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2.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1127-1138, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525996

ABSTRACT

In 2010, the US health insurance system underwent one of its most substantial transformations with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, which increased coverage for millions of people in the USA, including those with and at risk of HIV. Even so, the system of HIV care and prevention services in the USA is a complex patchwork of payers, providers, and financing mechanisms. People with HIV are primarily covered by Medicaid, Medicare, private insurance, or a combination of these; many get care through other programmes, particularly the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, which serves as the nation's safety net for people with HIV who remain uninsured or underinsured but offers modest to no support for prevention services. While uninsurance has drastically declined over the past decade, the USA trails other high-income countries in key HIV-specific metrics, including rates of viral suppression. In this paper in the Series, we provide an overview of the coverage and financing landscape for HIV treatment and prevention in the USA, discuss how the Affordable Care Act has changed the domestic health-care system, examine the major programmes that provide coverage and services, and identify remaining challenges.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Insurance Coverage/legislation & jurisprudence , Insurance, Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gender Identity , HIV Infections/economics , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Medically Uninsured/statistics & numerical data , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
3.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(6): 1189-1202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary care is crucial to the health of individuals and communities, but it faces numerous structural and systemic challenges. Our study assessed the state of primary care in Virginia to prepare for Medicaid expansion. It also provides insight into the frontline of health care prior to an unprecedented global COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We surveyed 1622 primary care practices to understand organizational characteristics, scope of care, capacity, and organizational stress. RESULTS: Practices (484) varied in type, ownership, location, and care for medically underserved and diverse patient populations. Most practices accepted uninsured and Medicaid patients. Practices reported a broad scope of care, including offering behavioral health and medication-assisted therapy for opioid addiction. Over half addressed social needs like transportation and unstable housing. One in three practices experienced a significant stress in 2019, prepandemic, and only 18.8% of practices anticipated a stress in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care serves as the foundation of our health care system and is an essential service, but it is severely stressed, under-resourced, and overburdened in the best of times. Primary care needs strategic workforce planning, adequate access to resources, and financial investment to sustain its value and innovation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Medicaid , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Virginia
4.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(7): 1417-1425, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare disparities are well documented across multiple subspecialties in orthopaedics. The widespread implementation of telemedicine risks worsening these disparities if not carefully executed, despite original assumptions that telemedicine improves overall access to care. Telemedicine also poses unique challenges such as potential language or technological barriers that may alter previously described patterns in orthopaedic disparities. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Are the proportions of patients who use telemedicine across orthopaedic services different among (1) racial and ethnic minorities, (2) non-English speakers, and (3) patients insured through Medicaid during a 10-week period after the implementation of telemedicine in our healthcare system compared with in-person visits during a similar time period in 2019? METHODS: This was a retrospective comparative study using electronic medical record data to compare new patients establishing orthopaedic care via outpatient telemedicine at two academic urban medical centers between March 2020 and May 2020 with new orthopaedic patients during the same 10-week period in 2019. A total of 11,056 patients were included for analysis, with 1760 in the virtual group and 9296 in the control group. Unadjusted analyses demonstrated patients in the virtual group were younger (median age 57 years versus 59 years; p < 0.001), but there were no differences with regard to gender (56% female versus 56% female; p = 0.66). We used self-reported race or ethnicity as our primary independent variable, with primary language and insurance status considered secondarily. Unadjusted and multivariable adjusted analyses were performed for our primary and secondary predictors using logistic regression. We also assessed interactions between race or ethnicity, primary language, and insurance type. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, gender, subspecialty, insurance, and median household income, we found that patients who were Hispanic (odds ratio 0.59 [95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.91]; p = 0.02) or Asian were less likely (OR 0.73 [95% CI 0.53 to 0.99]; p = 0.04) to be seen through telemedicine than were patients who were white. After controlling for confounding variables, we also found that speakers of languages other than English or Spanish were less likely to have a telemedicine visit than were people whose primary language was English (OR 0.34 [95% CI 0.18 to 0.65]; p = 0.001), and that patients insured through Medicaid were less likely to be seen via telemedicine than were patients who were privately insured (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.69 to 0.98]; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Despite initial promises that telemedicine would help to bridge gaps in healthcare, our results demonstrate disparities in orthopaedic telemedicine use based on race or ethnicity, language, and insurance type. The telemedicine group was slightly younger, which we do not believe undermines the findings. As healthcare moves toward increased telemedicine use, we suggest several approaches to ensure that patients of certain racial, ethnic, or language groups do not experience disparate barriers to care. These might include individual patient- or provider-level approaches like expanded telemedicine schedules to accommodate weekends and evenings, institutional investment in culturally conscious outreach materials such as advertisements on community transport systems, or government-level provisions such as reimbursement for telephone-only encounters. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Orthopedic Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Plan Implementation , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Language , Male , Medicaid , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/methods , United States
5.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(11): 1680-1681, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502083

ABSTRACT

The Affordable Care Act served as a pandemic safety net. Congress and the White House aim to further expand the law.


Subject(s)
Insurance Coverage , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Humans , Insurance, Health , Medicaid , United States
6.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(11): 1722-1730, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496546

ABSTRACT

In 2020 the COVID-19 pandemic caused millions to lose their jobs and, consequently, their employer-sponsored health insurance. Enacted in 2010, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) created safeguards for such events by expanding Medicaid coverage and establishing Marketplaces through which people could purchase health insurance. Using a novel national data set with information on ACA-compliant individual insurance plans, we found large increases in Marketplace enrollment in 2020 compared with 2019 but with varying percentage increases and spending risk implications across states. States that did not expand Medicaid had enrollment and spending risk increases. States that expanded Medicaid but did not relax 2020 Marketplace enrollment criteria also had spending risk increases. In contrast, states that expanded Medicaid and relaxed 2020 enrollment criteria experienced enrollment increases without spending risk changes. The findings are reassuring with respect to the ability of Marketplaces to buffer employment shocks, but they also provide cautionary signals that risks and premiums could begin to rise either in the absence of Medicaid expansion or when Marketplace enrollment is constrained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Insurance Exchanges , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Medicaid , Pandemics , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
8.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(8): 1337-1338, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484869
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1152, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To characterize health care use and costs among new Medicaid enrollees before and during the COVID pandemic. Results can help Medicaid non-expansion states understand health care use and costs of new enrollees in a period of enrollment growth. RESEARCH DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of North Carolina Medicaid claims data (January 1, 2018 - August 31, 2020). We used modified Poisson and ordinary least squares regression analysis to estimate health care use and costs as a function of personal characteristics and enrollment during COVID. Using data on existing enrollees before and during COVID, we projected the extent to which changes in outcomes among new enrollees during COVID were pandemic-related. SUBJECTS: 340,782 new enrollees pre-COVID (January 2018 - December 2019) and 56,428 new enrollees during COVID (March 2020 - June 2020). MEASURES: We observed new enrollees for 60-days after enrollment to identify emergency department (ED) visits, nonemergent ED visits, primary care visits, potentially-avoidable hospitalizations, dental visits, and health care costs. RESULTS: New Medicaid enrollees during COVID were less likely to have an ED visit (-46 % [95 % CI: -48 %, -43 %]), nonemergent ED visit (-52 % [95 % CI: -56 %, -48 %]), potentially-avoidable hospitalization (-52 % [95 % CI: -60 %, -43 %]), primary care visit (-34 % [95 % CI: -36 %, -33 %]), or dental visit (-36 % [95 % CI: -41 %, -30 %]). They were also less likely to incur any health care costs (-29 % [95 % CI: -30 %, -28 %]), and their total costs were 8 % lower [95 % CI: -12 %, -4 %]. Depending on the outcome, COVID explained between 34 % and 100 % of these reductions. CONCLUSIONS: New Medicaid enrollees during COVID used significantly less care than new enrollees pre-COVID. Most of the reduction stems from pandemic-related changes in supply and demand, but the profile of new enrollees before versus during COVID also differed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Health Care Costs , Humans , Medicaid , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
11.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(10): 1637-1643, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456099

ABSTRACT

Addressing health inequities for racial and ethnic minority populations is challenging. After passage of the Affordable Care Act, Michigan launched its Healthy Michigan Plan, which expanded Medicaid eligibility in the state. Our evaluation of the expansion provided the opportunity to study its impact on racial and ethnic minority groups, including Arab American and Chaldean American enrollees, an understudied population. Using data from telephone surveys collected in 2016, 2017, and 2018, we conducted an analysis to study the plan's impact on access to a regular source of care and health status among racial and ethnic minority groups. More than 90 percent of respondents of all racial and ethnic groups reported having a regular source of care after plan enrollment compared with 74.4 percent before enrollment. Respondents who identified as non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic reported improvements in health status after plan enrollment. Our study demonstrates the potential of health insurance access to narrow health inequities between racial and ethnic groups.


Subject(s)
Ethnic Groups , Medicaid , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status , Humans , Michigan , Minority Groups , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Self Report , United States
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257437, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456086

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This article presents the Louisiana Hepatitis C Elimination Program's evaluation protocol underway at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans. With the availability of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, the elimination of Hepatitis C (HCV) has become a possibility. The HCV Elimination Program was initiated by the Louisiana Department of Health (LDH) Office of Public Health (OPH), LDH Bureau of Health Services Financing (Medicaid), and the Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections (DPSC) to provide HCV treatment through an innovative pricing arrangement with Asegua Therapeutics, whereby a fixed cost is set for a supply of treatment over five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study design will be used. Data will be gathered from two sources: 1) an online survey administered via REDCap to a sample of Medicaid members who are receiving HCV treatment, and 2) a de-identified data set that includes both Medicaid claims data and OPH surveillance data procured via a Data Use Agreement between LSUHSC-NO and Louisiana Medicaid. DISCUSSION: The evaluation will contribute to an understanding of the scope and reach of this innovative treatment model, and as a result, an understanding of areas for improvement. Further, this evaluation may provide insight for other states considering similar contracting mechanisms and programs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Humans , Louisiana/epidemiology , Medicaid , New Orleans/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 73(2): 217-222, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: While the use of telemedicine has accelerated significantly with the recent pandemic, it has also magnified disparities in access to telemedicine. This study aims to look at telemedicine utilization patterns within a large pediatric gastroenterology practice. METHODS: A retrospective study of ambulatory care visits within Yale-New Haven Hospital's pediatric gastroenterology practice during the peak expansion of the telemedicine program was conducted. Zip code-level socioeconomic data were obtained using the Distressed Communities Index. A multivariate logistic regression to evaluate disparities between the use of video versus telephone visits was computed, and unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 1273 clinic visits were included in analysis. The majority of the patients listed English as their preferred language, had private insurance, and identified as non-Hispanic White. When adjusting for co-variates, having public insurance/Medicaid was associated with decreased odds of having video over telephone visits (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.60; 95% CI 0.44-0.80). Those whose primary language was not English continued to have a statistically significant decreased odds of using video visits (Spanish aOR 0.24; 95% CI 0.13-0.44; other aOR 0.29; 95% CI 0.12-0.72). Within the adjusted multivariate logistic regression, race/ethnicity and SES were, however, no longer found to have a statistically significant decreased odds of video visits. CONCLUSIONS: The accelerated implementation of telemedicine within pediatric gastroenterology has given rise to disparities in its use. Further studies are needed to understand these disparities and develop interventions to lessen this gap in usage.


Subject(s)
Gastroenterology , Telemedicine , Ambulatory Care , Child , Humans , Medicaid , Retrospective Studies , United States
15.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(9): 1491-1500, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398944

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic precipitated an unemployment crisis in the US that surpassed the Great Recession of 2007-09 within the first three months of the pandemic. This article builds on the limited early evidence of the relationship between the pandemic and health insurance coverage, using county-level unemployment and Medicaid enrollment data from North Carolina, a large state that did not expand Medicaid. We used linear and county fixed effects models to assess this relationship, accounting for county-level social vulnerability, physical and virtual access to Medicaid enrollment, and COVID-19 case burden. Using data from January 2018 through August 2020, we estimated that the passthrough rate-the share of unemployed people who gained Medicaid coverage-was approximately 15 percent statewide but higher in more socially vulnerable counties. This low passthrough rate during a period of increased unemployment resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic means that Medicaid was unable to completely fulfill its countercyclical role, in which it grows to meet greater need during periods of widespread economic hardship, because of North Carolina's stringent Medicaid eligibility criteria. Working toward greater adoption of Medicaid expansion may help ensure that the US is better prepared for the next crisis by ensuring access to health insurance coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicaid , Humans , Insurance Coverage , North Carolina , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Unemployment , United States
16.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(9): 1473-1482, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398942

ABSTRACT

People of color, immigrants, and those relying on the safety net have experienced a disproportionate share of the death and disease resulting from COVID-19 in the US. At the same time, Congress delegated great power to the Trump administration to distribute $178 billion in funding to health care providers. We studied the relationship between the relief received by 2,709 hospitals and community- and hospital-level characteristics. Funding through early February 2021 averaged $25.7 million per hospital. Our findings offer a mixed picture. Some correlates of real-world need, including serving a community with a very high share of Black residents or having a very high ratio of Medicaid revenue to beds, were associated with meaningfully increased funding. Other correlates of need-including serving a very high share of Hispanic residents or a Medically Underserved Area-were associated with decreased funding or no difference in funding. Our findings emphasize that funding formulas reflect consequential political judgments. In future allocations, the relationship between need and aid should be strengthened by de-emphasizing historical net patient revenue in favor of a broader set of community and hospital characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Financial Management , Hospitals , Humans , Medicaid , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
17.
JAMA ; 326(3): 250-256, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338163

ABSTRACT

Importance: Medical debt is an increasing concern in the US, yet there is limited understanding of the amount and distribution of medical debt, and its association with health care policies. Objective: To measure the amount of medical debt nationally and by geographic region and income group and its association with Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data on medical debt in collections were obtained from a nationally representative 10% panel of consumer credit reports between January 2009 and June 2020 (reflecting care provided prior to the COVID-19 pandemic). Income data were obtained from the 2014-2018 American Community Survey. The sample consisted of 4.1 billion person-month observations (nearly 40 million unique individuals). These data were used to estimate the amount of medical debt (nationally and by geographic region and zip code income decile) and to examine the association between Medicaid expansion and medical debt (overall and by income group). Exposures: Geographic region (US Census region), income group (zip code income decile), and state Medicaid expansion status. Main Outcomes and Measures: The stock (all unpaid debt listed on credit reports) and flow (new debt listed on credit reports during the preceding 12 months) of medical debt in collections that can be collected on by debt collectors. Results: In June 2020, an estimated 17.8% of individuals had medical debt (13.0% accrued debt during the prior year), and the mean amount was $429 ($311 accrued during the prior year). The mean stock of medical debt was highest in the South and lowest in the Northeast ($616 vs $167; difference, $448 [95% CI, $435-$462]) and higher in poor than in rich zip code income deciles ($677 vs $126; difference, $551 [95% CI, $520-$581]). Between 2013 and 2020, the states that expanded Medicaid in 2014 experienced a decline in the mean flow of medical debt that was 34.0 percentage points (95% CI, 18.5-49.4 percentage points) greater (from $330 to $175) than the states that did not expand Medicaid (from $613 to $550). In the expansion states, the gap in the mean flow of medical debt between the lowest and highest zip code income deciles decreased by $145 (95% CI, $95-$194) while the gap increased by $218 (95% CI, $163-$273) in the nonexpansion states. Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides an estimate of the amount of medical debt in collections in the US based on consumer credit reports from January 2009 to June 2020, reflecting care delivered prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and suggests that the amount of medical debt was highest among individuals living in the South and in lower-income communities. However, further study is needed regarding debt related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Financing, Personal/economics , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Humans , Income , Insurance, Health/economics , Medicaid/economics , Medically Uninsured , Social Determinants of Health , United States
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2118223, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321668

ABSTRACT

Importance: Methadone access may be uniquely vulnerable to disruption during COVID-19, and even short delays in access are associated with decreased medication initiation and increased illicit opioid use and overdose death. Relative to Canada, US methadone provision is more restricted and limited to specialized opioid treatment programs. Objective: To compare timely access to methadone initiation in the US and Canada during COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2020. Participating clinics provided methadone for opioid use disorder in 14 US states and territories and 3 Canadian provinces with the highest opioid overdose death rates. Statistical analysis was performed from July 2020 to January 2021. Exposures: Nation and type of health insurance (US Medicaid and US self-pay vs Canadian provincial). Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of clinics accepting new patients and days to first appointment. Results: Among 268 of 298 US clinics contacted as a patient with Medicaid (90%), 271 of 301 US clinics contacted as a self-pay patient (90%), and 237 of 288 Canadian clinics contacted as a patient with provincial insurance (82%), new patients were accepted for methadone at 231 clinics (86%) during US Medicaid contacts, 230 clinics (85%) during US self-pay contacts, and at 210 clinics (89%) during Canadian contacts. Among clinics not accepting new patients, at least 44% of 27 clinics reported that the COVID-19 pandemic was the reason. The mean wait for first appointment was greater among US Medicaid contacts (3.5 days [95% CI, 2.9-4.2 days]) and US self-pay contacts (4.1 days [95% CI, 3.4-4.8 days]) than Canadian contacts (1.9 days [95% CI, 1.7-2.1 days]) (P < .001). Open-access model (walk-in hours for new patients without an appointment) utilization was reported by 57 Medicaid (30%), 57 self-pay (30%), and 115 Canadian (59%) contacts offering an appointment. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of 2 nations, more than 1 in 10 methadone clinics were not accepting new patients. Canadian clinics offered more timely methadone access than US opioid treatment programs. These results suggest that the methadone access shortage was exacerbated by COVID-19 and that changes to the US opioid treatment program model are needed to improve the timeliness of access. Increased open-access model adoption may increase timely access.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility , Methadone/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , Waiting Lists , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Analgesics, Opioid , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Financing, Personal , Health Services , Insurance, Health , Medicaid , United States
20.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(5): 644-651, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312889

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Socioeconomic differences may confound racial and ethnic differences in SARS-CoV-2 testing and COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of racial/ethnic differences in SARS-CoV-2 testing and positive tests and COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths among adults impaneled at a Northern California regional medical center and enrolled in the county Medicaid managed care plan (N=84,346) as of March 1, 2020. Logistic regressions adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and neighborhood characteristics. RESULTS: Nearly 30% of enrollees were ever tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 4% tested positive. A total of 19.7 per 10,000 were hospitalized for and 9.4 per 10,000 died of COVID-19. Those identified as Asian, Black, or of other/unknown race had lower testing rates, whereas those identified as Latino had higher testing rates than Whites. Enrollees of Asian or other/unknown race had slightly higher odds of a positive test, and Latinos had much higher odds of a positive test (OR=3.77, 95% CI=3.41, 4.17) than Whites. The odds of hospitalization (OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.85, 4.40) and death (OR=4.75, 95% CI=2.23, 10.12) were higher for Latino than for White patients, even after adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and neighborhood characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: In a Medicaid managed care population, where socioeconomic differences may be reduced, the odds of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, COVID-19 hospitalization, and COVID-19 death were higher for Latino but not Black patients than for White patients. Racial/ethnic disparities depend on local context. The substantially higher risk facing Latinos should be a key consideration in California's strategies to mitigate disease transmission and harm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Ethnic Groups , European Continental Ancestry Group , Hospitalization , Humans , Managed Care Programs , Medicaid , Retrospective Studies , United States
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