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2.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(2): 366-368, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1848220

ABSTRACT

An unusual case of a 35-year-old woman with COVID-19 pneumonia who suddenly desaturated while on continuous positive airway pressure leading to pneumomediastinum and surgical emphysema thereby requiring ventilatory support in intensive therapy unit. It is unclear from history and clinical assessment; whether this complication was directly related to COVID-19 pneumonia and it worsened with the initiation of CPAP, OR it was a direct complication of CPAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Postoperative Complications , Subcutaneous Emphysema/complications , Subcutaneous Emphysema/therapy
3.
Respir Med ; 197: 106853, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796148

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To validate the role of Macklin effect on chest CT imaging in predicting subsequent occurrence of pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax (PMD/PNX) in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, case-control study. Consecutive COVID-19 patients who underwent chest CT scan at hospital admission during the study time period (October 1st, 2020-April 31st, 2021) were identified. Macklin effect accuracy for prediction of spontaneous barotrauma was measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). RESULTS: Overall, 981 COVID-19 patients underwent chest CT scan at hospital arrival during the study time period; 698 patients had radiological signs of interstitial pneumonia and were considered for further evaluation. Among these, Macklin effect was found in 33 (4.7%), including all 32 patients who suffered from barotrauma lately during hospital stay (true positive rate: 96.9%); only 1/33 with Macklin effect did not develop barotrauma (false positive rate: 3.1%). No barotrauma event was recorded in patients without Macklin effect on baseline chest CT scan. Macklin effect yielded a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 89.1-100), a specificity of 99.85% (95% CI: 99.2-100), a PPV of 96.7% (95% CI: 80.8-99.5), a NPV of 100% and an accuracy of 99.8% (95% CI: 99.2-100) in predicting PMD/PNX, with a mean advance of 3.2 ± 2.5 days. Moreover, all Macklin-positive patients developed ARDS requiring ICU admission and, in 90.1% of cases, invasive mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Macklin effect has high accuracy in predicting PMD/PNX in COVID-19 patients; it is also an excellent predictor of disease severity.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma , COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Barotrauma/complications , Barotrauma/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 256(2): 127-130, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765585

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sometimes causes severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old man with obesity who showed severe respiratory failure from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immediate high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest after endotracheal intubation revealed a significant pneumomediastinum with diffuse ground-glass opacity and consolidation. Ventilator management was difficult with low tidal volume and low positive end expiratory pressure. Therefore, we administered extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to allow lung rest and prevent further progression of the pneumomediastinum and maintain oxygenation. Since implementing ECMO, the patient's oxygenation has stabilized and follow-up HRCT of the chest revealed dramatic improvement of the pneumomediastinum. We gradually tapered off ECMO and employed a pressure-control mode. He was extubated on day 11. To our knowledge, this is the first reported patient who showed complete pneumomediastinum recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia with ECMO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Mediastinal Emphysema , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Lung , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(3): 460-466, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumomediastinum, an uncommon entity, has been on the rise with increasing cases of COVID-Acute respiratory distress syndrome. It has been unclear whether this entity represents an indicator of poor clinical outcome or not. The aims of this study were to find out the incidence of pneumomediastinum in COVID-Acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, describe their clinical characteristics and try to explain its plausible mechanisms.. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in the ICU of our hospital among 280 patients admitted with COVID-Acute respiratory distress syndrome over a period of 6 months. Demographics along with various clinical, laboratory, and radiological parameters were analyzed. Relevant statistical analyses were done to summarize our findings. RESULTS: The incidence of pneumomediastinum in COVID-ARDS patients was 2.8%. All patients were male, none had pulmonary co-morbidities and six of them (60%) were on invasive mechanical ventilation. All intubated patients were on lung protective mechanical ventilation. The median PEEP, peak airway pressure and plateau pressure were 10 (IQR: 4), 29 (IQR: 8) and 28 (IQR: 4) respectively. The mean CT severity score was 22.7 (SD: 1.64). Five patients died after 6.8 days (SD: 4.8) of diagnosis. The average hospital stay was of 34 days. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumomediastinum is a possible complication of COVID-Acute respiratory distress syndrome which could signify the disease severity and vice versa. Furthermore, it could be an indicator of relatively poor prognosis and therefore requires larger studies to establish the association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Nepal/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(2): 230-232, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675597

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum with COVID pneumonia is a rare occurrence with or without accompanying subcutaneous emphysema or pneumothorax. The aim of this study was to establish relation of this complication to severity of lung disease and its clinical outcome. The study was conducted for a period of seven months from April to October 2020 in the CT Department of Armed Forces Institute of Radiology and Imaging (AFIRI), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. All COVID positive patients having spontaneous pneumomediastinum on high resolution CT (HRCT) chest were included (n=14). These patients were assessed for severity of lung disease as per CT severity score (CTSS), and were followed up for their clinical outcome. All patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum had moderate to severe degree of COVID pneumonia; mortality in patients with pneumomediastinum was 50%; and was seen in those patients who had greater severity of lung disease as per the CTSS. Key Words: Spontaneous, Pneumomediastinum, COVID, Pneumothorax, Subcutaneous, Emphysema.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology
9.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(6): 310-316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622789

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with rarer extra-parenchymal manifestations, namely pneumothorax (PTX) and pneumomediastinum (PM) leading to complications and increased mortality. The study aims to describe the prevalence, risk factors for mortality, radiological characteristics and outcome of PTX/PM in patients admitted with COVID-19. This was a retrospective, single-centre, observational study in patients with confirmed COVID-19 presenting with non-iatrogenic PTX/PM from April 2020 to May 2021. Details pertaining to demographics, presentation, radiological characteristics, management and outcome were collected. Cases were classified into spontaneous and barotraumatic PTX/PM and a between-group comparison was performed using Chi-square and t-test. A total of 45 cases (mean age: 53.2 years, 82% males) out of 8,294 confirmed COVID-19 patients developed PTX/PM, the calculated incidence being 0.54%. 29 cases had spontaneous PTX/PM and the remaining 17 cases were attributed to barotrauma. The most common comorbidities were diabetes-mellitus (65.3%) and hypertension (42.3%). The majority of the cases had large PTX (62.1%) with tension in 8 cases (27.5%). There were predominant right-sided pneumothoraces and five were diagnosed with bronchopleural fistula. 37.7% of cases had associated subcutaneous emphysema. The median duration of PTX/PM from symptom onset was delayed at 22.5 and 17.6 days respectively. The mean CT severity score (CTSS) was 20.5 (± 4.9) with fibrosis (53.8%), bronchiectatic changes (50%) and cystic-cavitary changes (23%). There was no statistically significant difference between the spontaneous and barotrauma cohort. 71% of cases died and the majority belonged to the barotrauma cohort. It is imperative to consider the possibility of PTX/PM in patients having COVID-19, especially in those with deterioration in the disease course, both in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients. These patients may also have a high incidence of death, reflecting the gravity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Healthcare
10.
JAAPA ; 34(11): 31-33, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596763

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since its discovery, COVID-19 has infected nearly 112 million people and caused about 2.5 millions deaths worldwide. Our understanding of the clinical presentation and complications of COVID-19 is still evolving. Bilateral pulmonary ground-glass opacities on imaging have become characteristic in the diagnosis of COVID-19, but pneumomediastinum has now also been reported in some patients with COVID-19. Reports on the overall prognosis for these patients are conflicting and little information exists regarding long-term complications. This article describes the clinical course of a patient who did not need mechanical ventilation but developed spontaneous pneumomediastinum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/chemically induced , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Zentralbl Chir ; 146(6): 612-616, 2021 Dec.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556002

ABSTRACT

The most common cause of pneumomediastinum is trauma. However, in the context of COVID-19 pneumonia, this clinical picture is more often found in patients without underlying exogenous injury. Pathophysiologically, a cause analogous to the Macklin effect is suspected here, in which tears at the alveolar level lead to emphysema along the tracheobronchial tree with concentrating in the mediastinum. Here we present a case series of eight patients who were treated in our intensive care unit. In all patients, mediastinal emphysema could already be seen in the chest X-ray. Five patients also received a computed tomography scan of the thorax. Six patients had invasive ventilation. All patients received corticosteroids, anticoagulation and antibiotics. Pleural drainage was applied only in patients with an additional pneumothorax (n = 5). Bronchoscopy was performed only if there was a suspicion of iatrogenic injury to the tracheobronchial tree in relation to the appearance of the pneumomediastinum (n = 2). Three patients died during intensive care as part of the COVID-19 disease. A prognostic relationship between the occurrence of a pneumomediastinum and a fatal course of the disease is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Thoracic Injuries , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(6): e615-e619, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding the incidence of pneumothorax in COVID-19 patients as well as the impact of the same on patient outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records at three large tertiary care hospitals in Mumbai was performed to identify patients hospitalised with COVID-19 from March 2020 to October 2020. The presence of pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum was noted when chest radiographs or CT scans were performed. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who developed air leak were recorded. RESULTS: 4,906 patients with COVID-19 were admitted, with 1,324 (27%) having severe COVID-19 disease. The overall incidence of pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum in patients with severe disease was 3.2% (42/1,324). Eighteen patients had pneumothorax, 16 had pneumomediastinum and 8 patients had both. Fourteen patients (33.3%) developed this complication breathing spontaneously, 28 patients (66.6%) developed it during mechanical ventilation. Overall mortality in this cohort was 74%, compared with 17% in the COVID-19 patients without pneumothorax (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that air leaks occur with a higher frequency in patients with COVID-19 than in other ICU patients. When present, such air leaks contributed to poor outcomes with almost 74% mortality rates in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
JAAPA ; 34(11): 31-33, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447625

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since its discovery, COVID-19 has infected nearly 112 million people and caused about 2.5 millions deaths worldwide. Our understanding of the clinical presentation and complications of COVID-19 is still evolving. Bilateral pulmonary ground-glass opacities on imaging have become characteristic in the diagnosis of COVID-19, but pneumomediastinum has now also been reported in some patients with COVID-19. Reports on the overall prognosis for these patients are conflicting and little information exists regarding long-term complications. This article describes the clinical course of a patient who did not need mechanical ventilation but developed spontaneous pneumomediastinum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/chemically induced , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 114, 2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of COVID-19 pneumonia, which may or may not be associated with invasive ventilatory support. Therefore, the report and findings associated with its evolution can be of great contribution in the management of this unknown disease. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present a series of four patients with severe pneumomediastinum requiring intensive care unit. These patients developed pneumomediastinum before or during orotracheal intubation (OTI) or without OTI. The four patients were three men and one woman with a mean age of 60.5 years (48-74 years). No patients had a known history of lung disease or traumatic events, except for one patient who had a history of smoking, but who was without parenchymal disease. All intubations were performed without complications. No cases of pneumomediastinum occurred after tracheostomy, and none of the patients had tomographic or bronchoscopic evidence of tracheal injury. Although the pneumomediastinum observed in our cases was apparently not related to a violation of the aerodigestive track, this complication was associated with a worse prognosis. CONCLUSION: Pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of COVID-19 pneumonia, and the most likely etiopathogenesis is severe pulmonary involvement, which may or may not be associated with invasive ventilatory support. Future studies with a greater number of cases should elucidate the relationship of pneumomediastinum to a probable prognostic factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(1): 12-20, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405276

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the beginning of the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, pneumomediastinum has been reported in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. It has been suggested that pneumomediastinum may portend a worse outcome in such patients although no investigation has established this association definitively. Research Question: We hypothesized that the finding of pneumomediastinum in the setting of COVID-19 disease may be associated with a worse clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine if the presence of pneumomediastinum was predictive of increased mortality in patients with COVID-19. Study Design and Methods: A retrospective case-control study utilizing clinical data and imaging for COVID-19 patients seen at our institution from 3/7/2020 to 5/20/2020 was performed. 87 COVID-19 positive patients with pneumomediastinum were compared to 87 COVID-19 positive patients without pneumomediastinum and to a historical group of patients with pneumomediastinum during the same time frame in 2019. Results: The incidence of pneumomediastinum was increased more than 6-fold during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to 2019 (P = <.001). 1.5% of all COVID-19 patients and 11% of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients at our institution developed pneumomediastinum. Patients who developed pneumomediastinum had a significantly higher PEEP and lower P/F ratio than those who did not (P = .002 and .033, respectively). Pneumomediastinum was not found to be associated with increased mortality (P = .16, confidence interval [CI]: 0.89-2.09, 1.37). The presence of concurrent pneumothorax at the time of pneumomediastinum diagnosis was associated with increased mortality (P = .013 CI: 1.15-3.17, 1.91). Conclusion: Pneumomediastinum is not independently associated with a worse clinical prognosis in COVID-19 positive patients. The presence of concurrent pneumothorax was associated with increased mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e933405, 2021 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic. Diagnosis is based on clinical features, nasopharyngeal swab analyzed with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and computer tomography (CT) scan pathognomonic signs. The most common symptoms associated with COVID-19 include fever, coughing, and dyspnea. The main complications are acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, kidney failure, bacterial superinfections, coagulation abnormalities with thromboembolic events, sepsis, and even death. The common CT manifestations of COVID-19 are ground-glass opacities with reticular opacities and consolidations. Bilateral lung involvement can be present, especially in the posterior parts and peripheral areas. Pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and lymphadenopathy are rarely described. Spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum have been observed as complications in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia during mechanical ventilation or noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, as well as in patients with spontaneous breathing receiving only oxygen therapy via nasal cannula or masks. CASE REPORT We present 2 cases of pneumomediastinum with and without pneumothorax in patients with active SARS-Cov-2 infection and 1 case of spontaneous pneumothorax in a patient with a history of paucisymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. In these 3 male patients, ages 78, 73, and 70 years, respectively, COVID-19 was diagnosed through nasopharyngeal sampling tests and the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Both pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum, although rare, may be complications during or after SARS-CoV-2 infection even in patients who are spontaneously breathing. The aim of this study was to describe an increasingly frequent event whose early recognition can modify the prognosis of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/virology , Pandemics , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/virology
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(9)2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390694

ABSTRACT

Lung failure has been the most common cause of hospitalization for COVID-19. Yet, bilateral interstitial pneumonia has not been the only cause of lung failure of these inpatients, and frequently they develop other illnesses associated with COVID-19. Pulmonary embolism has been the most looked for in the world, but rarely other pneumological diseases, such as pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum, have been described and associated with a worsening prognosis. We here report our clinical experience associated with the occurrence of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in a cohort of inpatients hospitalized in our division of medicine in a regular ward or in a sub-intensive ward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Critical Care , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 172(3-4): 84-89, 2022 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353705

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that arose in 2019 causes a wide spectrum of symptoms and different courses of disease. Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and soft tissue emphysema are rare complications in patients with pulmonary involvement. They are the sequelae of severe, virus-induced structural changes of the pulmonary architecture. High pressure artificial ventilation aggravates the problem. Hence pneumothorax and ectopic air in soft tissues are indicators of extensive pulmonary damage. Therefore, efforts should be made to treat even very small or multiply recurrent pneumothorax by drainage procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Subcutaneous Emphysema , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/therapy
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