventions require further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pandemics , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(1): 94-97, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206414

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, awareness of uncommon presentations of the disease increases. Such is the case with pneumomediastinum. Recent evidence has suggested that these can occur in the context of COVID19 pneumonia, even in the absence of mechanical ventilation-related barotrauma. We present a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by pneumomediastinum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Mediastinum/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(2): 132-137, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM), its clinical course and effect on prognosis in patients with Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pneumonia. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Kayseri City Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from April  to September 2020. METHODOLOGY: All COVID-19 patients' clinical, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics, as well as treatment outcome data, were obtained through medical record extraction. Group A had 50 patients (22 men and 28 women) without SPM, and Group B had 20 patients (10 men and 10 women) with SPM. RESULTS: Considering the accompanying comorbidities, the frequencies of asthma and inhaler-use was significantly higher in Group B than in Group A (p <0.05). In the CT evaluation at presentation, the rate of involvement of all five lobes of the lung in Group B was significantly higher than in Group A. Rates of tube thoracostomy, mechanical ventilator requirement, length of stay in hospital, and exitus were significantly higher in Group B than in Group A (p <0.05). CONCLUSION: SPM development in a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia is a sign that the prognosis will not be good, and these patients need a more aggressive treatment. Key Words: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum, COVID-19, Pneumothorax, Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Subcutaneous emphysema.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Chest Tubes , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/virology , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Thoracostomy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Tuberk Toraks ; 68(4): 437-443, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067904

ABSTRACT

Barotrauma is a commonly reported complication in critically ill patients with ARDS caused by different etiologies, it's rate is reported to be around %10. Pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 patients seem to be more common and have different clinical characteristics. Here we report 9 patients who had pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum during their stay in the ICU. Patients who were admitted to ICU between March 2020 and December 2020, were reviewed for presence of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema during their ICU stay. Demographic characteristics, mechanical ventilation settings, documented ventilation parameters, outcomes were studied. A total of 161 patients were admitted to ICU during the study period, 96 were invasively ventilated. Nine patients had developed pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and/or subcutaneous emphysema during their admission. Five of them were men and median age was 66.6 years. All patients were intubated and mechanically ventilated. All patients were managed conservatively. One patient was discharged from ICU, the others were lost due to other complications related to COVID-19. Upon detection of pneumothorax and/or mediastinum all patients were managed conservatively by limiting their PEEP and maximum inspiratory pressures and were followed by daily chest X-rays (CXR) for detection of any progress. None of the patients showed increase in size of their pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum. Hemodynamically instability due to pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum was not observed in any of the patients. Tension pneumothorax was not observed in any of the patients. Most common reason for death was sepsis due to secondary bacterial infections. Acute deterioration with rapid oxygen desaturation or palpation of crepitation over thorax and neck in a COVID-19 patient should prompt a search for pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. Conservative management may be an option as long as the patients are stable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/etiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnosis , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology
10.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 110(5): e417-e419, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-884669

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide since December 2019. An acute respiratory distress syndrome develops in a relevant rate of patients, who require hospitalization. Among them, a nonnegligible rate of 9.8% to 15.2% of patients requires tracheal intubation for invasive ventilation. We report the case of a pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema developing in a COVID-19 patient secondary to postintubation tracheal injury. The management of COVID-19 patients can be challenging due to the risk of disease transmission to caregivers and epidemic spread. We performed a bedside tracheal injury surgical repair, after failure of conservative management, with resolution of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema and improvement of the patient's conditions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Mediastinal Emphysema/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Subcutaneous Emphysema/surgery , Thoracic Surgical Procedures/methods , Trachea/injuries , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Neck , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnosis , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 301, 2020 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum unrelated to mechanical ventilation is a newly described complication of COVID-19 pneumonia. The objective of this case presentation is to highlight an important complication and to explore potential predisposing risk factors and possible underlying pathophysiology of this phenomenon. CASE PRESENTATION: We present two patients with COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema without positive pressure ventilation. Both patients had multiple comorbidities, received a combination of antibiotics, steroids and supportive oxygen therapy, and underwent routine laboratory workup. Both patients then developed spontaneous pneumomediastinum and ultimately required intubation and mechanical ventilation, which proved to be challenging to manage. CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a serious complication of COVID-19 pneumonia, of which clinicians should be aware. Further studies are needed to determine risk factors and laboratory data predictive of development of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumopericardium/etiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation/methods , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumopericardium/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/therapy , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 31(3): 273-278, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772741

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pneumomediastinum (PM) is characterized by the presence of air within the mediastinum. The association between PM and coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has not been well established in the current literature. We sought to summarize the limited body of literature regarding PM in patients with COVID-19 and characterize the presentation and clinical outcomes of PM in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-COV-2 pneumonia at our institution to better define the incidence, prognosis, and available treatment for this condition. Materials and Methods: All patients with a proven diagnosis of COVID-19 and PM between March 18, 2020 and May 5, 2020 were identified through hospital records. Retrospective analysis of radiology records and chart review were conducted. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were collected and descriptive statistics was analyzed. Results: Thirty-six patients met inclusion criteria. Out of the 346 intubated COVID-19 patients, 34 (10%) had PM. The incidence of PM increased for the first 4 weeks of the pandemic, and then began to decrease by week 5. At the endpoint of the study, 12 (33.33%) patients were alive and 24 patients (66.67%) had died. Conclusion: PM, although a rare phenomenon, was more prevalent in COVID-19 patients compared with historical patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. The etiology of this condition may be attributed to higher susceptibility of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 to a combination of barotrauma and airway injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
15.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925557, 2020 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-675744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has been in the spotlight since the first cases were reported in December 2019. COVID-19 has been found to cause severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and, more uncommonly, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum. We present a case series of 3 patients with COVID-19 infection managed in the Intensive Care Unit and found to have subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum on chest imaging. CASE REPORT We present a case series of 3 men, ages 36, 47, and 78 years, diagnosed with COVID-19 via RT-PCR, found to have severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, and managed in the Intensive Care Unit. Two patients described in this case series were mechanically ventilated on low positive end-expiratory pressures and developed subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum on chest imaging, and 1 patient developed subcutaneous emphysema prior to intubation. Each of these patients had a more eventful hospital course and worse outcomes than most COVID-19 infected patients. CONCLUSIONS Subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 patients have been rarely reported and is poorly understood. In our institution, we have found the diagnosis of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 patients is associated with unfavorable outcomes and worse prognosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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